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THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



OF THE 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON, N. J. 



COLLECTED AND COMPILED 

By REV. WALTER T. LEAHY 

Author of " Clarence Belmont" " The Child of the Flood" " Wilfred Sweet" etc. 



The Catholic 

Theological Union 

LIBRARY 

Chicago, III. 



Jubilee Edition 

Sold for the benefit of St. Michael's Home, 

Hopewell, N. J. 






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COPYRIGHTED AND PUBLISHED BY WALTER T. LEAHY 
PRINCETON, N. J. 



Imprimateur— >f JAMES AUGUSTINE 

Bishop of Trenton 



ff7l4 



All rights reserved. 



THE PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS 

PRINCETON, N. J. ! I 



DEDICATION 



TO THE 



RT. REV. JAMES A. McFAUL, D.D., LL.D. 



SECOND BISHOP OF TRENTON, N. J., 

DEFENDER AND PROMOTER OF ALL CATHOLIC INTERESTS IN STATE 

AND NATION; AS WELL AS TO HIS VALIANT BAND OF 

SELF-SACRIFICING AND EFFICIENT CLERGY 

PAST AND PRESENT THIS 

VOLUME IS DEDICATED 



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PREFACE. 

HILST sending forth these sketches to the public we are fully 
aware how imperfect they are in many details, but as all students 
of history know how difficult and laborious is the task of collect- 
ing historical data, we feel we can claim their kind indulgence. 
Therefore let this be considered only the basis of a better and more complete 
work, prepared by a more competent author. 

Much of the early history of our Churches and Missions was never 
committed to writing, and many traditions of persons and places are forever 
lost because no one attempted the work we have undertaken. 

That the notes gathered within these pages will be of interest to our 
Catholic people we are sure, for these narratives record the heroic sacrifices 
and the devoted zeal with which were laid the foundations, so strong and 
deep, of Church and school at times when it was hard to be a Catholic. 

It was the Rt. Rev. James A. McFaul who first suggested and later on 
arranged for the writing of these annals, and to his constant encouragement 
is due its completion. 

Acknowledgement is also due to the Rev. Rectors of the Diocese, who, by 
their prompt kindness have helped to furnish correct data, photos, and the 
plates used in this volume. 

A special feature of this book is the correct and interesting biographies 
prepared by the Rev. William H. Miller, of Plainfield, N. J., whose attention 
to this department deserves the hearty thanks of all. 

Nor would we pass over unnoticed the many beautiful engravings of 
priests and churches, so assiduously collected by the Rev. Gregory Moran, of 
Laurel Springs, N. J. 

With pleasure and gratitude do we also pay our tribute of thanks to the 
following helpful sources of information : 
i. The Catholic Church in the U. S Shea 

2 

3 

4 



The Catholic Church in New Jersey Flynn 

American Catholic Historical Researches Griffin 

The Irish Catholic Register. 

History of the Catholic Church in New York Bayley 

Records of the Diocese of Trenton. 
Baptismal Registers of various Churches. 
Historical Notes of Peter J. Backes. 



6 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

9. The American Catholic Historical Society Records, Rev. Thomas Middle- 
ton, D.D., O.S.A. 
Also the following parish sketches and souvenirs : 

A Century of Catholicity in Trenton, N.J Fox 

A History of the Vineland Parish Dittrich 

St. Mary of the Lake, Lakewood • Healey 

History of Catholicity in Bound Brook O'Connell 

Sacred Heart Church, Riverton Hendricks 

Catholicity at Hightstown Dullard 

St. Augustine's New Church, Ocean City, N. J McCloskey 

St. Philip and James Church, Philipsburg, N. J McCloskey 

Our Lady Star of the Sea Petri 

Parish Kalendar, St. Peter's, New Brunswick 0' Grady 

The New St. Nicholas, Atlantic City, N. J McShane 

St. Mary's Parish Messenger, Salem, N. J Lyons 

Immaculate Conception Church, Trenton, N. J. 

St. Mary's, New Monmouth, N.J O'Connor 

The Parish Messenger Mulligan 

And to all others who have supplied data of any kind. 



CONTENTS. 



Chapter. 


I. 


Chapter 


II. 


Chapter 


III. 


Chapter 


IV. 


Chapter 


V. 


Chapter 


VI. 


Chapter 


VII. 


Chapter VIII. 



The Jesuits in New Jersey. 1740-1808. 



New Jersey Under the 
New York. 1808- 1853. 
The Diocese of Newark. 
The Diocese of Trenton. 
Religious Communities. 
Biographical Sketches. 
Diocesan Directory. 
Pastoral Letters. 



Bishops of Philadelphia and 

1853-1881. 
1881-1906. 




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CHAPTER I. 

THE JESUITS IN NEW JERSEY. 

It was Cicero who said that history was " the witness of ages, the torch of 
truth, the life of memory, the oracle of life, the interpreter of the past, and to 
be ignorant of what happened before one's birth is nothing less than to re- 
main in a continual state of childhood." Granting that this old saying is 
only partially correct, we can truly say that history, when properly written, 
is not only one of the most useful branches of human knowledge but is a 
most fascinating study ; for, by means of history, we can live in the past and 
learn the manners and customs of people separated from us by long distances 
and remote ages. The Bible is the oldest history we have to-day, and, con- 
sisting as it does of the inspired writings of Moses, and the Prophets, the 
Evangelists and early Missionaries, from its pages we can learn the thoughts, 
the words, and the actions not only of God's chosen people, but also of those 
with whom they had dealings in peace and war. These heroes and saints are 
marshalled before us in grand procession, Patriarchs and Prophets of the 
primitive world, nobles and peasants, freedmen and slaves, statesmen, soldiers 
and scholars — all acting their parts and speaking their pieces for our instruc- 
tion. So vividly are these scenes described that we can follow them to-day 
in their simple daily lives, their family quarrels and personal bickerings, their 
wars, their conquests and their defeats, as if it all happened but yesterday. 
But nearly two thousand years have passed since the last biblical scene was 
enacted and the Catholic Church gathered these writings which make up our 
present Bible. And, as we read the histories of the past ages, and enjoy them, 
so we must leave some records to future sages — for every family has its 
genealogy, written, or rehearsed from parent to children; every nation should 
have its chronicles; every society its book of minutes; and so every church 
should have its records committed to writing. Just as we love to hear re- 
counted the story of the past in our country's history, so we should also love 
to recall the early beginnings of our Church, to learn of its struggles, its 
hardships and its victory — its progress up to its present development. 

Presuming that the Catholics of South Jersey would like to read the 
story of the pioneers who planted the cross at a time when it was considered 
a crime to be a Catholic, I have undertaken to compile these little sketches for 
their benefit. Errors of date and facts there may be found, but these will be 
gladly corrected when pointed out and verified. 

Although Columbus discovered the new Western world, yet we can say 
he never saw New Jersey, for no settlement was made within the present 
borders of our State till 1606-1609, when King James I of England deeded all 
the lands comprising Virginia, Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey and New 



io THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

York and the New England States to a company of London merchants and 
adventurers. This whole tract was divided into North and South Virginia — 
later on North Virginia being called The Plymouth Colony. But nothing was 
done to colonize this land till Henry Hudson, an Englishman employed by 
Holland, sailed up the Delaware Bay, August 28, 1609, but finding the water 
too shallow, he returned to deep water, and skirted along the coast of what 
is now New Jersey, from Cape May to Sandy Hook, September 3, 1609. Here 
he landed and remained about one week around what is now Monmouth 
County and found the Indians friendly and kind. Nothing more was done 
toward settling New Jersey till 1621, when the Dutch West India Co. was 
organized and sent settlers under Jacob Mey. He entered the Delaware Bay 
and built Fort Nassau near the present city of Gloucester, and this whole 
region was called New Netherlands. They also made another settlement at 
Bergen Point, now Bayonne. 

From this time till 1634 nothing more was done in the way of settlements 
in New Jersey, but in that year the English began to cast covetous eyes on 
this territory, and as a consequence King Charles I. deeded all the land north 
of Virginia to Sir Edmund Plowden. This was the second time this land 
was given away by those who had no title to it. Sir Edmund Plowden was a 
Catholic gentleman of wealth, and he, in 1634, deeded 10,000 acres to Sir 
Thomas Danby, on condition that he would establish one hundred Christian 
families thereon. Plowden's territory was called New Albion, and he was 
termed the "Earl Palatinate." 

In 1642 Earl Plowden and company whilst sailing up the Delaware were 
surprised to find a settlement of white people at what is now Salem. These 
acknowledged him as governor. They were whalers from the New Haven 
Colony. Then the Earl went to live in Virginia to await the end of the Civil 
War in England, but during Cromwell's revolution he lost possession of New 
Albion. 

Finally, in 1654, Charles II. deeded New Albion to his brother, the Duke 
of York. This was the third disposal of the land, and yet the Dutch were in 
actual possession of it. The Duke of York at once conveyed what is now the 
State of New Jersey to Lord Berkley and Sir George Carteret. Troops were 
then sent from New York to dispossess the Dutch, who were settled at Bergen 
(Salem) and Eriwomech (Camden). This was accomplished and the 
province of New Jersey was divided between Berkley and Carteret, Berkley 
taking West Jersey, and Carteret East Jersey. Later Berkley sold West Jersey 
to John Fenwick. Amongst the early colonists there were few Catholics, be- 
cause the English laws against them were too wicked and stringent. There 
was room for every one except the dreaded "papists," and this condition of 
things lasted as long as British rule was endured in New Jersey. Conse- 
quently, as American Catholics, we owe naught but contempt to the English 
system of government, which not only robbed our Catholic ancestors in Eng- 
land and Ireland of their churches and convents, but carried its tyrannical 
laws to oppress us in this new world. 



THE JESUITS IN NEW JERSEY ir 

For many years the Catholics of New Jersey were under the care of the 
Bishops of Baltimore, but from 1808 to 1853 the Bishop of Philadelphia sup- 
plied the West Jersey Missions, and the Bishop of New York supplied the 
East Jersey Catholics with priests. In 1853 the Diocese of Newark, New 
Jersey, was formed, and this comprised the whole State till, in 1881, the 
Diocese of Trenton was formed. 

FATHER SCHNEIDER, S. J., 1741-1758. 

To learn the date and circumstances of the earliest consecutive efforts of 
the Catholic missionaries in what is now the State of New Jersey, we must 
go back to the beginning of the glass industry in the United States. The 
pioneer glass-blowers of New Jersey were Catholics, as the following item 
copied from old family records of Charles Casper of Salem, N. J., will show : 

" Caspar Halter, John Martin Halter, Simon Greismeyer, Johann Went- 
zel, skilled glass-blowers, from Belgium, came to this county of Salem, N. J., 
under contract to blow glass for Caspar Wister, and to teach Caspar Wister 
and his son Richard the art. The blowers were to get one-third of the profits. 
Captain Wister agreed to pay Captain James Marshall 58£ Ss for their passage. 
They sailed from Rotterdam, Holland, Dec. 7, 1738, and arrived in the Spring 
1739. In the same year of their sailing (1738) the said Caspar Wister pur- 
chased from Amos Penton one hundred acres of land bordering on the Allo- 
way Creek, in Salem Co., N. J. With the assistance of these men he erected 
a glass factory on part of this tract and in 1740 began its successful opera- 
tion." 

The location of this old " Wister glass house " is still pointed out about 
two miles from the present Allowaystown, and about eight miles from Salem. 
The place was called Wistarburg in honor of the founder. There is very 
little there now to recall its early history. 

These four families, with others that came later from Germany and 
Ireland, formed the first regular Catholic Mission centre in New Jersey, 
although there is a record, as was said, of scattered missionary trips previous 
to this time. Their nearest Catholic Church was old St. Joseph's, Willings 
Alley, built in 1741 by Rev. Joseph Greaton, S. J., whose assistant, Rev. 
Theodore Schneider, become the first regular missionary of New Jersey. His 
labors extended not only over all Eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware but 
over all of the territory of what is now the Diocese of Trenton, N. J., and we 
regret very much that the notes contained in his Registers do not furnish us 
with a more detailed account of his travels. As it is, we can trace him 
through Gloucester, Salem, Cumberland, Burlington, Somerset, Hunterdon, 
and Warren Counties only, although we can presume that no part of New 
Jersey escaped his indefatigable search for Catholics who needed the graces 
and consolations of religion. 

Each year the number of Catholics increased, and good Dr. Schneider 
continued to come, whenever possible, to say Massi baptize, and bury the dead. 
For a long time he was obliged to travel in the disguise of a physician, as 



12 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

by a law of West Jersey, Catholics were denied liberty of conscience. This 
law remained on the statute books till 1844, when it was repealed. So much 
for our boast of freedom and religious toleration in Colonial times. In 
1748 Father Schneider was sent to take charge of the German settlement at 
Goshen Hoppen Farms, and although this appointment took him away from 
Philadelphia, yet he continued, yearly or sometimes oftener, to attend to the 
Catholic Germans scattered about Philadelphia and West Jersey. A study of 
this good priest's Register shows us how zealous and untiring he was in seek- 
ing out and ministering to the poor and persecuted Catholics. There is still 
extant his missionary missal, which he copied with his own hand. 

It was indeed a fortunate thing for the early Catholics of New Jersey 
that they had three such excellent priests to minister to their spiritual wants 
as Fathers Schneider, Farmer and Groessl, men of great physical and mental 
gifts as well as zealous missionaries. From 1743-1793, a period of fifty years, 
these three great men traversed the territory which is now comprised in the 
Diocese of Trenton, besides attending the Catholics of Eastern Pennsylvania 
and Delaware. Leaving the history of their labors in the two latter places 
for another to relate, we will confine ourselves to their work on the West 
Jersey Missions only, where, with long journeys over rough country roads, 
through primeval forests and hot, sandy, pine barrens, they carried their 
missionary outfits from place to place without any of the helps of modern 
travel, resting at wayside inns, or rude farm houses, saying Mass and admin- 
istering the sacraments in workshops or private houses wherever they could 
get a room suitable to accommodate the people. 

Taking Father Schneider's baptismal register as the basis of our informa- 
tion, we find his first New Jersey visit was on October 5th, 1743, when he 
baptized John Martin Alter, son of John Martin and Catherine Alter, near 
the glass-works (Salem Co.). That he always said Mass during these visits 
we may be certain, for all Catholic missionaries try to do this. 

On the following March 18, 1744, we find him baptizing at the home of 
Maurice Lorentz in New Jersey. Yet, as there were two families of this 
name, and both homes were visited by the priest, we find one was at Haycock, 
Pa., and another in New Jersey. Just where the New Jersey Maurice Lorentz 
lived is at this date impossible to determine, but by comparing dates and dis- 
tances as well as names of persons and places, the compiler feels this house 
must have been somewhere in (old) Hunterdon County, within easy driving 
distance of Haycock, Pa. Trenton (Littleworth), or Lambertville would 
answer these requirements. 

On the following April 25th he returned to Glass-works, Salem County, 
which proved later to be his chief mission centre in West Jersey, and from 
which sprung up several other missions, and these in time became the nucleus 
of the present parishes of Salem, Woodstown, Swedesboro, and Bridgeton. 

1744, May 9, he was at Branson's Iron Works, where he baptized Margaret 
Madin and Margaret Maxwell. Neither can we locate these works positively 
now, but the compiler ventures the conjecture that these works were located 
at Batsto, founded by M. A. Peason, about 1735, and continued till the Revo- 



THE JESUITS IN NEW JERSEY 13 

lution. Ten days later, May 19, 1744, he was at the home of "Jacob Franz in 
New Jersey," where he baptized Helena Frantz. Seventeen days later, June 6, 
1744, he baptized Simon Alter at Matthew Geiger's, Salem County, also John 
Henry Geiger, a son of his host, on the same day. 1744, August 29, he was 
again at Branson's Iron Works and baptized Richard Normand. 1746, Octo- 
ber 6, at Matthew Geiger's, he baptized Theodore Wentzel, Daniel and 
Johanna Dorsey, Peter Gill and Philip Sauter received the same sacrament 
1747. This year three baptisms are recorded: Simon Altar, Simon Geiger, 
and Rachel Geiger, all on May 4, at Geiger's, and that of Henry Lorentz, at 
Maurice Lorentz'. 

This ends the records of Father Schneider's baptisms in New Jersey, 
after which year we find no more about the West Jersey Missions till they 
were again taken up. As the Rev. Robert Harding was in charge of St. 
Joseph's, Philadelphia, 1750-1771, he no doubt attended these missions, but his 
name occurs only once, and that was at Burlington, N. J. 

Father Schneider was born at Heidleberg, Germany, April 7, 1703. After 
completing his education at the University, he became a Jesuit and came to 
the American Mission in 1741. He was at once assigned to Philadelphia as 
assistant to Rev. Joseph Greaton, pastor of St. Joseph's, and was placed in 
charge of all the German Catholics of eastern Pennsylvania as well as the 
outlying missions of Delaware and New Jersey. Father Schneider died at 
Goshenhoppen, Pa., July 11, 1764, and is buried there. 



FATHER FARMER, 1759-1786. 

With no evidence to the contrary, the supposition is that when, in 1748, 
Father Schneider was sent to Goshenhoppen, Pa., to organize a parish for the 
Germans of that section, some one else was placed in charge of the New Jer- 
sey missions, but who filled up the gap from 1748- 1759 (a period of eleven 
years), we do not know, unless it was Father Greaton himself or his suc- 
cessor, Father Harding. 

Whosoever took charge, we know, found missions established at the 
Glass-works in Salem County (Allowaystown), at Geiger's in Pilesgrove 
(Sharptown), at Bound Brook, at Branson's Iron Works (?), and at the 
home of Maurice Lorentz (Hunterdon County?). 

Such was the condition of Catholicity in West Jersey when, in 1758, 
Father Farmer became assistant at St. Joseph's, Philadelphia, with the care 
of the outlying missions in Delaware and New Jersey. 

This great Jesuit Missionary began his labors in West Jersey in 1759, 
and on March the 15th he records a baptism at the house of Matthew Geiger, 
Salem County, which was the same place attended by his predecessor, Father 
Schneider, S. J. To this Mission in Salem County he came again on June 
27th, and records two baptisms, and on the following August, the 22d, records 
one baptism. He returned on October the 3d and 8th, and baptized three 
more children. 



i 4 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

From March, 1759, to November, 1762, Mass was said in the home of 
Matthew Geiger, and from January, 1763, to November, 1770, it was con- 
tinued at Adam Geiger's. Whether or not there were two different houses, 
we do not know; perhaps Adam Geiger was Matthew's son, or maybe his 
brother. Any statement on the subject would be mere conjecture with our 
present evidence. Neither has the Geiger house been yet positively located. 
Facts, seeming to place it at Alloway's town near the Glass-house, where the 
people lived. In August, 1766, we find on record that Rev. Father Harding 
baptized a child by the name of Foulon, but whether or not he came oftener 
to Salem County we do not know. 

In May, 1770, Father Farmer again visited the Mission at Pilesgrove and 
continued attending this Mission until 1780. Where he said Mass on these occa- 
sions it is at present impossible to designate, as all traditions are lost, and in his 
baptismal register the words Pilesgrove, Salem Co., are all that we find, but 
the names of the people are the same as those he ministered to near the glass- 
house. This much, however, is certain, the Pilesgrove Mission was in the 
vicinity of Sharptown, now part of the Woodstown Mission, and, as was once 
reported to the author, in the home of old Richard Duerr on the outskirts of 
the village of Sharptown was the place. 

In the following year, 1771, he opened another Mission at what he calls 
Cohansey Bridge (now Bridgeton, N. J.). And again we find some of the 
names of the old people from the glass-house at Salem County. What was 
the matter? As their numbers increased some were obliged to find employ- 
ment on the farms, and engage in other occupations. An old nail forge near 
Cohansey Bridge drew some away, and by dividing up the Mission the people 
could be better accommodated. The glass-house was on the decline. Then 
came the exciting time of the American Revolution when the colonists were 
all aflame over their liberties. Everything was unsettled, the colonists knew 
not what the future would bring them. Besides they were divided, some 
favored England and others called for a separation and war. Trade was at a 
standstill, building operations had practically ceased. The Provincial Con- 
gress offered great encouragement to the manufacture of salt, salt petre, gun- 
powder, and steel. Under the stress of circumstances the Wister glasshouse of 
Salem County drew its fires and closed in October, 1775. The few Catholics 
remaining scattered to other places finding employment elsewhere. Quickly 
followed the battles of Lexington and Bunker Hill and every man that could 
bear arms was counted upon to help the colonists in their desperate struggle 
with the English tyrants, and although Father Farmer continued his visits 
to Cohansey Bridge and Pilesgrove, yet he found mose of his able-bodied men 
had gone" to the war. Being himself an ardent American patriot, he encour- 
aged his people and refused to desert those whom age or illness kept at home. 
Twice each year he visited these Missions, and when the war was over many 
of his people were numbered among the dead ; their old homes were broken 
up forever, and those who were left sought life in other places under the new 
conditions of government. Wisterburg, with its glass-house, was gradually 
abandoned, so that now only a few traces mark its former site. The records 



THE JESUITS IN NEW JERSEY i 5 

show him to have been in Salem County as late as August 18, 1781, where he 
baptized Mary Mackay, of William and Elizabeth Mackay, at Woodstown. 
This is the last entry he makes of his West Jersey Missions, although we 
find him at Mt. Hope, Morris County, in October, 1781. Thus we see that 
from Wisterburg, near Salem, N. J., the descendants of the early Catholic 
settlers spread over, not only Salem County, but also into Gloucester and 
Cumberland, and some of their descendants are still living, notably the 
Caspars, the Lawrences, the Kigers, the Halters, the Kellys, the Magills, the 
Ewens, the Martins, the Millers, and others of the adjoining counties, but 
few, if any, of them profess the faith of their fathers ; nay, some are bitter 
and bigoted enemies of the Catholic Church, so dear to their Catholic ances- 
tors. 

But these were not the only Missions opened by this zealous priest within 
the boundaries of the Trenton Diocese, for in November, 1771, he held ser- 
vices in Burlington, also in Somerset and Hunterdon Counties. In 1774, 
continuing to visit Burlington till November, 1781, and Hunterdon till 1788. 
Somerset he only attended once, baptizing at Millstone on May 29th, 1771. 
In October, 1776, he was at the old " Change Water Furnace," near Wash- 
ington, Warren County, where he baptized, and returned thither in 1781. 
Thus his labors extended over the whole of East Jersey and into the City of 
New York, where he gathered the first congregation of Catholics. In 1778 
he opened a mission in Gloucester, N. J., which he attended for three years. 

During this time Father Farmer's headquarters were at old St. Joseph's 
Church, Willing's Alley, Philadelphia, where he helped when not on mis- 
sionary duty. It was his custom to leave old St. Joseph's and cross the 
Delaware to Gloucester, going thence on horseback, or by the old post-stage, 
through Woodbury, Swedesboro, Sharptown, in Salem County, where he met 
his little flocks. Later on when the number of his Missions increased, he 
made the tour of the counties quarterly at the northern Missions on his 
monthly visit to New York City and attended the southern counties on his 
homeward trip. This was usually about March, June, August and November, 
and as the people rarely saw any other priest we can easily imagine how 
pleased they were to meet again, how they talked for hours over the events 
of the past three months, how the infants were brought for Baptism, the 
children for catechism and the adults came for Confession and Holy Com- 
munion. Occasionally there was a marriage at these visits, and of course 
rejoicing. Again the little altar was put in place with its clean linens and 
wax tapers, whilst the good priest brought from his valise the altar Stone 
and Chalice and Vestments. Again the Bread and Wine was blessed, and 
Christ was once more bodily present among these poor persecuted iron and 
glass workers. The doors and windows were closed for fear of their enemies, 
and yet Christ was in their midst on their humble little altar in their earnest 
hearts, and, when the celebration of the Sacred Mysteries was over they rose 
up strengthened to go about their daily labors with renewed energy and zeal. 
As it was here in Salem County so it was at each settlement where Father 
Farmer stopped, perhaps, with a little variation of more poverty in some 
places than in others, but everywhere there were real piety and devotion. 



16 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

These journeys he made quarterly, and we must remember that when 
Father Farmer traversed New Jersey there were no railroads, — steam 
engines being then unknown (1759-1785). Travel was chiefly by sailing ves- 
sels on the rivers. Many journeys were made even on horse back or by stage, 
These regular visits Father Farmer continued for twenty-eight years through 
rain and shine, heat and cold, and seemed never to weary of his life of hard- 
ship and trials, but in 1785 his naturally strong frame gave way. 

On April the 10th, 1785, he started on what proved to be his last mis- 
sionary trip through East and West Jersey to New York City. This time he 
did not tarry long but hastened back to Philadelphia, and arrived on May 7th, 
1785. In a letter to Bishop Carroll, then his superior, dated May the 16th, 
he wrote : " Such is my weakness of late that exercise and application, both 
of body and mind, must be short and interrupted." Father Farmer, finding 
himself unable for the work upon the missions and knowing the want of a 
good active missionary, opened a correspondence with a young priest, Rev. 
Lawrence Graessl, who had been a Jesuit novice at the time of the suppression 
of the Society. Accepting the request to join him on the American mission, 
Father Graessl arrived in Philadelphia in November, 1787, and was surprised 
to learn that his friend, Father Farmer, had died on August 17, 1786, at the 
age of 66 — twenty-eight years of which were spent in the charge of New 
Jersey Missions. 

Father Farmer, whose real name was Ferdinand Steinmeier, was born 
October 13, 1720, Suabia, Germany. At 23 he entered the Society of Jesus, 
and was appointed to the Chinese Mission, but God changed this appointment 
to America. He arrived at Philadelphia June 20, 1752, and was placed in 
charge of Lancaster, Pa., where he remained for six years, until, in August, 
1758, he was transferred to Philadelphia. He had joined the Maryland 
Province in 1757. 

Father Farmer was one of the noted men of his time — a co-laborer and 
subject of Bishop Carroll — a fellow citizen of Benjamin Franklin, a contem- 
porary of the great Washington. As a citizen he classed as a patriot, as a 
scholar, he ranked high, having been selected as one of the first trustees of the 
University of Pennsylvania; as a missionary, he was pious and indefatigable. 

Father Farmer, S. J., is thus described by Mrs. Corcoran of Philadel- 
phia, who knew him well : " He was tall and upright, of a ruddy pleasing 
countenance, graceful in manner and fluent in conversation, and a welcome 
guest at the table of the Catholics and Protestants, partaking moderately of 
the good things placed before him ; not infrequently called from the hospitable 
board of some wealthy citizen to anoint the dying, or advise the doubtful, and 
always leaving a void behind him. In his disposition he was gentle, like his 
model, yet showing by the bright flash of his light grey eyes that he could 
feel for his Master's honor and defend His cause. He was a philosopher and 
an astronomer, intimate with the literati of his day." 



THE JESUITS IN NEW JERSEY i 7 

FATHER GRAESSL. November, 1787-October, 1793. 

Father Farmer died in October, 1786, but Father Graessl did not arrive 
in Philadelphia till November, 1787. He soon took up the burden which 
Father Farmer had so recently laid down, and from November, 1787 to Octo- 
ber, 1793, a period of six years, he ministered faithfully to the German Catho- 
lics of Philadelphia and attended regularly to the wants of the West Jersey 
Missions. Following in the footprints of Father Farmer, we find him at the 
old missionary centres in Salem, Cumberland, Burlington, and Hunterdon 
Counties, no doubt often speaking broken English, but always faithful and 
kind. 

The absence of any baptismal records from 1787- 1790 prevents us from 
following Father Graessl in his early missionary trips. Consequently not 
till 1791 have we any idea of his West Jersey labors. 

1791, April 9, at Deerfield, Cumberland County, Father Graessl said Mass 
in Matthew Miller's and baptized his son Matthew, and on the next or same 
day we find him at Penns Neck, Salem County, where he baptized John 
Huber. 

On June 26, 1791, he was again at Deerfield and baptized Anna Schreiner, 
and on the following October 30 he gave baptism to John Haines. , 

For the year 1792 we find five baptisms at Deerfield, Cumberland County, 
Chas. Flowel, Chas. Miller, Samuel Huber, Samuel Bender and Jeremiah 
Glinn, November 20 and July 29 respectively by Father Graessl, and on Sep- 
tember 24 Father C. V. Keating officiated in Hunterdon County, baptizing two 
children, also on September 30, same year, we find him attending the Bur- 
lington Mission, baptizing Elizabeth Parsons. 

1793, May 25, Father Graessl held services at Woodbury, where he bap- 
tized John Daly, thence proceeding to Deerfield and baptizing Anna Howell. 
On May 29, of the same year, he baptized at Deerfield Samuel Cuen, Susanna 
Miller and Honora Mooney. This was the last time that Father Graessl 
visited West Jersey, for during the following summer the terrible plague of 
yellow fever broke out in Philadelphia, and before it was over Father Graessl 
with Father Flemming fell victims to this terrible sickness, in the discharge of 
their duty. 

Father Graessfs constitution was not as robust as was that of Father 
Farmer, and in the early part of 1793 he contracted a severe cold which, 
aggravated by the hardships of missionary life, soon brought on consumption. 
So great was his zeal that when not on missionary duty in New Jersey or 
Delaware, he spared not himself in ministering to the Catholics of Phila- 
delphia and vicinity, so that his saintly life was the wonder of priests and 
people alike. 

With his parents and friends in Germany he always kept up a corres- 
pondence, for their edification and his own encouragement. 

The following extracts from a letter to his parents, dated Philadelphia, 
June 19, 1793, will speak for him: 



18 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

" Dearest Friends, I am sick, and, according to human understanding, my 
days are counted, probably before you read this, my body will rest in the 
grave, but let the splendid view of eternity be our consolation. My sickness 
I caught during my last mission through the extremely sandy roads of Nova 
Caesera (New Jersey) on a hot summer day. Pains in the chest, short 
breath, a dry cough, fever setting in every evening, nightly sweats, are the 
symptoms of the sickness, whatever you may call it." (Consumption.) 

Then referring to his election for coadjutor, he says: "The election took 
place in the beginning of May, and, dearest Parents, the choice fell on your 
poor Lawrence. Whilst my name, birthplace, etc., went to Rome to receive 
the approbation of the Pope, I shall leave this world to rest forever from the 
sufferings of my earthly pilgrimage. 

Your affectionate, unto death faithful, 

Laurence Graessl." 

In his mission trips, we can presume, he must have covered about the 
same territory as did his friend and predecessor, Father Farmer. A detailed 
account of these would be of great interest now, but where shall we find it? 

As the good missionary had announced to his friends across the sea, he 
had been selected as co-adjutor to Bishop Carroll in May, 1793, and the rec- 
ommendation- of his appointment had been forwarded to Rome for ratification. 
In January, 1794, Rome confirmed the Bishop's choice, and the Bulls of his 
appointment were returned to America, but when they arrived Father Graessl 
was dead, he having died in the previous October, but owing to the slow modes 
of travel, a letter took three to four months to reach Rome. The telegraph 
was not yet in use. And his was the death of a saint, for when, in 1793-94, 
that dreadful plague of yellow fever ravaged Philadelphia, Father Graessl, 
contracting the disease on sick-call duty, died a martyr to charity in Novem- 
ber, 1793. 

Rev. Lawrence Graessl was born August 18, 1753, at Rumansfeld, Bava- 
ria, entered the Jesuit Novitiate in 1771, and having been invited by Father 
Farmer to labor on the American Mission he did so. 

Father Graessl was the last of the early Jesuits to do regular missionary 
work in West Jersey, for although the Jesuits remained in charge of these 
Missions, yet they were attended by secular priests from 1793-1797. Father 
Michael Ennis ministered to the English-speaking people, and Father Joseph 
La Grouge watched over the spiritual interests of the scattered Acadians 
and the French refugees who began to flock to West Jersey at this period. 
Both of these priests died of yellow fever in the plague of 1797, when over 
3,000 died of this scourge. 

After Father Graessle's death, Rev. Leonard Neal was placed in charge, 
1 793- 1 798. Father Neal had come from Maryland to assist his brother priests 
in plague-stricken Philadelphia. In 1798 he was recalled from the New Jersey 
Missions and made President of Georgetown College. Two years later he 
was appointed Coadjutor Bishop of Baltimore, 1800, and succeeded Arch- 
bishop Carroll in that See. Father Neal was the last of the early Jesuits in 



THE JESUITS IN NEW JERSEY 19 

charge of missionary work in West Jersey, and when in 1798 he left for 
Georgetown there was not a single Catholic Church structure any where in 
New Jersey. That was about one hundred and eight years ago ; now ( 1906 ) 
we may count one hundred and forty-four churches and missions. Father 
Ennis died of yellow fever in 1798. 






CHAPTER II. 

NEW JERSEY UNDER THE BISHOPS OF NEW YORK AND 
PHILADELPHIA. 

Old St. John's, Trenton, N. J. 

From records held by Col. Washington Roebling it can be definitely 
stated that Mahlon Stacy was the pioneer settler on what is now the site of 
the City of Trenton. From other records it can be ascertained that this 
Mahlon Stacy was the same individual who, with Isaac Pearson and John 
Burr, opened the first iron works in New Jersey at Mount Holly. Taking 
the statement of Col. Roebling as historical truth, we find that as far back as 
1679 and 1680 two " Labadists," Jasper Dankers and Peter Sluyter, from 
Wiewerd, Friesland, visited this section, then called the Falls of the South 
River. But as the Stacy and his neighbors were Quakers, there was no need for 
priests, and so travellers passed on in their missionary tour. At this date 
there was no idea of a town, it was merely a hamlet. The town was not 
founded till much later, about 1720, and was then called Littleworth, a name 
it retained for several years. About 1825 this name was changed to Trentown 
in memory of William Trent, who was the chief owner and most prominent 
inhabitant of the town. Trenton received a city charter in 1792, but long 
before this there were Catholic settlers scattered about, depending for relig- 
ious services upon the Jesuits or other visiting priests who happened along. 
That priests from Philadelphia and New York visited this place as early as 
1693 we know, for we find traces of a certain Father Smith having passed 
this way on his journey to Maryland from New York, stopping at Burling- 
ton, N. J., also, but the bitterness of bigotry against Catholics compelled them 
to practice their religion discreetly, or to suffer the consequences. 

In fact there were few churches of any kind in New Jersey till after the 
Revolution. After the opening of old St. Joseph's, the scattered Catholics 
of Trenton went to that city. That Father Schneider (1743-1759) or Father 
Farmer (1759-1786) visited this city for services we have no positive evi- 
dence, but we find Father Graessle at Burlington in 1787, and we find a 
station at Hunterdon County attended by Father Farmer in 1792, and this we 
conjecture was Trenton, which town was in Hunterdon County at that time. 

The spread of the Catholic Church in Trenton had many obstacles to 
contend with in its early days, some from without the fold, but some from 
within. About the year 1750 there came to this section an apostate priest 
called Houdin. This unfortunate man had been ordained in 1730 by the 
Arch-Bishop of Treves, and, coming to Canada, he was placed in charge of a 




BISHOP NEUMAN. 



22 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

convent of Recollects in Montreal, where, yielding to his passions, he left 
the church on Easter Sunday, 1747. The Protestant people received this un- 
faithful wretch with open arms, and gave him $150.00 pension from the Society 
for preaching the Gospel in Foreign Parts. This brought him to New Jersey, 
and he preached at Anntown, Allentown, Bordentown and Trenton, adding 
new fuel to the flames of bigotry which already surrounded the church. This 
French apostate finally settled at New Rochelle, New York, in a parsonage 
built for him by the Protestants of the country. He died in October, 1766, 
leaving two children, and his body was buried near the chancel of the Pro- 
testant Church. The changing of street lines .and the demolition of the church 
left his ashes under the public street. 

From 1 792- 1807 we find a Rev. Anthony Smith, living at Princeton in the 
old Toulane family. Many such families had settled in this section of New 
Jersey. Father Smith's tombstone is still to be seen in the old Princeton 
grave yard. 

The refugees, having fled from the terrors of the French Revolution,, 
began to settle around Trenton,' Mount Holly and Princeton, and the French 
priests often visited them from Philadelphia, as the following item received 
from Father Middleton will prove : 

April 1st, 1799, at Trenton, Rev. John Baptist Boury baptized Louis 
Charles Francis Theodore Grenau, 17 years of age, born of Charles Francis 
Grenau of San Domingo and Madam Arnoux, there being no Catholic Church 
in Trenton at that date. 

We also find traces of Father Merthie de Legrange of St. Joseph's, Phila- 
delphia, having ministered to these Trenton Catholics ; also of Dr. Carr, 1797, 
and of the Rev. Bernard de Bornial on May 6 and 20, 1798. Rev. George 
Staunton baptized two nieces of Stephen Girard, then living at Burlington 
(1810). 

There were a great number of Catholics in Trenton at the beginning of 
the 19th century we are positive, because Bishop Carroll in one of his letters 
writes that on September 8th he was obliged to stop off at Trenton to 
straighten out some tangle that, as he himself remarks, the evil spirit was 
always making for him. 

Also a Nicholas Keefe of Lamberton (1803). 

About 1804 Catholic services were held in the printing office of Isaac 
Collins, in the house which stood on the corner of Queen and Second Streets 
(now Broad and State). Whether or not Isaac was a Catholic we do not 
know. From 1811-1814 services were held in the home of John D. Sartori, a 
Catholic gentleman then living on Federal Street. The priests who attended 
the Catholics of Trenton and other South Jersey Missions at this date came 
from old St. Augustine's, Fourth and Vine Streets, Philadelphia, as at that 
time there were only four Catholic Churches in Philadelphia — Old St. 
Joseph's, Holy Trinity, St. Mary's, and St. Augustine's, and to the last of 
these was given the care of the Jersey Missions as we have said above. 

When the number of Catholics increased, it was decided to secure a lot 
and erect a church. This was considered rather a venture at this time, as 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 



23 



Catholics had very little standing in the community. But, nevertheless, Captain 
John Hargous and John Baptist Sartori, with the consent and encouragement 
of Bishop Egan, purchased a lot corner Market and Lamberton Streets. 
From the Court Records we find that the title of this lot was transferred in 
1816 to John B. Sartori who held it as President of St. John's Catholic Chapel 
of West New Jersey. 




OLD ST. JOHN S CHURCH, TRENTON, N. J. 






In 1804 Rev. Philip Stafford united in marriage John B. Sartori and Mary 
M. Henrietta L'Official de Woofoin of San Domingo. In the same year 
Father Stafford baptized Peter Callen, Catherine McKenney, Eleanor Mc- 
Donough, Edward Sheridan and Peter Place, all at Trenton. 

This section of Trenton was then called Bloomsbury, but most of the 
Catholics lived in the adjoining district called " Lamberton," and the Church 
seems to have been erected as early as 1814 and held under a sales agreement 
from Daniel W. Cox and wife who gave clear title to John B. Sartori as 






24 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

president of St. John's Chapel of West New Jersey in trust for the Roman 
Catholic congregation subject to a mortgage of $210.00 in favor of Cox. 
Sartori was an Italian merchant. The first church was a small brick struc- 
ture, and was used till 1848. 

In 1832, April 12, Mr. Sartori transferred the deed to Rt. Rev. Bishop 
Kenrick, and it was recorded May 4, 1832, in Burlington County. In 1839, 
W. S. Keene having obtained possession of the mortgage, the place was sold 
by Sheriff Brown for $300.00. Thence it passed to Joseph Kennedy, to 
Alex. Pennington, to William Husted, to Henry Harrow, and, finally, to Peter 
A. Hargous, who, in 1857, transferred it to Bishop Bayley under certain con- 
ditions, viz., for the German Roman Catholics, and the right of burial for the 
Hargous families. This is the same property that caused the Catholics so 
much trouble for nearly fifty years, until, in 1883, it was retaken by the Har- 
gous heirs and sold. It seemed to have been born in trouble, and brought 
trouble to all who had anything to do with it, the history of which trouble 
would fill a large volume. The case, The Church of St. Francis of Assisium 
vs. Peter A. Hargous, was in Chancery Court for several years. 

From 1814 to 1833 this church was attended by various priests from 
either St. Augustine's, or St. Philip's Church, Philadelphia, with occasional 
visits from one of the priests of Holy Trinity to minister to the Germans. 
Some of these priests officiating during this period were the Rev. Fathers 
Doyle, Whelan, Smith, Connors, Geogham, Rafferty, Costello and Reilley. 

In 1833 if was again transferred to the care of the Jesuits of Old St. 
Joseph's, Philadelphia, and the Rev. Richard Hardy and Father Waters were 
in charge. This arrangement continued till 1838, when Rev. Daniel Magorien, 
a secular priest, was made pastor of St. John's with the whole Trenton dis- 
trict as a Mission. Father Magorien was zealous and active in the discharge 
of his duty till 1840, when he was promoted to St. Joseph's Church, Milton, 
Pennsylvania, and was succeeded by Rev. John C. Gilligan, who not only ad- 
vanced the interests of his Trenton flock, but erected the first Catholic 
Churches at Lambertville, N. J., and Bordentown. Father Gilligan was pro- 
moted to Port Carbon, Pa., 1844. 

The next pastor, Rev. John Mackin, took charge of St. John's Chapel in 
1844, and he began at once to put new life and energy into the people. The 
town was growing, and the number of Catholics was increasing, but the good 
priest found himself sadly hampered by an ill-chosen location. The small 
brick structure was inadequate, owing to every possible foot of land being 
used for cemetery purposes. Besides, the restrictions on the lots were so 
many that priest and people determined to seek another and larger site where 
they could erect a more suitable and commodious building. 

The same year, 1844, a plot of land was secured on Broad Street, on which 
was erected the second Catholic Church in Trenton. On August 27, 1848, this 
church was dedicated by Rev. Francis Gartland, V. G., of St. John's Church, 
Philadelphia. The building was of brick and was called St. John's, and 
seemed amply large for all the needs of the congregation, but in 1856 we find 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 



25 



that it was again enlarged to make room for the increasing numbers. 
Father Mackin was a zealous and faithful priest, and was much beloved and 




SACRED HEART CHURCH, TRENTON, N. J. 

respected by his people. His missionary labors extended to Burlington, 
Bordentown and Mount Holly. 

From 1844- 1859 he labored to build up the Church interests, but in the 
latter year he was obliged to take an extended vacation in order to repair his 



26 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

health. He went to Ireland, leaving the Rev. Joseph O'Donnell in his 
place, but in i860 Father O'Donnell went to Princeton and was replaced by- 
Father Young till May, 1861, when Rev. Anthony Smith was appointed to 
succeed Father Young, who left to join the recently established Paulist Com- 
munity in New York. 

Among the pioneers of old St. John's who came about 1844 or later we 
may mention Matthey Weldon, Peter Flannagan, John, Patrick and Law- 
rence Gallagher, William McAlees, James Duffy, Michael Martin, Lawrence 
and Joseph Sullivan, William Donohue, William Auglin, John Connell, Rich- 
ard Kelly, John Dewan, and James Donovan, with their wives, their sisters, 
and their sweethearts. 

Father Mackin opened a school in the basement with a Miss Scanlon as 
teacher, also a Miss Anna McCaffrey. 

Father Smith soon saw the necessity of making some provision for 
orphans of the city, and after purchasing a house on Broad Street, opened an 
asylum, with the Sisters of Charity from Madison, N. J., in charge. Father 
Smith also built a frame school house on Cooper Street, with Peter Cantwell, 
John Madden, John Dumphy and James Kehoe as teachers. 

Father Smith whilst in charge of St. John's seeing the increase of Catho- 
lics, began, in 1866, to plan for another church. Land was purchased corner 
of North Warren and Bank Streets, and the present St. Mary's Cathedral was 
begun, and completed in 1870. Father Smith remained at St. John's till 1869, 
when he resigned the old church and was placed in charge of the new one. 

Father Mackin, who had returned and was in temporary charge of St. 
Mary's, Bordentown, was once more brought back to his old charge, much 
to the delight and satisfaction of the people, for they loved him on account of 
his many virtues, and the work he had done. Father Mackin once more took 
up his old work, but he was not as of yore. Age and hardship had shattered 
his once powerful constitution, and he lingered on, a relic of his former self, 
till 1873, when he died among the people he loved so much and who loved 
him unto the end. The crowds that thronged old St. John's on the day of his 
funeral testified better than any monument to his worth. He was buried near 
the entrance of the church, where his remains rested till they were transferred 
to the cemetery of the Sacred Heart. 

Father Patrick Byrne of Camden was now called to succeed Father 
Mackin, 1873. 

It was in the Fall of 1878 that Father Hogan came from Newark to take 
up the charge relinquished by Father Byrne. Wheresoever he looked he saw 
work ahead of him. The buildings needed repairs, and many improvements 
were called for, and, to add to all this, there was a considerable standing debt, 
but what complicated matters was when, on September 30, 1883, a fire broke 
out in the church, and in a few hours it was a mass of ruins. With renewed 
energy the pastor at once planned a new church, the corner-stone of which 
was laid by Rt. Rev. Bishop Shannahan of Harrisburg P.. O. on August 3, 
1884, and the present beautiful church of the Sacred Heart was completed 
and dedicated on June 30, 1889, by Rt. Rev. M. J. O'Farrell whilst Arch- 
bishop Ryan sang the Mass. 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 



27 



An interesting feature of this church structure is the fact that underneath 
the present building is St. John's Chapel, which might almost be considered a 
church. 

The Story of St. Mary's in the Pines, Pleasant Mills. 

Scattered through the fragrant pine lands of Southern New Jersey are 
several deserted or partly deserted villages, where, seventy years ago, industry 
and prosperity reigned, but now ruin and desolation are seen everywhere. 
Streets that were once hardened with the traffic of hundreds of people are 
now overgrown with wild grass and weeds and but little used. The houses are 
silent and slowly falling to decay. The churches are seldom opened, and some 
are gone entirely and their very sites disputed. The old iron forges and fur- 





, 


i*£$& ^^g^Sm^ 


w 

i ■'' ■..■■„■■.■ 


■ ■'■■ 


• 



ST. MARY S CHURCH, PLEASANT MILLS, N. J. 

naces are in ruins, or only remembered by the black cinder piles which mark 
their sites. Three of the tall chimneys still stand, ready to topple over at any 
time. 

Two of these old villages are of interest to the Catholics of New Jersey, 
because in, or near them, were established two of the first Catholic parishes 
in New Jersey. They are Pleasant Mills, in Atlantic County, forty-two miles 
from Philadelphia, and nine miles from Hammonton ; and Port Elizabeth, 
Cumberland County, six miles from Millville, N. J. 

As Catholic parishes, both these places at the present time cannot count 
a dozen people, but their history is interesting. The first settlement at Pleas- 
ant Mills was made about 1718. when a saw mill was erected at the head of the 
old Nesco pond, now called Nesco-hague. This drew a colony of sturdy 



28 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

wood choppers, who levelled the original pine forests and white cedars, send- 
ing the heavy timbers to the mill to be sawed into lumber or split into shingles 
and piled the branches in great heaps, to be converted into charcoal. The 
lumber was loaded on vessels and shipped down the Mullica River and on to 
New York. The charcoal was transported by wagon to Philadelphia where it 
was sold for fuel. This was before hard or soft coal was known here, and 
these were the charcoal-burners the traces of whom are still frequently found 
in South Jersey. 

Yet not all the charcoal was sent away, for much of it was used in the 
old iron furnaces and forges called bloomeries which began to spring up in 
old Monmouth, Gloucester, Burlington and Cumberland County. For as 
early as 1766 we find a large iron furnace established at Batsto. This was the 
era of the iron workers, and brought to New Jersey hundreds of men who 
found employment either as wood choppers, teamsters, day laborers or skilled 
mechanics. In 1777 we find that the wood choppers received two shillings 
six pence per cord for their labor, and an industrious man could chop one and 
a half cords per day. 

The forges and furnaces were set up near the water courses in those parts 
where the bog iron ore was abundant. Thus we find this old iron industry 
at old Gloucester, near Egg Harbor, at Martha, Weymouth, Atsion, and they 
manufactured all kinds of iron ware for house as well as for implements. 
Here at Batsto was made much of the ammunition used in the American; 
Revolution, but when after the better magnetic ores of Pennsylvania and 
Northern New Jersey were discovered the old bog iron furnaces were aban- 
doned and the workmen moved to new centres of work. About this time 
also, 1 761, shingles were split from the real cedar trees, which abounded in 
the swamps of this district. These were carted to Egg Harbor and shipped 
to New York and elsewhere. 

Next came the glass workers, when Casper Wister built and operated the 
first American glass factory near Allowaystown in Salem County. These 
colonies came from various parts of Germany to convert the Jersey soil into 
hollow ware and window lights. Again with these came new bands of wood 
choppers and teamsters. Among the various artisans, mechanics and laborers 
were many Catholics, single and married, who, feeling the religious persecu- 
tions of the old world, sought peaceful homes in America, only to find that 
bigotry and race hatred had also crossed the sea, and confronted their new 
homes. Ready to give their labor and skill of their hand and heads to the 
upbuilding of their adopted land, yet they refused to accept or follow the 
religious systems that had so cruelly persecuted their ancestors in Ireland and 
Germany. They cherished their Catholic faith and practiced it in private 
under the scorn of bigots or the ridicule of fanatics, until such times as cir- 
cumstances permitted them to build their chapels and bring their priests to 
have services for them. These were brave and fearless people, strong of 
character and big of body, and danger was unknown to them as disloyalty 
to church was hateful. It was by such men that the little parish of Pleasant 
Mills and Batsto was founded. When they had no church in which to as- 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 29 

semble, they gathered in private houses, and here they met their priests 
whenever chance or appointment brought one in their midst. But as time 
went on prejudices lessened and the Revolution found Catholic and Protestant 
combined to defend their common country on the bloody field of battle, and 
when the smoke of eight years' strife had cleared away and the young nation 
had cast off the tyranny of England, their rights were recognized and re- 
spected. And when the names of the fallen heroes were called, many Catho- 
lics were orphans and widows. Again the glass works and iron forges 
were set in motion and another colony gathered, and Pleasant Mills 
and Batsto became centres of travel. The Richard family bought the place 
and infused new life into both towns. 

In 1826 Jesse Richards offered to donate a plot of land and help to erect 
a church for his faithful Catholic workmen. Accepting this kind offer from 
their generous employer, they collected money, and worked together under the 
direction of their zealous young pastor, Rev. Edward R. Mayne, who was a 
convert from Protestantism, until they had succeeded in erecting at Pleasant 
Mills the first Catholic Church south of Trenton, and perhaps the third in 
New Jersey. This was in 1827, and Father Mayne remained in charge, living 
at St. Augustine's, Philadelphia, and coming down monthly for services. The 
church, however, was not formally dedicated until 1830, as there was no 
Bishop in Philadelphia at that time, Bishop Conwell having gone to Rome, 
leaving Father Mathews in charge. In 1830 Rev. Patrick Kenrick was ap- 
pointed Bishop of Philadelphia, and on August 15, 1830, dedicated the little 
church under the title of St. Mary's of the Assumption. In the meantime, 
Father Mayne, who had fallen into consumption, went to Floriada for relief, 
and, finding the climate beneficial to him, remained there and became pastor 
of St. Augustine, where he died on December 21, 1834, aged 32. 

In 1833 we find Rev. James Cummisky attending from Philadelphia. 

1834 — Rev. William Whelan, occasionally from Philadelphia. 

1835 — Rev. Patrick Reilley, occasionally. 

1836 — Rev. Edward McCorthy, S. J., monthly from St. Joseph's, Phila. 

1837 — Rev. Richard Waters, S. J., monthly from St. Joseph's, Phila. 

1838 — Rev. Edward Sourin, St. Charles Seminary, Philadelphia. 

1839 — Rev. James Miller, C. M., Philadelphia. 

1840-43 — Rev. William Loughran, from St. Michael's, Philadelphia. 

1844 — Rev. B. Rolando, C. M., Seminary, Philadelphia. 

1845-48 — Rev. Hugh Lane, from St. Philip's, Philadelphia. 

1849 — Rev. Hugh Kenny, St. Michael's, Philadelphia. 

1850 — Rev. J. Finnegan, Gloucester, N. J. 

The following is the translation of all that now remains of Father 
McCarthy's Latin Baptismal Register concerning Pleasant Mills Mission, as 
received from Rt. Rev. James A. McFaul : 
"August 9, 1835, I baptized Michael, born at Philadelphia, on the first of May 

this year, from Daniel McNeil and Elizabeth Dunn. 
Sponsors : Michael Dunn and Mary McGonigal. 
Edward McCarthy, S. J. 



3 o THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

August 9, 1835, I baptized Nicholis, born Dec. 26, 1834, of Samuel Crowley 
and Parmelia Saney. 

Sponsors : Herman Myrose and Catherine Myrose. 
Edward McCarthy, S. J. 
October 11, 1835, I baptized Samuel, born March 28, from Abraham Nicholas 
and Mary Ann Crowley. 

Sponsors : Herman Myrose and Anna Maria Cliff. 
Edward McCarthy, S. J. 
September 11, 1836, Mary Ann, born Aug. 5, 1836, from Patrick and Cathe- 
rine Kelly. 

Sponsors : John Moore and James Daly. 

Edward McCarthy. S. J. 
September 11, 1836, I baptized James, born Feb. 5, 1836, from James McCam- 
bridge and Anna Miller. 

Sponsors : Thomas Murphy and Mary Ann Mclntyre. 
Edward McCarthy, S. J. 
September 11, 1836, I baptized Sara Ann, born March 17, 1836, of Terence 
Daly and Sara Onslan. 

Sponsers : James McDermott and John McCambridge. 
Edward McCarthy, S. J. 
September 11, 1836, I baptized James, born Aug. 31, 1836, from Thomas Fox 
and Elizabeth McDermott. 

Sponsers : John McCambridge and Sam Crowley. 
Edward McCarthy, S. J. 
September 11, 1836, I baptized Patrick, born Aug. 3, 1836, from Patrick 
Monoghan and Bridget Dohan. 

Sponsers : Michael Doolan and Mary Mclntyre. 
Edward McCarthy, S. J. 
September 11, 1836, I baptized Andrew Stout, born June 13, 1836, from Philip 
Kane and Anna Wescott. 

Sponsers : Edward Daly and Sarah Daly. 
Edward McCarthy, S. J. 
September 11, 1836. I baptized John, born Aug. 2j, 1836, from Hugh Gibbons 
and Catherine Moorison. 

Sponsers : Patrick Clark and Margaret Morison. 
Edward McCarthy, S. J. 
October 9, 1836, I baptized Charles, born May 13, 1836, from Samuel Crowley 
and Parmelia Saney. 

Sponsers : William Smith and Catherine Cobb. 
Edward McCarthy, S. J. 
An old account book was found in the church by Father Van Riel of Egg 
Harbor when he took charge and is the handwriting of Edward Daily. The 
list below shows the names of the Catholics who contributed to the monthly 
expenses of the church from the year 1834-1860: 

John Cumingham, Terrence Daily, James Kelly, James Sweeney, Henry 
Boyle, Sr., John Mclntyre, Edw. Mclntyre, Jeremiah Fitzgerald, Peter Mc- 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 31 

Dermot, William Troy, James Kane, Edw. Daily, John Gillan, Philip Brogan, 
Philip Kane, John Nugent, Patrick Lafferty, David Berry, William Boyle, 
John McDaniel, John Kane, Michael Murphy, Cornelius Kelly, Hugh Smith, 
Samuel Crowley, Arthur Travis, Patrick Kane, Herman Myrose, James Mc- 
Dermott, Michael McDermott, Patrick McDermott, John Martin, John Desane, 
William Dougherty, James Boyher, William Kelly, John Dougherty, " Ped- 
dler," John Sweeney, Owen Murphy, John Clark, James McCambridge, Rob. 
Walls, Sarah Campbell, James Tonner, Bryan Hart, Michael McCorkle, John 
Connor, And. McAlister, William Dunlop, James McWiggin, James McNally, 
W'illiam Harkins, Anton Fraelinger, George Stiuzer, Chas. Freeling, John Han- 
Ion, Oswald Reinboot, James Dealin, James Leading, Thomas Leading, Chas. 
Freath, Patrick Murray, William McDermott, Patrick Clark, John Smith, 
William Smith, John Mason, John Aniese, John McGovern, John Mclntyre, 
Dominic Daily, Andrew Kenan, Patrick Milligan, John Waters, William Max- 
well '36, Patrick Hacket 36, Patrick Henry, John McGinty, William Conly, 
William Dolan, Patr. Clark, Henry Mison, Thomas Murphy, Thomas Darbey, 
Peter McGoldrick, Harry Boyce, Jr., William McCormick Henry Lafferty, 
Bernard Lafferty, John Lafferty, John Moore, John Boyle, Cornelius Gibbon, 
Hugh Gibbons, Peter McAleer, John Waters, Robert Smith, Michael Leonard, 
John McDermott, James Waters, James Cawe, John Doran, John Coyle, 
Darby Gillen, Francis Clarke, Mich. McLaughlin, Patrick Grey, Thos. Fox, 
Robt. McNeil, John Donigan, James Fisher, Denis Corbley, Henry Lee, Patr. 
McDevit, Dan. 

In 1848 this parish passed to the care of Father Waldron, and as Mission 
of Gloucester it was attended by Fathers Finnegan, 1853, and Hannegan, until, 
in 1859, it passed to the Camden parish, under Father James Moran. 

In 1857 Father Moran of St. Mary's, Camden, officiated there. From 
1855 on this parish was attended from St. Mary's, Camden. 

In 1848 three Redemptorists from St. Peter's Church, Philadelphia, found 
their way to Pleasant Mills at different times. These were Fathers Bayer, 
Cowdenhave and Holzer. In June, 1849, Father Bayer also visited this place, 
and again in December. A priest from this church visited Pleasant Mills 
again in 1851 and 1852. The last visit of a priest there seems to have been 
December 11, i860, when we find the congregation dwindled to eleven men, 
whose names were : Robert Dougherty, Hugh Farron, John Gillen, P. Bannon, 
John Walters, Jerry Fitzgerald, Mrs. Garritt, Michael Pharroah, John Mc- 
Govern, Daniel Bannon, Thomas Bannon, John McCorristan, John Mallory, 
Michael McCorristan, Wm. Kelly, James Dillett, Darby McGonigal, James 
Plenney. 

Shortly after the building of the church, a house was built by the people, 
about 1830, with the idea of renting it to a Catholic family who would care 
for the priest on his monthly visits. This house was occupied by old Jerry 
Fitzgerald and later was sold, in 1865, to Charles D. Smith, now of Elwood, 
N. J., who sold it to Dr. Stille of Atlantic City. After the opening of the 
church the priest lodged with Mr. Richards, an Episcopalian, and his daughter 
took charge of the altar. John, Hugh and Dan. Farron were faithful from 
*35-'6o; their descendants are good Catholics. 



32 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

The church remained closed until 1865, when a young Dillet woman from 
that district appealed to a Philadelphia priest, and laid the condition before 
him ; she was directed to Camden, and explained matters to Father Byrne, 
who made a pilgrimage to the spot and found things as described. The 
church was deserted, the few remaining people had lost their faith. There 
stood the little church surrounded by pines, hidden away, but in a good state of 
preservation, everything just as it had been left by Father Daly — but even the 
memory of it was being lost when Father Byrne rediscovered it in the wilder- 
ness, and, strange to say, the few Catholics then around cared iot to assemble 
within its walls, so that he held services in a private house, whilst he boarded 
with Mr. Paterson, a Protestant gentleman, who received him most hospitably. 

When, in 1866, Father Thurnes was made pastor of Egg Harbor, Pleasant 
Mills was one of his Missions. Fie attended it when necessary as did also his 
successor, Father Esser, '78-'85, and Father Van Riel '85 until the Hammonton 
Parish was formed, when it became a part of that parish. At present Octo- 
ber, '05, there is only one Catholic family at Pleasant Mills, and none at 
Batsto — Mr. A. T. McKeon and his children. They attend the church at Ham- 
monton, driving there on Sundays, a distance of nine miles, and this for thirteen 
years, proving their sterling faith and loyalty. Father Van Riel moved the 
pews to Hammonton, where they are still in use, also a beautiful old oil 
painting of the Crucifixion. The church was completely destroyed by a forest 
fire in April, 1899. The cemetery is enclosed with a neat iron fence, placed 
there by Mrs. Copperthwaite, McKeon, etc. The stones and graves are in good 
condition owing to the care of the McCambridge boys. 

New Brunswick — St. Peter's Church. 

The early missionary labors of Father Farmer covered both West and 
East Jersey, and extended to the city of New York, where, in i78i-'82, he 
formed St. Peter's parish, the first Catholc parish in that city, which in 
1885 he placed in charge of Rev. Charles Whelon, an Irish Capuchin. 

In 1808, when the Diocese of New York was established, the Catholics of 
the Province of East Jersey were alotted to the care of the New York priests. 
New Brunswicw was in East Jersey, yet at that day we do not find mention 
of any Catholic in that city. In 1820 a number of Irish families came from 
Ulster County, Ireland, and settled there. Among these were the McDedes, 
McConlogues, McShanes, McGrady, Campbells, Haggertys, Gillens, Kellys, De- 
vines, Murphys and Hansen families. The nearest church was St. Francis, at 
Trenton, twenty-five miles away, or New York, thirty-six miles. Thither they 
went whenever they could, and in the meantime they kept alive their faith and 
Catholic practices by meeting each Sunday at each others' homes where they 
joined in the Mass prayers or recited the Rosary or litanies, as they had been 
taught to do in their old homes. Finally, in 1825, the Rev. Father Powers of 
New York began to visit them occasionally, and, held services in the home of 
Terence Rice, on Upper Albany Street, and in this year baptized the first 
Catholic child in New Brunswick — Sarah Butler. Later on, as the number in- 
creased, Dr. Powers held services in a large room over a wheelwright factory, 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 



33 



which stood near the present Bartle Building. In 1829 he was succeeded by 
the Rev. Joseph A. Schneller, pastor of Christ Church, Ann Street, who deter- 
mined to build a church in New Brunswick, but so bitter was the prejudices 
and bigotry of the Dutch Lutherans and Scotch Calvinists that they refused to 
sell any land for that purpose — " they did not want a popish church in their 
town." Father Schneller, however, outwitted them, for he borrowed $500.00 
from Air. Springer, a Protestant gentleman of New York, and gave it to 
Mr. Robert Butler, who bought a lot from the Rev. Jacob Edwards, on the 
plea that he wanted it for a friend of his. This friend was Father Schneller. 
The lot was on Bayard Street, opposite the present public school. So great 
was the excitement when the affair became known, that some of the bigots 
threatened to burn the church before it could be opened for services, but these 
threats were never fulfilled, and matters went on. The corner stone was laid 
the same year by Rev. Felix Varella, V. G., of New York, and dedicated 
December 19, 1831, and called St. Peter and Paul's. 

Father Schneller remained in charge of New Brunswick till 1831, coming 
from New York monthly, and worked assiduously to plant the faith. 

In 1838 he became Associate Editor of the New York Weekly Register, 
and his place was filled by Father O'Reilly of St. James', Brooklyn, who after- 
wards became Bishop of Hartford, and who was lost with the ill-fated 
" Pacific," which went down January 23, 1856. 

Father Bernard McArdle came to New Brunswick in 1831, and was the 
first resident pastor, with Perth Amboy and any other place he could find 
Catholics as his Missions. 

In 1835 a terrible tornado swept over New Brunswick and tore away the 
rear portion of the church. The damage was repaired by closing up the gap 
with boards, which remained till 1847. Father McArdle lived in a very small 
rectory next to the church, till he was transferred to Belleville in 1839. On 
account of the scarcity of priests, this parish was placed under Father Mad- 
rono ('39-'43), a Spanish priest of Staten Island, who reached it by way of 
Perth Amboy. The next priest was Rev. Francis Donohue, who came twice a 
month from St. John's Church, Newark, N. J., where he was assistant, but 
in the same year a resident pastor was again appointed in the person of the 
Rev. Hugh McGuire, who took up his residence with a Mr. Boylen. Father 
McGuire remained till 1845, and attended South Amboy, Somerville and 
Princeton. In 1846 he was transferred to Brooklyn, leaving Father John 
Rogers in charge. Father Rogers found a strange state of affairs existing. 
In 1844 Father McGuire had found himself unable to meet his expenses — the 
mortgage on the church was foreclosed and the church was sold. It was then 
bought in for $600.00 for the congregation. During this time services were 
held in Mr. Boylen's house on Church Street. Father Rogers in a short time 
raised the six hundered and freed the church, which was again reopened for 
service. 

In 1847 he tore away the boards enclosing the tornado gap and enlarged 
the church building, bought a new organ, which is still used in the Chapel. 



34 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

The rectory was so small and poorly furnished that when visitors called he 
would ask them to take the only chair in the room and he would sit on his 
trunk. 

Father Rogers also established the first Catholic school in New Bruns- 
wick. The little school house was in the rear of the old Rectory and was 
taught by a Miss Sullivan with about thirty children in attendance. 

As the congregation continued to increase it became necessary to look 
for more room, and consequently in 1853 Father Rogers purchased the pre- 
sent church lot, and began the erection of a new church in 1844, which was 
not finished till 1865, eleven years afterwards, although services were held in 
the basement long before this. During the building- of the church, many of 
the mechanics gave their labor gratis to help along. Age and hard work was 
now telling on Father Rogers, and it was evident he must have help. In 1867 
Bishop Bayley appointed Rev. Miles C. Duggan Assistant and Administrator 
to Father Rogers. 

In 1867 the Rev. Miles C. Duggan came to St. Peter's. During Father 
Duggan's stay in New Brunswick he did much to improve the parish, spiritu- 
ally and otherwise. He turned the old church into a hall and schoolhouse, 
introduced the Sisters of Charity, organized the Y. M. C. L. A. (now the 
Catholic Club), and St. Francis' Temperance and Benevolent Society, and 
established St. Peter's Hospital (now St. Mary's Home), which he placed in 
charge of the physicians of the city, throwing open its doors to the sick and 
Injured, without regard to creed, color or nationality. He bought the Hoyt 
Building which he subsequently exchanged for the Elkins or Berg property, 
turning the latter into the above-named hospital 

Under the Rev. Patrick Downs, Father Duggan's successor, the Hoyt 
property was bought back, and St. Peter's Hall, the old church, being pro- 
nounced unsafe, was torn down some time in the seventies, and the school 
removed to the Hoyt Building, which served as the parochial school until the 
new St. Peter's Sshool was" completed. 

It was in 1876 that Father O'Grady first came to St. Peter's, then as 
curate. Later, in 1881, after a short period of absence, he returned as pastor, 
succeeding Father Downs. In 1884 the Parish of the Sacred Heart was 
formed by dividing St. Peter's, as earlier the Parish of St. John the Baptist 
had been organized by the German Catholics who formerly belonged to St. 
Peter's. In 187 the venerable pastor emeritus, Father Rogers, died, having 
lived to celebrate his Sacerdotal Golden Jubilee. 

His remains rest in St. Peter's old cemetery. The first object that arrests 
the eye as you approach the cemetery is his monument, which stands on the 
brow of the hill looking toward the city. The people of St. Peter's erected 
this monument to the memory of their beloved pastor. 

As the old cemetery was filled a new cemetery of 16 acres was purchased 
in 1898. The grounds are laid out. Trees are planted along the avenues. 
Fine macadam roads have just been built, a lodge and a receiving vault 
erected. 






UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 35 

As St. Peter's had no sacristy and the need of one was long felt, a new- 
sacristy was built in 1891. 

In the rear of the beautiful gothic house which was built by Father Dug- 
gan when he introduced the Sisters of Charity was erected an addition in 
1897, to accommodate the increased number of Sisters who have charge of the 
school. The old school house being inadequate to the requirements of the 
pupils, a new school was built in 1892, at a cost of $50,000, on a large lot in 
the highest part of the city. The lot was presented to the church by the late 
Simon Carter and wife. Adjoining the school is a fine property, delightfully 
shaded, on which is a large building, which is used as an academy. This 
property was acquired by the church a few years ago at the cost of $11,600. 
The school and academy grounds embrace the whole front of the block. 

Many difficult problems confronted the young pastor, who was then but 
thirty-two years of age. He was called upon to assume charge of a parish 
which, though it had grown greatly under the care of his predecessors, also 
had an immense debt. Father O'Grady was full of energy and enthusiasm, 
He infused into his parishioners the same qualities, and they came quickly 
to his support. During the first year there was a favorable turn in the finan- 
cial affairs of the church, and the debt was measurably decreased. He proved 
himself a splendid organizer and manager from the first, and in recent years 
the parish of St. Peter's Church has been one of the most prosperous in the 
diocese of Trenton. The debt has been practically wiped out. The value of the 
church holdings have been greatly enhanced. In recent years, under the direc- 
tion of Monsignor O'Grady, the parish has built a superb parochial school, 
purchased another valuable property adjoining it for St. Agnes' Academy, and 
made extensive improvements to other property of the parish. 

The splendid spiritual progress of the parish during his pastorate has 
been as inspiring as has been its material advancement. He infused from the 
beginning in the spiritual work a life and vigor that is still evident in the 
faithfulness with which St. Peter's endures in good works. 

BORDENTOWN, N. J. — St. Mary's CHURCH, 1842. 

Ancient and interesting, like a relic of better days, stands the city of 
Bordentown. Its old fashioned houses, and quiet streets, its secluded gardens 
and stately park recall to the visitor the days when not only the aristocracy 
of America but the royalty and nobles of France came there. The town 
itself was founded by one Thomas Farnsworth, a Quaker, who fled from Eng- 
land that he might escape the persecution of the English Protestants. In 
early colonial times Bordentown, like Trenton and Burlington, was the halt- 
ing place for stages, and the landing place for river boats, and it was one of 
the half-way houses between Philadelphia and New York. Travellers to 
Philadelphia, after leaving the Aniboy stage, took the boat here for a pleasant 
sail down the Delaware, and those going on to New York took the Amboy 
stage for a forty-five mile ride. Here also was the Southern terminus of the 



36 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



first railroad built in America, the old Camden and Amboy, made famous by 
the puffing and tooting of " John Bull." 

Here, likewise, in 1818, came Joseph Bonaparte, ex-King of Spain, who, 
after purchasing 1,400 acres of woodland and clearing, built for himself the old 
mansion on the hilltop in what is now Bonaparte Park, a part of which is 
owned by the Lazarist Fathers from Germantown, Philadelphia, and is used as 
their summer home. In those days, however, there was no Catholic Church 
in the town. 

Prior to, and even during Joseph Bonaparte's stay at Bordentown, the few 
Catholics of this place and White Hill went to Trenton to Mass on Sundays 
whenever they could do so. The Bonapartes had a pew in old St. Joseph's, 
Philadelphia, and sometimes they had Mass in the Chapel of the old mansion, 
whenever a priest happened to visit them. 

But outside the Bonaparte mansion we find that Mass was said for a 
number of years in the homes of John P. Flynn and Daniel Graham, both 
residents of White Hill (1831). The old church site was purchased by John 
F. Flynn and conveyed to Bishop Kenrick in August, 1845. 




^■■■^■^■i 



..■; v 



ST. MARY S CHURCH, BORDENTOWN, N. J. 

Not, however, till 1837 do we find any record of divine service having 
been held regularly in Bordentown.' In that year Father Magorien, the pastor 
of old St. Johns, Trenton, extended his labors to Bordentown. Bonaparte 
had left America in 1835, but before leaving had presented to the Catholics of 
Bordentown the chalice and vestments used in his private chapel. The chalice 
is now in the possession of St. Mary's, and the document making John Flynn, 
Hubert Klein and Daniel Graham the trustees for its retention still exists, and 
the old-fashioned bureau which served as an altar so often is also preserved 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 37 

by Mr. Flynn. At this time services were held in Mr. Flynn's and continued 
there till the erection of the first chapel in 1845. 

As near as can be definitely ascertained, Father Daniel Magorien gave up 
the charge of St. John's Chapel, Trenton, in 1840, and then went to the 
church at Milton, Pa. At Trenton he was succeeded by Rev. John C. Gilligan, 
who, like his predecessor, came to Bordentown monthly and held services at 
John P. Flynn's, but finding the number of Catholics increasing, Father Gilli- 
gan purchased a lot on the hilltop, at the S. E. corner of Second and Bank 
Streets, and here he began the erection of the first Catholic Church in Borden- 
town, a frame structure. This was finished and used for services in 1842, but 
we have no record of its dedication or its cornerstone laying. Father Gilligan 
continued to attend the church at Bordentown till 1844 when he was trans- 
ferred to Port Carbon (now Carbondale), Pa., and was succeeded by Rev. 
John P. Mackin. 

The church built by him remained standing till about 1903, when a storm 
which passed over Bordentown destroyed its usefulness. Father Gilligan 
also attended the Missions of Lambertville and Mount Holly. 

Father Mackin came to Trenton in troublous times, but he began at once 
to do the work of an active and good priest. Finding the Bordentown Chapel 
too small to accommodate his people, he added a transept, thus giving it the 
figure of a T, a shape it retained whilst it lasted. Father Mackin came twice 
a month for services and did much to sustain and encourage the poor people 
who gathered around him. He usually drove from Trenton and heard con- 
fessions and taught catechism before the Mass. The following record from 
the Baptismal Register shows that even as late as '47 the Bonapantes were 
around, and it also shows how long they waited before having the child bap- 
tized : 
September 5, 1847, I baptized Achilles Charles Louis Napoleon, son of Prince 

Lucien and Josephine Murat, born Jan. 2, 1847. 

Sponsors : Elizabeth Becket and Joachim Napoleon Murat. 
J. P. Mackin, Pastor. 

This baptism took place in the old church on the hilltop. 

Early in 1849 Bishop Kenrick of Philadelphia sent the Rev. J. Ahern to 
help Father Mackin. To Father Ahern was given the Missions of Borden- 
town, Mount Holly and Burlington, but Father Ahern did not tarry long in 
West Jersey, for in the Fall of the same year we find him succeeded by Rev. 
Hugh Lane, who at first came from Philadelphia and later took up his resi- 
dence at Burlington, whence he attended Bordentown twice per month, Mount 
Holly and wheresoever he could find Catholics. Father Lane remained in 
charge of Bordentown till his return to Philadelphia in 1854. But the Bap- 
tismal Register shows that in September, 1852, Revds. John Hespelein and H. 
Fruhens, Redemptorist Fathers from St. Peter's, Philadelphia, visited this 
Mission. This no doubt was owing to sickness or absence of the pastor. 

Father Lane was a zealous and active priest. He built an addition to the 
rear of the church which was used as a school, thus anticipating our public 
school system. His labors extended over all Burlington County down into 



38 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Camden, Atlantic and Cape May. Ever zealous for souls, he spared not him- 
self at the call of duty, and the traditions of the old people are replete with 
stories of his greatness. 

After Father Lane's recall to Philadelphia, Rev. Joseph D. Bowles became 
pastor of Bordentown and Missions, and in this capacity he worked for the 
advancement of religion for three years (1854-1857), when he removed to 
Burlington and resigned the charge of Bordentown to the Rev. Joseph Biggio, 
an Italian priest. Father Biggio remained at Bordentown nine years, 1857- 
1866, during which time he attended Allentown, Hightstown, and Mount 
Holly. He died 1866, and is buried in St. Mary's Cemetery. 

After Father Biggio's death Father Mackin, who had been ailing a long- 
time and had gone to Europe, was sent as second resident pastor of Borden- 
town, June, 1866-69. Father Mackin continued to exercise his priestly labors 
at St. Mary's for three years till he was transferred to Trenton in 1869 and 
again took charge of St. John's. September, '69, we find Rev. E. T. Rowan 
officiating. 

Rev. Patrick Leonard of Hampton Junction took charge in 1869, he 
changed the site and built the present church and rectory of Crosswick Street. 
Just about this time Bordentown was one of the most flourishing towns in the 
State and Father Leonard found an ample field for his activity. Being a 
thorough Irish patriot himself, he imbued his people with a love and reverence 
for Ireland that clings to them yet. 

October, 1876, Rev. Patrick F. Connolly succeeded Father Leonard. He 
built the present school on Elizabeth Street, and remained in charge till Sep- 
tember 6, 1897, when he went to Philipsburg. Father Connolly reorganized 
the old societies, and as the parish continued to increase he received a curate 
to help him. 

Rev. R. E. Burke came from Philipsburg September 6, 1897, to succeed 
Father Connolly and remained till January 1, 1898, when he was transferred to 
Sandy Hook and was succeeded by Rev. D. J. Duggan of Salem January, '98 

Father Duggan soon found plenty of work in his new parish. He pur- 
chased an adjoining field for more cemetery room and improved the old sec- 
tion which had been much neglected. In 1903 he installed a steam heating 
plant in the church and house, and added a piece of ground to the side of the 
church. He put in a $600.00 bell, the gift of Mrs. Mary O'Connor, and put 
down pavements in front of the church. 

St. John's Church, Lambertville, N. J. 

From 1774-1778 Father Farmer, S. J., performed many baptisms in Hun- 
terdon County, N. J., and this means he also held services at the time, but 
what family he stopped with or near what town our researches do not disclose. 
Lambertville being one of the oldest towns in Hunterdon County, and the first 
Catholic Church having been erected here, some have thought that his Mission 
was in that spot. We do know, however, that some of the Catholic settlers 
from Haycock, Pa., crossed the Delaware near this place, and located near 
here, such as the Ruppells and Haycocks. 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 



39 



Father Michael Hurley, O. S. A., and Rev. Matthew Carr, who succeeded 
the Jesuits, took charge of this district, and the former is said to have visited 
it at regular intervals. In 1837 it passed from the Augustinians to the secular 
priests and was attended by the Rev. Father Magorien of old St. John's, 
Trenton. He held services in private houses or halls wherever he could 
till 1840, when he was replaced at Trenton by the Rev. John Charles Gilligan. 




JOHNS CHURCH, LAMBERTVILLE, N. J. 



It was during Father Gilligan's pastorate at Trenton that the first Catholic 
Church was built at Lambertville. This church was dedicated June 8, 1843, 
by the Rev. Dr. Moriority of Philadelphia, who also preached the sermon. At 
this date the congregation numbered about one hundred persons, as indicated 
by Bishop Newman's register. The land upon which the church stood was 
donated to the church by Mr. John B. Coryell, and conveyed to the Rt. Rev. 
Bishop Kenrick in 1844. Mr. Coryell also donated much of the building 
material. 



40 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

The church was called St. John's. In 1844 Father Gilligan was transferred 
to another charge, and the Rev. Father Mackin of Trenton attended the 
Lambertville Mission till 1853, when the Rev. J. P. Hannegan was appointed 
first resident pastor of this church. Father Hannegan enlarged the building 
to accommodate his growing congregation. 

When the Catholics of New Jersey were placed under the care of the 
Rt. Rev. Bishop Bayley of Newark, Father Hannegan returned to his own 
diocese in Philadelphia, and in 1854 Rev. J. L. Jego, a French priest, was 
placed in charge of Lambertville, with Missions at Clinton and Flemington. 
He remained in charge till 1859, when he left for France, and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. James Carney 1859-1860. 

Then came the Rev. John Callan, who remained in charge from i86p- 
1864, when he was transferred to Dover, N. J., and was followed by the Rev. 
Eugene O'Keefe, 1864-1867. The next incumbent of this parish was the Rev. 
Hugh Murphy, from 1867- 1873, and was succeeded by the Rev. Patrick F. 
Connolly, from 1873-1876. Father Connolly was removed to Bordentown in 
1876, and was succeeded by the Rev. M. J. Connelly, from 1876- 1878, and 
then came the Rev. Henry B. Terwoert, who reigned from 1878- 1884. Up 
to this time the old church had answered all needs of pastors and people, but 
Father TerWoert, at once bought a lot on Bridge Street as a site for a future 
new church. He also built the school, sold the old property and improved the 
congregation so much that when, in 1881, the Diocese was again divided and 
he went to Newark, Father John Brady, who succeeded him, found every- 
thing in excellent condition. Father Brady took charge in 1884, and not only 
continued Father TerWoert's strenuous administration, but inaugurated some 
of his own successful methods. 

Father Brady relinquished the charge of Lambertville most reluctantly to 
accept the Rectorship of South Amboy after the death of the Rev. John 
Kelly, V. G., whom he succeeded. Father William J. Fitzgerald of Mount 
Holly now took charge of Lambertville, and as all arrangements had been 
made for the new church, he began and completed the same. 

In 1900 Father Fitzgerald left for Rome and Rev. P. J. Hart was placed 
in charge from January until June. In October, 1900, Rev. William H. Lynch 
was transferred from Salem to this place. The latest statistics of this parish 
show about 2,000 members, with a school of 200 children and 5 Sisters. 
For many years Stockton was a Mission of Lambertville. 

Perth Amboy, New Jersey — St. Mary's Church. 

As near as can now be correctly ascertained, the beginning of Catholicity 
in Perth Amboy dates back to the year 1826. At this date there were but 
few Catholics in and around the Amboys, and these few occasionally found 
their way to New Brunswick, where there was a Church of their faith in 
course of erection, and where services were held in private houses. The 
two pioneer Catholics of this town were Patrick McCormick and Patrick 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 41 

Haney. Sometimes they went for Divine Service to old St. Peter's, Barclay 
Street, New York. 

Some years later came Bernard McAnerny, Matthew Smith, Daniel Mc- 
Donald, Thomas Flaherty, and James Smith. These, with their families, 
formed the little congregation that greeted Rev. Bernard McArdle in 1833 
when he came from New Brunswick at intervals to hold services for them. 
These services were held in a house which stood on the corner of Centre and 
Mechanic Streets, then occupied by James Smith. But, owing to the number 
of places under his charge, Father McArdle could come to Perth Amboy only 
occasionally, yet whenever he visited South Amboy the Catholics from Perth 
Amboy went over in oyster boats to attend services. 

From 1833-1839 Father McArdle was in charge of this Mission, and he 
was followed by the Rev. Father Madrana, 1839-1847, then parish priest in 
charge of the old Quarantine Station at Staten Island. Father Madrana 
came monthly, arriving on Saturdays, and leaving on Mondays, sometimes 
stopping at Matthew Smith's and later at Mr. Gerard's home. Looking for- 
ward to future necessities, Father Madrana purchased a lot No. 59 on Centre 
Street, from the Perth Amboy Manufacturing Co. through William Furman 
and wife ; also lot No. 60 from Nicholas LaFarge, each costing $50.00, and 
these were transferred to Bishop Hughes. 

Finding his people increasing in numbers, and full of enthusiasm for a 
church of their own, Father Madrana began to collect for the erection of a 
church, the corner stone of which was laid on August 18, 1844, by Bishop 
Hughes of New York. In the following year, 1845, the new structure was 
opened, under the name of St. Mary's Church. 

Father Madrana remained in charge of Perth Amboy till 1847, when, on 
account of ill-health he returned to Spain. This Mission was then trans- 
ferred from the parish of Staten Island to the Church of New Brunswick, and 
Father Rogers came monthly till 1849, in which year Rev. Stephen Sheridan 
was appointed, by Bishop Hughes, first resident pastor of Perth Amboy. 
Father Sheridan boarded for a time at the house of James Tuite on Fayette 
Street, and later rented part of the house, where he lived with his mother 
and sister. But Father Sheridan being of a delicate constitution, the climate 
did not suit him, and in 1857 he resigned St. Mary's and went to Florida, 
where he remained for many years. 

The second resident pastor of Perth Amboy was Rev. Patrick McCarthy, 
who also took up his residence at Mr. James Tuite's. Father McCarthy 
served this parish from 1851-1853, and also attended Rahway. It was Father 
McCarthy who opened the first Catholic school in Perth Amboy, and for want 
of better accommodations held its sessions in the sacristy and gallery of the 
church. 

In 1853 Father McCarthy gave up the Perth Amboy Church and returned 
to New York, and the Rev. Thomas Quinn of Paterson was appointed to 
replace him, October 9, 1853. He a ls° continued to live at Tuite's on Fayette 
Street for many months, and went each Sunday to Rahway. Father Quinn 
opened the Woodbridge Mission, and as the Church at Rahway seemed now 



42 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



promising, September, 1854, Father Quinn made that town his headquarters, 
coming to Perth Amboy three times in the month, and to Woodbridge once a 
month. It was also under Father Quinn that the cemetery was opened on 
the Woodbridge Road, the four acres costing $1,200.00. He also had erected 
a frame building, 25 x 25 feet, to be used as a school, at a cost of $400.00. The 
school started by Father McCarthy was continued by Martin Gorman on 




ST. MARY'S CHURCH, PERTH AMBOY, N. J. 

Centre Street, and also by Mr. Harley on Smith Street as private schools, 
and gradually became church schools. 

Father Quinn came from Railway every Sunday, when possible. Some- 
times he drove down in a carriage, at other times he came by rail, on a hand- 
car pushed by some of his sturdy parishioners. He ceased coming in the Fall 
of 1863, when the parish was transferred to the care of Rev. John Cornell, 
who was a convert to the Church. Father Cornell put a small bell on the 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 



43 



Church, and inaugurated the practice of ringing the Angelus in this town. He 
also attended the Church at Woodbridge. In 1864 the church was incorpo- 
rated, having for its first trustees Rt. Rev. James R. Bayley, Rev. Patrick 
Moran, V. G., Rev. John Cornell, John McCloskey and Hugh Timmins. In 
the following Spring, 1865, Father Cornell resigned to Father Quinn, who was 
still in charge of Rahway. St. Mary's continued as a Mission of Rahway 
parish till 1871, when Bishop Bayley sent the Rev. Peter L. Connolly to Perth 
Amboy and Woodbridge. 

When Father Connolly came the little brick church built by Father 
Madrana in 1843 was still standing, and in the adjoining lot were buried many 
of the old Catholic settlers, but, owing to new arrivals, the building was too 
small, so it was determined to build a large structure. This Father Connolly 
did by building an entirely new church outside the old one, so that services 
were never discontinued, and when the new building was ready, the old 
chapel was taken by pieces, and taken out. This structure served the purpose 
of a church for many years, and by the addition of galleries was made to 
accommodate the parish till 1905, when the present beautiful Gothic Church 
was erected and opened for services. 

Father Connolly also erected the present school building and introduced 
the Sisters of Mercy, to replace the lay teachers, and established them in the 
old Spark's house, corner Centre Street. 

On September 3, 1898, Rev. Father Connolly was transferred by Bishop 
McFaul to St. Mary's, Gloucester, in succession to Rev. Thomas McCormick, 
deceased. The Rev. Bernard T. O'Connell of Bound Brook was appointed to 
St. Marys, Perth Amboy. 

Father O'Connell's first work was to purchase a lot on Centre Street, 
opposite the school' and erect the present beautiful rectory, at a cost of $14,- 
000.00. He next moved the Convent, to the opposite corner, after taking 
down the old brick house. Then he obtained a site for the new church which 
he began in 1903 and completed. The new church measures 63 x 137 feet, and 
cost about $77,000.00, This was, indeed, a great undertaking, but Father 
O'Connell was equal to the task, and to-day the Catholics of Perth Amboy 
can boast of one of the finest properties in the Diocese. 

Princeton, N. J. — St. Paul's Church, 1850. 

The first record we have of Catholicity in and around Princeton dates 
back to the year 1798 wheri Father La Grange, a French priest from St. 
Augustine's Church, Philadelphia, after ministering to the Catholics at 
Trenton, came on to Princeton where a small colony of exiles from France 
had settled to escape the terrors of the " Revolution." They had purchased 
large tracts of land around Cedar Grove and Cherry Valley. Prominent 
among these was Peter A. Malou, who afterwards returned to France and 
became a Jesuit priest. Still later he came back to America and was stationed 
at old. St. Peter's Church, New York, where he died. There is also a tomb- 
stone in the old Presbyterian Cemetery of this place which tells of a Rev. 



44 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Anthony Schmidt who died in 1807 and is buried in the old Tulane family 
plot. But of him little is known, except a tradition that he was a Catholic 
priest. 

Father La Grange visited Princeton again in 1799, but as Catholic ser- 
vices were often held in Trenton about this time, the conjecture is that these 
French refugees went thither for worship. 

The next notice brings us to the year 1843 when the Rev. Father Hugh 
McGuire reported to Bishop Hughes, his superior, that there were about sixty 



W* 



,W 




ST. PAUL S CHURCH, PRINCETON, N. J. 

Catholics around Princeton. Father McGuire was then pastor of the church 
at New Brunswick, and no doubt found his way here at times for service. 
Yet not till 1845, however, did the Catholics of this district have anything 
like regular services. In that year Father John Rogers, who had succeeded 
Father McGuire at New Brunswick, began to come monthly. Gathering his 
people in the farm-house of Governor Charles Olden, then occupied by James 
Boyle, he said Mass and administered the Sacraments to them. And the Sunday 
on which he came Catholics nocked in from Kingston, Cedar Grove, Rocky 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 45 

Hill, Cherry Valley and Mount Rose, and even as far away as Hopewell and 
Jamesburg. And as most of the Catholics were emigrants from France and 
Ireland, they were sometimes ill-treated and abused by some whose parents 
had, only one generation before, been of the same class. It was Father 
Rogers' custom to say an early Mass at New Brunswick and then drive over 
in time to say a Mass here at 11 o'clock. At other times he would drive over 
on Saturday afternoon so as to give his people a chance to go to Holy Com- 
munion. This drive of twenty miles was a severe hardship, in heat and cold, 
but the faithful priest seldom disappointed his expectant flock. These were 
times when religious bigotry ran high and race prejudice was rampant. It 
was also a time of great spiritual awakening; the Hughes and Breckenridge 
controversy had subsided, the Tractarian Movement was disturbing Oxford, 
O'Connell was fighting for Catholic emancipation, and the young American 
Catholic Church was receiving such converts as Brownson, Bayley, Hecker, 
Hewitt, Baker and Ives. 

In 1850 Bishop Hughes sent Rev. John Scollard to Princeton, as pastor 
and Missionary, and this zealous man of God began his labors here without a 
church or house, but with a band of sterling, brave Catholic hearts ; the ear- 
liest in point of time being James Kane, Charles McCarthy, Patrick Mclntyre, 
James Boyle, Edward Donnelly, Cornelius O'Brien, John Foley, Thomas 
Golden, Michael O'Brien, Dennis Sullivan, John Degnan and Thomas Hutton, 
and many other pioneers who came later than these, but who did great work 
for God. It was in the old Boyle House that Rev. Alfred Young, the cele- 
brated Paulist, attended the first Catholic service as a Protestant onlooker. 
When the Boyle house became too small to accommodate the growing crowd, 
Cook's Hall on Nassau Street was rented, and here services were continued 
till the new church was erected. A piece of land was secured on the old 
Campbell tract and a new stone church was erected thereon, also a neat little 
rectory. Father Scollard scoured the country for help in his undertaking, 
and spared no pains till both were completed.. The first Catholic Church 
stood on lot No. 182 Nassau Street, now occupied by William Leigh's resi- 
dence, and the rectory was built a short distance back of it, and is the same 
house now occupied by Mr. Leigh, with alterations. Father Scollard also 
opened a Catholic school and held its sessions in the basement of the church. 
He also attended the Freehold Mission. 

From Princeton Father Scollard went West, and Father Young, a gradu- 
ate of Princeton, was appointed to succeed him in July, 1857. Father Young 
did much for the advancement of the Church in this town, and possessed the 
esteem and good will of all, but his zeal was also the cause of misfortune to 
him, for on the occasion of a great mission given by Fathers Baker, Hecker 
and Deshon, his church collapsed owing to the great crowd in attendance. 
This compelled him to hold services in Mercer Hall, and in order to get more 
room for future improvements, he sold the old property and purchased the 
present spacious site, consisting of twelve acres with house thereon. So the 
misfortune proved a blessing in disguise. Father Young remained in charge 
of St. Paul's from July, 1857, till January, 1861, when he prepared to enter 



46 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

the Paulist Community, but before entering he took charge of St. John's, 
Trenton, till the Bishop could send a priest to that parish. 

Father Young was succeeded by Rev. John J. O'Donnell, who had tem- 
porary charge of St. John's, Trenton, during the absence of the pastor. 
Father O'Donnell remained in charge of Princeton parish from 1861-1867, and 
saw hard times during the Civil War, so many of his people having left for 
the scene of battle. He was replaced in 1867 by the Rev. Thomas R. Moran, 
but before leaving had planned and actually begun the present church building, 
actually begun the present church building. 

After the disposal of the old property Father Young had gone to live 
down at Queenstown, and later moved into the large frame dwelling house 
which stood near the present rectory. To this Father Young had attached a 
frame church structure which served the congregation till Father Moran had 
completed the present church building. Father Young also opened the present 
cemetery, and Father O'Donnell laid out the grounds and planned the ever- 
greens. 

Father Moran took up the work with the energy of a young man, and 
soon had the church under cover and dedicated. The corner stone was laid 
September 8, 1869, by the Rev. Dr. Seton, and the Rev. George H. Doane 
preached for the occasion. The people contributed generously towards the 
building, and prominent among these givers were : Paul Toulane, $500.00 ; 
Miss Hunt, $185.00; Dennis Sullivan, $100.00; Patrick Mclntyre, $100.00; 
Mrs. Arnheiter, $50.00; Miss Thompson, $50.00; James Keane, $50.00. 

After the completion and dedication of the church Father Moran built the 
present rectory (1847). The old church was converted into class rooms and 
the old rectory became a convent for the Sisters. 

In 1879 he brought the Sisters of Mercy from Manchester, N. H., 
to replace the lay teachers. The following year, 1880, he erected the pre- 
sent school building, which was opened as a boarding academy and home for 
the Sisters. In 1890 the Moore Street corner house was purchased with the 
idea of starting a hospital or home, which plan never materialized. In 1892 
Father Moran was made a Monsignor, and in March 31, 1900, he died, after 
spending nearly thirty-three years of continued service in this parish. The 
present parish buildings are his monument- 

After Monsignor Moran's death the Rev. Robert E. Burke was sent as 
pastor. He made some needed improvements and did much to beautify the 
place. He remained four years and was succeeded May 9, 1904, by Rev. 
Walter T. Leahy of Swedesboro, the present pastor. Father Leahy remod- 
elled the old Lyceum for a Convent, and made necessary alterations in the old 
academy for a school. The church is now being renovated and decorated. 

South Amboy, N. J. — St. Mary's Church. 

It was about 1830 that the first Catholics seem to have settled in and 
around South Amboy. They were men who had been employed in the oyster 
beds of that section, and the nearest Catholic Church at this time was at New 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 47 

Brunswick, whither they went when seeking religious consolation until, in 
1833, their number warranted the Rev. Father McArdle, then in charge of 
New Brunswick and the surrounding Missions, occasionally to visit them and 
hold services at the home of old Mrs. Fitzgerald. 

This arrangement continued till 1839 when Father McArdle went to Belle- 
ville, N. J., and Rev. Francis Donahoue came from Newark at different 
intervals till 1842. In that year Father Hugh McGuire became resident pas- 
tor of New Brunswick and he attended South Amboy till in 1845 the Rev. 
John Rogers succeeded. About 1847 the number of Catholics increasing in 
this section, Father Rogers arranged for monthly services. The congregation 
continued to grow larger, men and women of strong faith became the pioneers 
of this district, and they needed all their strength and all their faith, for they 
dwelt in that district in which, in those days, lived some of the greatest black- 
guards and bigoted Protestants that our country has produced, for, many a 
time, the inoffensive priest visiting his little flock was set upon and abused. 
Almost daily were these stalwart men and women compelled to use tongue 
and fist in defence of their faith and their priests. 

Finally, in 185 1, after much planning to build a church by the Catholics, 
and much counter-planning to destroy it by some of the wild self-styled 
natives, Father Rogers bought a lot on Main Street from Malachi Good on 
December 5, 185 1, but it had to be gotten in a secret way. It was Eliza Fitz- 
patrick who took title October, 1850, and then transferred it to Malachi Good, 
who, in December, 185 1, transferred the same to Rt. Rev. John Hughes of 
New York. Upon part of this lot Father Rogers caused to be erected in the 
following year, 1852, a small frame building, 18 x 30 feet, which was used for 
services during several years. When the little chapel was completed Bishop 
Hughes sent the Rev. Michael A. Madden, curate at St. Peter's Church, 
Barclay Street, New York, to South Amboy with the whole southern coast as 
his Mission field. Father Madden was a very saintly and mild-mannered 
man, entirely too gentle for the bigoted, rough oyster dredgers who hated 
everything Catholic, and always reserved a special kind of hatred for every 
Catholic priest. Father Madden moved the church from the cemetery to 
Stephan's Avenue, where he built to it an addition of 30 x 30 feet. He also 
attended the few Catholics scattered along the coast as far south as Point 
Pleasant, but in 1853 Father Madden was transferred by his Bishop to the 
more important and pleasant parish of Madison, N. J., and was succeeded by 
Rev. John Callan, who took up his residence at Middletown Point, now Mat- 
tawan. One of Father Callan's first works was the establishment of a Catholic 
school for the children of his parish. This school was opened in 1852, in the 
sacristy of the church, with about forty pupils in attendance, and was placed 
in charge of a certain Miss Kernan, who had her own troubles with the 
" sprouting youths " of those days, and it is related how, on one occasion, when 
the boys wanted a holiday, they stuffed the stove-pipe with paper whilst making 
the fire, and caused such a commotion that the good lady jumped out the 
window and could not be induced to return. The boys got their holiday, but 
they also got something else from the pastor. 



48 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Just about this time the oyster industry began to flourish, especially near 
the Creek, where the Brittons and Simmons were the most prosperous fam- 
ilies. One day while Father Callan was out driving, a crowd of the Creek 
loafers pelted him with oyster shells, and one shell struck the priest in the 
eye. Some time afterwards the man who did this was handling hay in his 
own barn, when, by an accident, a prong of the fork entered his eye, and he 
was ever afterwards blind in that eye. 

Father Gallan remained in charge of the South Amboy Church till Octo- 
ber, 1854, when he was transferred to Paterson, and Rev. John A. Kelly was 
sent to succeed him. 

Father Kelly, finding the little church too small, made an addition of 30 x 
30 feet, and purchased a large piece of ground running back to Church Street, 
in September, 1864. Father Kelly was also very solicitous about the school, 
and during his time Michael Moran and Thomas Kirby, the latter of whom 
was the terror of the rising generation, for he ruled his youthful prodigies not 
by love but by fear. And when, later, the Sisters of Mercy took charge of the 
school, Prof. Kirby received the Keyport school. In 1869 there were three 
lay teachers, and continued so till 1885. 

On October 25, 1873, the corner stone of the present church was laid by 
Bishop Corrigan and Rev. Edward McGlinn preached. The church was 
opened and dedicated by Bishop Corrigan September 17, 1876, with Father 
Kelly as Celebrant, Father Keegan of Brooklyn as Deacon, and Father Bren- 
nan also of Brooklyn as Sub-Deacon, Father Killeen as Master of Ceremonies, 
and the present pastor of North Plainfield, Father Miller as one of the altar 
boys. 

The new church was 135 x 64 feet. 

Father Kelly transferred the school children in 1874 to the basement of 
the old church, now fitted up for a school, with two teachers. In 1890 the 
present rectory was built by Father Kelly ; in '99 he also moved the old rectory 
to the opposite corner and used it as a Sisters' House when the Sisters of 
Mercy came to take charge of the school in 1885. The cost of the new church 
was about $80,000.00. 

Father Kelly died on February 27, 1891. 

On May 30, 1891, Rev. John T. Brady of Lambertville took charge. He 
remodeled the old school building, and a dwelling was used as a primary 
school. ' 

May 8, 1892, the corner stone of a new school was laid by Bishop O'Far- 
rell. The school was dedicated June, 1903. The cost of the school was about 
$60,000.00. In 1895 the church was improved and remodeled. 

Raritan, N. J. — St. Bernard's Church. 

The first account we have of this church is in 1843 when the Rev. Hugh 
McGuire, of New Brunswick visited the Catholics of this locality and estab- 
lished a Mis'sion station here. Hither he came occasionally whenever he 
could do so, but the Mission was then called Somerville, a name it retained 
till 1854, as the town now called Raritan did not exist. 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 



49 



Following Father McGuire came Father Rodgers of New Brunswick 
(1846-1848). 

From 1848-1850 the Mission was placed in charge of Rev. Isaac Howell 
of St. Mary's Church, Elizabeth, N. J., but when in 1850 Bishop Hughes of 
New York sent the Rev. James McDonough as pastor of Plainfield, Somerville 
was one of his Missions. Father McDonough attended it till 1853. In 1854 
the church was burned, and the report was spread that it had been done 
through bigotr,y against Catholics. 

!S55-56 Rev. Father Fisher was in charge, and from 1856-68 Rev. 
Terence Kiernan continued his visits from Plainfield. 

In 1868 Rev. Maurelius Koeder, O. S. B., was placed in charge, and be- 
came first resident pastor, remaining till 1873. Rev. John J. Schandel, after- 
wards of Stony Hill, came and stayed one month, when he was succeeded by 
Rev. Father Marshall, O. S. A., 1873-1876. Rev. Joseph T. Zimmer was the 
next pastor. He took charge in 1876 and is there yet, 1906. For a long time 
Father Zimmer and his predecessors attended the Mission of Bound Brook, 
Somerville and Millstone. 

Father Zimmer purchased a new cemetery in 1876, built a new rectory 
in 1881, a parochial school and hall in 1887. The school is in charge of the 
Sisters of Mercy. 

Port Elizabeth. — St. Elizabeth's Church. 

We must not confound Port Elizabeth with Elizabeth Port, for they are 
two distinct places far distant from each other — the former located in Cum- 
berland County, eighty-five miles south of Trenton, the latter located in 
Union Countv, fortv-two miles north of Trenton. And whilst the former is a 




fc$rf*^^-:^s*5^=zL 



ST. ELIZABETH S CHURCH, PORT ELIZABETH. 

city of 25,000 inhabitants the latter is only a small village of 488 souls (1905). 
Yet there was a time when this now almost abandoned village was one of the 
thriving towns of South Jersey — the centre of the glass industry and its peo- 
ple had great hopes that it might become one of New Jersey's great cities. 



50 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

This was as early as 1801, when James and Thomas Lee opened one of the 
first window-light factories in the East. At this time Port Elizabeth was also 
a Port of Entry and did considerable shipping with other ports. 

Later in 1812 and 1816 came a little German colony brought over to work 
in the glass factory. Among these were the families of John, Joseph and 
Christopher Getsinger and John Stadler, John and Joseph Welsers — all re- 
lated by marriage — the Getsingers and Stadlers came from Prussia, the Wel- 
sers from Bavaria. In time the Getsingers and Welsers rented the glass- 
works, and finally purchased and improved them and continued to operate 
them for about thirty years. Added to these were a few other Catholics, 
James and John Ward, J. Dougherty and the Kofer family. The Wards lived 
at Leesburg, t a few miles distant. 

The priest who attended this Mission usually came from Holy Trinity 
(German) Church, Philadelphia, and at first came only occasionally. Mass 
was said in private houses for many years. 

Father Guth of Holy Trinity Church attended this place in 1834, as the 
Baptismal Register shows. 

About 1842 a house was secured by Mr. Marshall, and this was fitted up 
for church services. 

This building was blessed and opened for services by Rev. Francis Gart- 
land, pastor of St. John's, Philadelphia, in 1845, whilst he was Vicar-General. 
Father Gartland became first Bishop of Savannah, Ga. 

After this, priests came from Philadelphia monthly for services — Father 
O'Hara, afterward Bishop of Scranton, Pa. ; Father Cannon from Gloucester, 
1853; Father Glazier, 1855, from Holy Trinity, Philadelphia; Father Wal- 
dron, 1848, also Fathers Finnegan and Hannegan of Gloucester, until it be- 
came attached to the Salem Church as a Mission under Father McDermott in 
1852; occasional visits were made by German priests of Philadelphia. As 
most of the families were endowed with musical talents, this little church had 
one of the best choirs in the State. But, unfortunately, this condition of 
things came to an end, for, in 1857, after many vicissitudes the last window- 
light glass was blown, and the works having changed hands they were closed 
till '78, and then re-opened as bottle works. The old Catholic families went 
to more progressive towns for work, and the children having married in 
Protestant families around Millville and Bridgeton, many of them lost their 
Catholic faith. The church was closed in i860, and was never re-opened for 
services. When, in 1864, Father Gessner visited the place he found only one 
Catholic there, an old colored woman, Mary Corse, who was the custodian of 
the property. He removed the altar-stone and vestments, leaving the key in 
her charge. " Black Mary," as she was called, continued as sexton till in 
1879 his successor at Millville, Father Dwyer, finding need of a church at 
Dennisville, had the old building placed on a raft and moved down the creek 
to the village, where it now serves the Catholics of that place. When " Black 
Mary" found the church gone she moved to Millville, where she died a few 
years ago. To-day naught remains but the old cemetery, where rests the 
remains of many of the old Catholic settlers, with not a stone to mark their 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 51 

graves. The railroad curves through one comer of the lot, which now looks 
neglected and abandoned. Perhaps God in His own time may restore the 
sanctuary in this place. For many years this district was more or less aban- 
doned, the Catholics having gone to other places, but of late Port Elizabeth 
is improving. Some of the descendents of these old German families are now 
teaching, as Sisters, in our parish schools. 

Stony Hill, N. J. — St. Mary's. 

Stony Hill, as its name implies, is one of the wild and rugged spots of 
Somerset County, called the Second Valley. Here as early as 1847 settled a 
few German families, and they being earnest, practical Catholics soon found a 
way to have Catholic services in their midst. At first they held meetings in 
private houses on Sundays where one or the other read the Mass prayers, or 
recited the Rosary, and together they all sang the old hymns of their child- 
hood in the far away Tyrol. But when in time the number of families in- 
creased, they sent messengers to Bishop Hughes in New York, to ask for the 







ST. MARYS, STONY HILL. 

occasional visits of a priest. Bishop Hughes at once commissioned Father 
Raffeiner of Brooklyn to visit the place and do what he thought best. Father 
Raffeiner visited Stony PI ill in August, 1847, and the good people at once 
proposed to build a little Chapel. Without further discussion, Mr. Geimer 
donated an acre of land for the site, the Wahl brothers promised the stone 
and timbers, and the others contributed what they could. Finally a little 
chapel, 24 x 40 feet, was erected and dedicated. 



52 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

On October 18, 1847, we find Rev. Father Tappert holding services, and on 
November 27, of that same year, we find the Rev. John Hespelein, C. S. S. R., 
there. In the following- year, January 17, 1848, Bishop Hughes invited the 
Benedictine Fathers from St. Mary's Church, Newark, to take charge of the 
Hill Chapel, and on January 17, 1848, we find the Rev. Louis Fuik, afterwards 
Bishop of Leavenworth, Kansas, attending. The following year, 1849, the 
Redemptorists again took charge under Rev. Robert Kleineider, January i8 r 
1849, also Rev. Father Lithy, May 27, 1849, and April 21, 1850, Rev. Schaefler. 

In 1851 we find the Benedictine Fathers again in attendance in the per- 
son of Rev. Columban, May 2, 1851, but on March 31, 1852, Joseph Kraemer 
appears in the Register, also on October 31, 1853, Rev. Maums. 

Then came Rev. Peter Hartlaub as the first resident pastor who, out of 
his private fortune, bought a little place for his own use. He remained from 
October, 1853, till some time in 1857, when he was succeeded by Rev. John 
Koenig, who stayed till July, 1858, when the parish again passed to the Bene- 
dictine Fathers. So lonesome and desolate was the place, and so poor and 
scattered the people that it was difficult to get a priest to live there. At this 
time Stony Hill parish covered an area of about six square miles, and out of 
this territory has been carved the parishes of Plainfield, North Plainfield,. 
Basking Ridge, Stirling, Westfield, and Summit, as people came from all 
these places to hear Mass at the Chapel which, about 1858, was so overcrowded 
that an addition of 14x24 was added under the Rev. Bernardine Dolweck, 
O. S. B. Following Father Bernard came Rev. Rupert Seidenbusch, O. S. B., 
afterwards Bishop of St. Cloud, Minnesota. Rev. Leander Schnerr, O. S. B., 
the present Arch Abbott of St. Vincents, Pa. (1905), Rev. Casimir Deitz, 
i860, Beda Hippelius, i860, Ignatius Trueg, 1861, Otto Kopf, 1862, Utto Huber, 
1862, Benno Wegele, 1862, Oswald Moosemiller, 1863, Chilion Bernetzer, 1864, 
Gregory, 1864, Bernardine Dolweck, 1865, William Walter and Wendeline 
Meyer, all Benedictine Fathers from St. Mary's, Newark, and under these 
strict but gentle pastors, the parish grew and became the bulwark of Catho- 
licity for this section. 

Up to this time the church was ruled by the old trustee system, but in 
1875 St. Mary's was incorporated under Rev. A. Bergman, who succeeded 
Father Wendelin in 1874. The first lay trustees under the new system were 
S. P. Deppich and G. Stillger. But when Father Bergman left in 1876, Eber- 
hart Vannino, O. S. B., was sent, and under him the new church was begun, 
ancj on May 10, 1877, the Right Rev. Bishop Corrigan laid the corner stone of 
the present brick church, assisted by Father Eberhart and Fathers Wiseman 
of Cranford and Father Morris of Plainfield. Again this parish passed into 
the hands of the secular clergy and was attended by Father Wiseman of Cran- 
ford for a while in 1877, and by Father Vassollo of Summit December 25, 
1877, who held the Hill as a Mission of Summit till June 20, 1878, when the 
Rev. John J. Schandel came and remained in charge twent}^-seven years. 

Probably no other parish in the diocese has had so many different priests 
in attendance, and several of them afterwards so distinguished, but the people 
were tired of such constant changes, and were glad to get a pastor who would 
stay with them. And this Father Schandel did, for night and day for twenty- 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 



53 






seven years he was with them, rejoicing with them in joy, sympathizing with 
their sorrows, a veritable martyr to duty. His first residence was on the back 
road about one mile from the church, later he moved closer to his work. On 
the first floor of the rectory he had his office, bed-room and kitchen, and on 
the second floor he had his woodshed. Here he stored the wood he gathered 
himself in the woods. He did his own housework, cooked and baked, swept 
and cleaned, all for his own people, and as a result now he is a man of 75, 
crippled with rheumatism, living out his time in private life in North Plain- 
field. Like Damien, he sacrificed himself for his people. In years gone by a 
number of French families settled in this section, but, like in other places, by 
mixed marriages and other inducements they gave up their faith, and either 
became infidels or allied themselves with the more fashionable churches. 

A peculiarity of Stony Hill is that the church and cemetery are in the 
Diocese of Trenton, whilst the priest and most of the people live in the 
Newark Diocese. 

On October 1st, 1904, Rev. Father Schandel resigned the charge of St. 
Mary's and was succeeded by the Rev. Linus A. Schwartze, the present 
young and zealous pastor, whose whole heart seems to be in the spiritual, and 
temporal welfare. 

The following are the pioneer families of the parish : The families of 
Wakes, Joseph Miller, Woonisers, Geimer, Vilbigs, Herrold, Matz, Jane, 
Benuger, Schaefer, Ochsner, Borwind, Zeller, Kerch, Platz, Stuimp, Hilbert, 
Scheller, Murphy, McDonald, McGrath, Lynch, Gogaity, McDonough, and too 
much credit cannot be given these hardy pioneers for their labors in keeping 
and spreading the Faith on the Hill. 

Gloucester, N. J. — St. Mary's Church. 

The corner stone of the first Catholic Church in Gloucester was blessed 
on Sunday, September 24, 1848, by Bishop Kenrick. 

Previous to the year 1848, Catholics of this vicinity attended Mass at 
Philadelphia and were considered members of the Cathedral parish in that 
city. 

The idea of making Gloucester a separate parish took definite shape in 
1848, when a petition was presented to Bishop Kenrick, who ruled the diocese 
at that time, and as a result the Rev. E. Q. S. Waldron was appointed. Mass 
was first said in a private house, but the accommodations soon proved too 
small for the growing congregation. The superintendent of the school-hall, 
though a non-Catholic, gave the use of the hall to Father Waldron, who , for 
a time, said Mass there every Sunday. Bigotry and ignorance soon deprived 
the little flock of this privilege. One Sunday morning the hall was rendered 
loathsome and unfit for services by a society of bigots who held a meeting 
there the Saturday evening previous, and who, to show their contempt for all 
things Catholic, scattered around the hall filth and dirt of every description. 
The school hall was abandoned. 




ST. MARY S CHURCH, GLOUCESTER, N. J. 






UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 55 

In 1848, a generous and large hearted Protestant gentleman named Mr. 
Robb, donated the ground for a Church. Pastor and people immediately made 
every effort to erect a suitable edifice, their exertions meeting with great oppo- 
sition. The first and second corner stones were stolen, but a third, laid by 
Father Matthew, the great apostle of temperance, was buried ten feet under 
the earth. The church was built of limestone, on the site of the present 
parochial school, and had a seating capacity for 400. 

Catholics labored earnestly indeed for the honor of God in these early 
years of Gloucester's history. Tradition tells us that non-Catholics were 
surprised and wondered at the stupendous work assumed by Catholics. 
Father Waldron ministered to the Catholics of Gloucester until May, 1849, 
when he was succeeded by the Rev. Jeremiah Donoughue, who continued his 
ministrations until September, 1850. Father H. B. Finnegan, attended the 
parish from September, 1850, to November, 185 1, when the Rev. J. N. Han- 
nigan was appointed resident pastor. He remained until 1858. He died in 
the West, but his remains lie in St. Mary's Cemetery. Father Hannigan was 
succeeded by Father James Daly. During Father Daly's administration a 
brick school was erected and two classes formed, with Mrs. Annie Whitting- 
ton as teacher. 

In 1869, R- ev - W. J. Wiseman, D.D., was appointed pastor and remained 
until 1873. Dr. Wiseman had a new school built, and the old brick building 
was occupied by the Sisters of St. Dominic, who were introduced into the 
parish. The building whereon this building stood was low and mashy. The 
brick building proved an unwholesome habitation. Three sisters died in it 
from fever caused by the dampness of the structure. In 1873 R- ev - Egbert 
Kars was appointed pastor. With characteristic generosity he gave up the 
rectory to the Sisters and went to live in the old brick building, which served 
as his parochial residence up to his death, in the Spring of 1886. He was a 
good and pious priest, and his memory rests over Gloucester as a benediction. 
In the prime of manhood he was called to his reward. The Rev. Thomas J. 
McCormack was appointed his successor. There was great work to be done 
in the parish as the number of Catholics increased with the growth of the 
town. The happy and laborious task of putting Catholicity on a broader field 
fell to the lot of Father McCormack, who proved himself equal to the work, 
as the results of his labors and zeal amply testify. In the autumn of 1886, he 
secured twelve lots bounded by Somerset, Atlantic and Monmouth Streets. 
The last mentioned is the principal residential street of Gloucester. The pre- 
sent substantial parochial residence was built at the cost of $14,000. In the 
beginning of March, 1888, Father McCormack moved into the new rectory. 
The lots and rectory were paid for, a few odd debts were wiped out, and 
immediately, March 24th, 1888, ground was broken for the new church. On 
July 15 Bishop O'Farrell, of happy memory, laid the corner stone. The church 
was brought to completion without delay and dedicated November 24, 1889. 
The cost of the structure was $65,000. In the Spring of 1893, the last dollar 
of debt on St. Mary's property was paid. 



Maryknol! Library 



56 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

1894, broken down in health by years of arduous labor, Father McCor- 
mack died, leaving behind a church, a rectory, and a school, any of which 
might well be considered a monument to his tireless energy and indomitable 
will. Father McCormack was succeeded by the Rev. P. L. Connelly of Perth 
Amboy, who remained in charge till his death, when the Rev. C. J. Geise took 
up the work laid down by Father McCormack. Societies were again re-estab- 
lished and everything put in working order. Father Geise renovated the 
house, paid off the debt, brought back life and energy, all of which required 
much faithful and patient work. 

St. Mary's Church is one of the most beautiful in New Jersey. It is 
built of hard sand-stone of a bluish-gray color. The stone trimmings are 
tool-dressed, and the front has a fine stone gable Cross. The style of archi- 
tecture is the early decorated Gothic, with French feeling in the treatment of 
all the details. The church is 140 feet in length by 70 feet in width, and 
adding to the beauty of the magnificent structure is a tower and spire, together 
160 feet in height. Sweet-toned chimes in the tower, the gift of the Hon. 
William J. Thompson, announce the hours of services. 

Salem, N. J. — St. Mary's Church. 

Although the first Catholic Mission in New Jersey was in Salem County, 
yet we do not know how many, if any, of the descendants of these early set- 
tlers kept the faith. Neither have we any evidence that this Mission was con- 
tinued after the close of the Revolution. The war and its many consequences 
had scattered these sturdy pioneers, and the few who remained either through 
mixed marriages or carelessness lost their faith, so that we can hardly con- 
sider the present church of Salem, the natural successor of Father Schneider's 
and Father Farmer's Missions. The present parish of Woodstown and Bridge- 
ton could put forth the same claim. The fact is that the Missions passed 
from the early Jesuit missionaries in 1798 to the Hermits of St. Augustine. 
The Salem County Mission was abandoned until 1847, when another colony of 
Irish Catholics settled in and near the present city of Salem, N. J. Then it 
was that the Rev. William O'Hara, D.D., for many years pastor of St. Pat- 
rick's Church, Philadelphia, and later on Bishop of Scranton, was the first 
priest to celebrate Mass in Salem. He had the first services early on the 
morning of St. Patrick's Day, March 17, 1847, in the house of Matthew Mc- 
Bride, corner of Broad and Second Streets. With ardent gladness and 
sincere thanksgiving to God, did the few Catholics in and around Salem assist 
at the divine Sacrifice, offered up at the unpretentious altar erected in the 
home of Mr. McBride. 

The Rev. Dr. O'Hara made visits to Salem at regular intervals, and held 
services alternately at the home of Matthew McBride and Patrick McDonald 
on West Broad Street. The little band of worshippers gradually increased, 
and it soon became necessary to procure more spacious accommodations for 
holding divine services. Samuel Ward, a Protestant gentleman, kindly 
donated the use of the hall over his blacksmith shop, on the corner of Ward 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 



57 



Street, where services were held until the church was erected. In May, 1848, 
the Rev. E. Q. S. Waldron was appointed by Rt. Rev. Bishop Kenrick, of 
Philadelphia, to attend Salem and other Missions in South Jersey. With zeal 
and energy Father Waldron devoted himself to his laborious missionary 
work, going from place to place, saying Mass in public halls and private 
houses, instructing the children and preaching to small bands of Catholics in 
the places he visited. 

The work of raising funds, begun by Dr. O'Hara, was carried on by the 
zealous Father Waldron. October 25, 1848, the lot on which the church is 
located was purchased from George Bowen for the sum of $540.00. A new 
impetus was given to the ardent zeal of the good pastor and his devoted peo- 




ST. MARY S CHURCH, SALEM, N. J. 

pie by the purchase of a site for a church edifice. Work was commenced on 
the foundation in the year 1848, but had to be discontinued later for want of 
funds. Father Waldron was transferred to other fields of labor, and Salem 
was visited regularly by Revs. I. Amat, C. M., Jeremiah O'Donoghue, Hugh 
Lane, A. Haviland, John Kelly, Very Rev. Edward I. Sourin, V. G., Revs. 
Roger O'Connor, and A. Rossi, C. M., successively, until December, 1851, 
when the Rt. Rev. Bishop Kenrick, of Philadelphia, appointed the Rev. John 
McDermott as first resident pastor. Father McDermott made his home for 
several months with Thomas Murphy on Second Street. 



5 8 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

March 24, 1852, Father McDermott bought the small house and lot ad- 
joining the church property from John N. Cooper for $1,003.00. The house 
he occupied as a rectory. The church was under roof by the middle of June, 
and preparations were made to have it dedicated on the Fourth of July follow- 
ing. The furnishings of the church were necessarily limited, but they were 
the best the people could afford. The dedication of the new edifice to the 
service of God took place Sunday, July 4th, 1852. The Very Rev. Patrick 
E. Moriarity, O. S. A., of St. Augustine's Church, Philadelphia, officiated on 
the occasion and preached an appropriate sermon. The pastor, Rev. John 
McDermott, celebrated the Mass. The church was dedicated under the title 
of Sts. Philip and James. 

In December, 1853, Father McDermott purchased from Ebenezer Dunn a 
small house and lot adjoining the rectory for $500.00. He connected the two 
houses by means of a hallway, and the double house served for nearly forty 
years as the residence of the several pastors of St. James. In the beginning 
of the year 1855, the Rev. Cornelius Cannon was appointed by the Rt. Rev. 
Bishop Bayley as pastor of Salem and Missions to succeed Father McDermott. 
In April, 1859, the last addition to the original church property was pur- 
chased from John C. Dunn for the sum of $460.00. The congregation had 
grown and the zealous pastor purchased this last lot of ground with the in- 
tention of erecting a parish school thereon. Father Cannon erected on the lot 
purchased from Mr. Dunn the front portion of the frame building on Oak 
Street, in the year 1863. He employed lay teachers to conduct the school 
under his own supervision. Father Cannon also attended Swedesboro and 
Woodstown. The church in Salem was incorporated September 20, 1864, 
under the title of " St. Mary's Catholic Church, Salem," thus changing its 
name. The incorporators being Rt. Rev. James Roosevelt Bayley, Very Rev. 
Patrick Moran, V. G., Rev. Cornelius Cannon, Michael Hogan and William 
O'Brien. In January, 1870, Father Cannon, after fifteen years of faithful 
service, was transferred to Jersey City, and the Rev. Secundio Pattle ap- 
pointed as his successor in Salem. 

In June, 1876, Father Pattle was appointed pastor of St. Paul's Church, 
Burlington, and the Rev. James McKernan assumed charge of St. Mary's. 
Ill-health compelled the zealous Father McKernan to resign the pastorate of 
St. Mary's and Missions in November, 1879. 

The parish school had up to his time been taught by lay teachers, Mary 
McBride, Patrick Fitzpatrick, Mrs. Fields, James Maguire, Sarah O'Neill, 
Agnes Barr, Mary O'Connor, Mary Crean, and John Loftus, successively. 
Father Dernis made arrangements to have the Sisters take charge of the 
school. In 1881 three Franciscan Sisters came from Philadelphia to Salem. 
In October, 1886, the Rev. Denis J. Duggan was appointed by Bishop O'Farrell 
to succeed Father Dernis, who was transferred to Moorestown. In the begin- 
ning of the year 1887 Father Duggan purchased from P. Marrian several 
acres of land, beautifully situated near the town, for the sum of $3,000.00. 

In September, 1887, the spacious rectory opposite the church was bought 
from W. Graham Tyler for $5,500.00. 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 59 

In the year 1894 what is known as the Mitchell property, on Oak Street, 
was purchased from I. Oakford Acton, for the sum of $3,200.00, thus placing 

in possession of the church the entire half block from Carpenter to 

Street. 

Father Duggan also said Mass at Quinton, in Brian Kiernan's house on 
Bridgeton Turnpike, also at Pennsgrove, at the home of Jerry Crean. 

After eleven years of devoted and untiring labors Father Duggan was 
promoted in January, 1898, to the pastorate of St. Mary's Church, Borden- 
town. The Rev. William H. Lynch came from St. Mary's Cathedral, Trenton, 
as Father Duggan's successor. Rev. Stephen M. Lyons, the present rector, 
entered on his duties October 2, 1900. Father Lyons began at once to reduce 
the debt of $6,000.00 which he found on the property. On November 23, 
1902, Father Lyons celebrated the founding of the church in Salem. Before 
doing so he erected a neat stone sacristy and improved the church inside and 
outside at a cost of several thousand dollars. In fact, nothing was left un- 
touched but the four walls, and whatever is beautiful in and around St. Mary's 
to-day is owing to the untiring zeal of Father Lyons, whose memory should 
always be held in benediction by the Catholics of Salem. 

Burlington, N. J. — St. Paul's Church. 

In the old city of Burlington, fronting the creek and running down to the 
river, is Tatham Street. This street is named after John Tatham, who was 
governor of New Jersey about 1690, and on this street formerly stood the 
mansion built for his home. John Tatham, as we learn from the history of 
the times, was an intimate friend of William Penn and a trusted agent of 
Governor Coxe. That he was a Catholic gentleman of great fortune and edu- 
cation we are sure, for the inventory of his real and personal property, taken 
after his death, confirms the former, and the character of his library shows 
the latter to be a fact. That Catholic services were often held in his stately 
home we have every reason to believe, for his house was the regular stopping 
place for priests travelling between New York and Baltimore; and was known 
as such. These were times of great hardships and trials for Catholics, and 
when services were held everything had to be done as secretly as possible, 
so as not to arouse the suspicion and incur the legal persecutions of bigoted 
people. Some of the citizens of Burlington were the worst types of this 
class, for they not only persecuted and outlawed the Catholics, but they acted 
the same towards the Quakers who came to their town. 

But after Tatham's death we find scarcely any reference to Catholicity 
till we come down to 1771, when a notice in Father Farmer's Baptismal Regis- 
ter shows us that he also visited this town, and ministered to the scattered 
Catholics there. In this record we find names of Mooney, Hay, Ryan, Egan, 
Scully, Bradshaw, and Klemner, whereas to-day we do not find a single de- 
scendant of these people in old St. Paul's parish. What became of them? 
The breaking out of the American Revolution a few years later called the 
men to the defense of their country, and many of them never returned, but 



6o 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



gave their lives for their country, whereas most of their boasting, bragging 
persecutors went over to the king's forces and became traitors to the American 
liberties. 

Neither do we know how often Father Farmer came, but we presume 
that these visits were made as often as he went to New York, which was 
quarterly. 

During the Revolution a regiment of English soldiers and English sym- 
pathizers was quartered at Burlington and occupied as a barracks the building 
now used as a Catholic Church. In 1778 Father Lotbinier, a Canadian priest, 
was brought from Canada as Chaplain for the king's Catholic soldiers. Father 
William O'Brien, also in 1787, visited this place. In 1798 we find also re- 
corded that a certain Father Lagrange visited this city on missionary duty. 
About this time or a little later the Mission of West Jersey was given in 
charge of the Augustinian Fathers from St. Augustine's Church, Vine Street, 
Philadelphia, and it is impossible to say who attended Burlington for the next 
thirty years, because most of the records of that Order were lost in the fire 
which destroyed old St. Michael's and Augustine's in 1844, a fire which was 
caused by the anti-Catholic bigots, so aptly called " Know Nothings," the pro- 
genitors of our modern A. P. A. Society. 




ST. PAUL S CHURCH, BURLINGTON, N. J. 

The Augustinians retained charge of Burlington till 1833 during which 
time it was attended as a Mission from Trenton, and consequently had as 
many different pastors as did old St. Johns. The people also at times made 
use of the Ferry and went over to Bristol where there were both a church and 
a resident priest. The Jesuit Fathers resumed charge of their old New Jersey 
Missions in 1833 and attended them till 1837, when they were given over to 
the secular clergy, and Rev. Daniel Magorien became pastor at Trenton and 
ministered at Burlington. In 1849 he was succeeded at Trenton by Father 
John Mackin, and Rev. Jeremiah Ahearn was placed in charge of Burlington. 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 61 

It was Father Ahearn who purchased, in 1849, from Philip Sison, the old 
English army barracks and converted it into a combined church and dwelling. 

Previous to the purchase of the barracks, both Fathers Mackin and 
Ahearn were accustomed to hold services in the house of James Dempsey on 
St. Mary's Street, near Pearl. Father Lane worked hard to unite and in- 
struct his people for four years (1849-53), in which year he resigned this 
parish in favor of Rev. Hugh Kenny who remained about one year ('53-'54), 
and he was succeeded by Rev. Benjamin F. Allaire, the young secretary of 
Bishop Bayley. Father Allaire, although energetic, was of a delicate constitu- 
tion, and in 1854 he was obliged to resign. Next came Father Bowles, who 
attended this Mission from Bordentown for two years (1854-56), and in 1856 
he resigned the parish of Bordentown and took up his residence in Burling- 
ton with Mount Holly as a Mission and remained till 1867, when he went 
West. It was Father Bowles who purchased the Humphrey property for a 
rectory and remodeled the barracks into the present little church. The Rev. 
J. J. McGahan was the next incumbent, but only for a short time, when he 
was succeeded by the Rev. Michael T. Kirwan, who opened the first Catholic 
school in Burlington, by remodelling the basement of the church for that pur- 
pose. Mr. P. P Cantwell, father of Rev. William Cantwell, was the first 
teacher, and he was followed by a Mr. Keogh, a Miss McCaffrey and a Miss 
McCullough. Father Kirwan brought the Sisters of St. Francis to teach, so 
that the parish of Burlington has had its Catholic school for nearly forty 
years. The next pastor was Rev. Secundinus Pattle, a Spanish priest who had 
labored on the Salem, N. J., Mission for many years. Father Pattle died on 
February — , 1885, after nearly nine years of work in this section. 

The next incumbent of this parish was the Rev. Patrick A. Treacy, who 
came from the Oxford Parish. He took charge in February, 1885, and for a 
time was very pleasing to the people, but about 1890 it was noticed that his 
mind was beginning to weaken, and, as time advanced, the malady increased. 
Finally, in 1892, at the request of the people, Bishop O'Farrell was obliged to 
remove him from his charge. This removal he resisted until the medical and 
civil authorities enforced his departure, but not till much annoyance had been 
caused the Bishop and his friends trouble. After-events proved the Bishop 
was right. He retired to Mt. Hope Retreat, Baltimore, where he resides 
under the kindly care of the Sisters of Charity. Rev. J. J. Hill was then 
placed in temporary charge of the parish, but he died after a few months' 
service. 

Rev. J. J. Griffin came next, and he purchased a beautiful lot as a con- 
templated new site for a new church ; he also reduced the debt very consider- 
ably. 

On January 23, 1899, Father Griffin was promoted to the more important 
parish of Woodbridge, and Rev. Henry Russi of High Bridge, was appointed 
to Burlington. In 1904 Father Russi had erected the present beautiful school 
and is doing good work among some of the best Catholics of New Jersey. 



62 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Mount Holly, N. J — Church of the Sacred Heart. 

This town is one of the old settlements of New Jersey, and owing to its 
location — being twenty miles from Philadelphia and twenty-one from Tren- 
ton — it became early a centre of trade between these places and old Egg 
Harbor. It was the site of the Mount Holly Iron Works as early as 1777, 
containing a forge and rolling mill. Many Catholics were employed. 

About the year 1793, when the Negro Insurrection in San Domingo drove 
thousands of white people from these and other West Indian islands, many 
of these French people found a refuge here, coming by trading schooners to 
Egg Harbor and then making their way overland to Mount Holly, which, at 
that time, was a fair sized village. Most if not all of these people were Catho- 
lics, but they did not tarry sufficiently long to make any religious impression 
on the townspeople. Here, we are told, the famous Stephen Gerard of Phila- 
delphia started in business with a little candy store, and here he also found his 
first wife. Yet we do not find any record of Catholic services having been 
held in this town or vicinity prior to 1848, and yet it is strange that the pre- 
sence of Catholics here did not bring visiting priests when we know they went 
as far down as Pleasant Mills. Some future historian may discover the 
early data of this parish. 

About 1848 Father Mackin of Trenton began to make occasional visits 
to Mount Holly, and held services wherever he could find a suitable place. 
That same year Rev. Father Ahearn, the newly-appointed pastor of Burling- 
ton, attended Mount Holly as a Mission of that place, and his successor, 
Father Lane, came once a month to Mount Holly, also saying Mass where- 
soever he could until in 1852 he erected the first Catholic Church in that town. 
This building was 25 x 65 feet, and stood on Risdon Street, near Union. 

Father Lane was a great favorite with the people, and his labors pro- 
duced much fruit, but in 1849 he returned to Philadelphia and was replaced at 
Burlington by Rev. Hugh Kenny, who remained from March, 1853, to January, 
1855, but he, wearying of the hardships of missionary life, resigned, and was 
succeeded by Rev. Benjamin Allaire from St. James' Church, Newark, N. J. 
Father Allaire was a delicate man, and was soon compelled by ill-health to 
give up this charge, May, 1856. 

Father Bowles of Bordentown next took up the work and remained ten 
years, and the number of Catholics continued to increase very much. Ser- 
vices were still being held in the little wooden structure, but it was daily be- 
coming apparent that a new church was necessary. Father Bowles resigned 
Burlington in 1857, and was succeeded by Rev. Father McGahan. He bought 
the land for the present cemetery and worked hard to improve the parish 
both spiritually and temporally. In 1871 Father McGahan was transferred to 
East Newark, and for a time the Mount Holly parish was attached to Bur- 
lington as a Mission, but in 1871 Rev. Thaddeus Hogan was appointed second 
resident pastor of Mount Holly. Father Hogan found a very small delapi- 
dated structure used as a church and quite a large congregation with a steady 
increase of people who found plenty of work in the busy mills. Relying upon 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 63 

this fact, as well as the impossibility of adapting the little chapel to the wants 
of the congregation, he arranged with the Rt. Rev Bishop and trustees plans 
for a new and more commodious church, but finding the old site on Mount 
Holly Ave. unsuitable, he purchased a larger and better lot on West Wash- 
ington Street, to which he soon moved the old building. At this same time 
he took rooms in a house opposite the present church and resided there. 

In 1872 he began the erection of the new church and pushed the work 
forward steadily until he had the whole building enclosed, and services were 
held for many months in this unfinished building, Father Hogan and his altar 
boys sweeping out the building each Saturday whilst the carpenters were pre- 
paring it for plaster. But, unfortunately, after the contract for plastering- 
and finishing the building was given out, Father Hogan was promoted to the 
more important parish of East Newark (now Harrison), March 3, 1874, 
leaving a debt of only $10,000 on the new property. It was he aLso who 
established the first school at Mount Holly, which was held in the old church 
structure and was taught by a Miss (Bernardin) with sixty pupils in attend- 
ance. 

Father Hogan worked hard to make Mount Holly a good parish. He was 
succeeded by Rev. James A. Walsh, March, .1874. 

Next came Rev. Hugh McManus in 1875. He had the building plastered 
and furnished and also built the rectory, adding $18,000 to the debt of eleven 
which he found, making $29,000. 

The church was dedicated by Bishop Corrigan, October 19, 1879, but the 
strain was too great for Father McManus, and he was obliged to seek rest in 
Ireland, where he died June 25, 1880. 

Next came Rev. R. E. Burke in 1880, from the curacy of St. Michael's, 
Jersey City. 

Father Burke remained in charge till 1884, when he was transferred to 
Philipsburg. 

The next incumbent was Rev. Dennis J. Duggan, who came from the 
church at Bridgeton. For two years Father Duggan worked hard to reduce 
the debt and keep up improvements. He also did good missionary work in 
and around Mount Holly, visiting Indian Mills, where he said Mass at John 
Dillett's and John McNeal's, also at Tuckerton at Mrs. Lyons'. 

In 1886 Father Duggan was sent to Salem and was succeeded by Rev. 
James Reynolds, who remained for about five years, during which time he 
reduced the debt considerably before passing it on to his successor, Rev John 
M. O'Leary, who was followed by Rev. M. J. Brennan. Then came Rev. 
William J. Fitzgerald. He remained about six weeks and was succeeded by 
Rev. Father Lyons, who remained till 1900, when he was succeeded by Rev. 
Peter J. Hart, the present efficient rector. 

Some of the old pioneers of this parish were Denis Hasset, Terrance Lee 
and Joseph Mulvey. 



64 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Cape May, N. J. (Cape Island) — St. Mary's. 

This beautiful seaside resort is a very old settlement, and was a whaling 
port as early as 1600. This industry continued till 1638. But it was was not 
always called Cape May, for prior to 1875 it was known as Cape Island. In 
that year, by an act of the Legislature, its name was changed to Cape May. 
As early as 1803 we find traces of Catholicity in this settlement. The Augus- 
tinian missionary, Rev. Michael Hurley, D.D., established here a chapel, but 
for many years it was open only in the summer season, whilst bathing was in 
progress. In those days the priests came from Philadelphia by stage or by 
boat around the point, for the West Jersey Seashore Railroad did not reach 
Cape Island till 1863. 

From 1803-1848 Cape Island was visited only at irregular. intervals, when 
Mass was said in some private house. That Dr. Hurley visited it we are 
sure, for on one of his visits he was attacked by a crowd of ruffians and ill- 
treated. A Mrs. Montgomery, who sheltered him on this occasion, after- 
wards became a Catholic. 

Not till 1848 do we find any attempt at regularity in services. In that 
year Rev. Edward Quincy Sheafe Waldron, then stationed at Philadelphia, 
took charge of the West Jersey Missions, and on July 23, 1848, blessed and. 
opened the first Catholic Church, called St. Mary's. He held services every 
Sunday during the bathing season, and once a month for the remainder of 
the year. 

In 1849 Cape Island was attached to the Burlington point, and was at- 
tended by Rev. Father Ahearn in the Winter, and Rev. Edward J. Sourin,. 
V. G., in the Summer, till 1853, when we find it in charge of Rev. John Ford, 
who also attended Denis Creek and Port Elizabeth as Missions. 

From 1856-1859 Father P. J. Hannegan, of Gloucester City, took over 
this Mission, and from 1859-1864 Cape Island was attended from Salem. 

In 1864 Father Gesner of Millville built a rectory and improved the 
church. 

On February 9, 1873, Rev. Theophilous Degan came to Cape May as suc- 
cessor to Father Gesner, who had been transferred to Elizabeth Port, N. J., 
from Millville. In that same year, 1873, Father Degan left Millville as resi- 
dent pastor and took up his residence at Bridgeton, one of his Missions. 
Later on he removed the church at Cape May to its present site, and opened 
a convent in which he started a parish school. 

On November 9, 1878, a great fire ravaged this resort, and almost de- 
stroyed the town. The church and buildings, however, were left unharmed. 

Father Degan remained the faithful and honored pastor of Cape May tilt 
his death, October 31, 1900. Rev. Dennis J. Kelly of Oxford became his suc- 
cessor, and has done much to improve the property, and hopes in some near 
day to build a new and impressive church, 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 65 

Keyport, N. J. (Middletown Point) — St. Joseph's Church. 

The first Catholic services held in this section were not at Keyport but at 
Mattawan, then called Middletown Point, and as early as 1850 we find Middle- 
town Point, a Mission of Perth Amboy, then attended by Father Patrick 
McCarthy. Here both Father Madden and Father Callan found an ugly 
spirit of rampant bigotry prevailing, so that on one occasion a rowdy 
dragged Father Callan from his carriage. The rowdy's name was Bell, but 
time brought him and his class lessons they needed sorely. These were the 
forerunners of the A. P. A., who demanded license as well as liberty for 
themselves, but attempted to deny it to others. These are the people who in 
every age represent the devil on earth and do his work so well that he can 
absent himself from the towns where such people live. On July 1, 1876, Rev. 
Patrick McGovern was appointed first resident pastor of Keyport. He re- 
mained in charge till 1877, when he went to New York Diocese. Father Mc- 
Govern was a timid and mild mannered man, but when things went wrong 
he could be stern and severe. He was glad to retire from this parish on ac- 
count of the native bigotry. In June, 1877, Bishop Corrigan sent the Rev. 
G. A. Spiering, an ex-Capuchin Monk, then curate of St. Michael's, Jersey 
City, to take charge of the parish of Keyport. Father Spiering built the 
present brick church, which was dedicated October 31, 1880, by Rt. Rev. M. 
Corrigan. He also built the present rectory. For eleven years Father Spier- 
ings ministered to Keyport, but, as in every parish, there are bad Catho- 
lics who, to satisfy their spite and ill-nature, seek to annoy and harass the 
priest, so Father Spierings had some of these choice spirits to cause him 
trouble. Father Spierings was succeeded by Rev. Michael C. O'Donnell, 
during an absence in Europe, which, upon his return, resulted in a grievious 
misunderstanding between himself and his Bishop, and Father Spierings was 
never reinstated in St. Joseph's. 



Moorestown, N. J. — Church of Our Lady of Good Counsel. 

The first Catholic who settled near Moorestown was James Laverty, of 
Fellowship. He arrived in the year 1832. Many of his descendants are now 
in the parish. In 1850 a few Catholics assembled in a room over a wheel- 
wright's shop in Evesboro, about four miles from Moorestown. Father 
Finigan, of Gloucester, N. J., offered for them the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. 
A hostile demonstration by some bigots was attempted, but the owner of the 
hall, William Hammit, with pistol in hand, informed them that he would 
brook no interference with the worshipers. W r illiam Hammit was an Ameri- 
can and a non-Catholic. For some time Mass was offered up in the homes of 
the Catholics. It was offered up once in the home of James Dempsey, near 
Hooten's bridge, about a half a mile from Moorestown. 

As Mass could be offered only at long intervals, the Catholics of those 
days were accustomed to walk, Sunday after Sunday, eleven miles to St. 
John's Church, Philadelphia. 



66 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Father Hanigan, of Gloucester, soon made his appearance, and gathered 
the few scattered Catholics, and good, hospitable James Laverty placed his 
home at the disposal of the small congregation. Here Mass was offered up 
for three years as often as was convenient. 

In 1858 a modest little church was built at Fellowship, and attended as a 
Mission by Father Hanigan, of Gloucester. The pioneer Catholics of the dis- 
trict were James Laverty, James Dempsey, James Horan, Daniel Kelly, Charles 
Kelly, Daniel Sexton, Mrs. Margaret Sexton, Ed. Schules, John Schules, Wil- 
liam Dorgan, Michael Dorgan, Dennis Dugan, Charles Sutton, John Boyce, 
John Donovan, James McElwee and John Byrne. 




CHURCH OF OUR LADY AND ST. PATRICK, MOORESTOWN, N. J. 

In 1863 Rev. Patrick Byrne, of Camden, took charge of the little Mission 
church at Fellowship, and continued his ministrations until the church was 
destroyed by fire in 1869. 

Moorestown, because of its central location and railroad connection with 
Philadelphia, was the place selected for the new church. Land on which to 
build a Catholic Church could not be bought for any price in Moorestown, so 
bitter was the feeling against Catholics. Father Byrne deputed Mr. Peter 
Verga, a Catholic English gentleman, of Camden, to purchase a plot of 
ground. He approached a man named Haines and proposed to buy a piece of 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 67 

ground for a factory. The terms were arranged and the deal was effected. 
Father Byrne now appeared with Peter Verga, and after the transfer of the 
grounds, Haines, never suspecting the identity of Father Byrne, asked what 
kind of a factory he intended erecting. Father Byrne informed him that it 
was to be a factory for saving souls, in other words, a Catholic Church. 

The new church was built of brick, and had a seating capacity of about 
350. It was quite a pretentious building for that time. It was called the 
Church of Our Lady and St. Patrick. In 1873 Very Rev. Dean Fitzsimmons 
succeeded Rev. Father Byrne in the rectorship of the Church of the Immacu- 
late Conception, Camden. The former also took charge of the Mission 
Church at Moorestown. It was soon afterwards annexed to Mount Holly 
as a Mission, and was attended respectively by Fathers Hogan, Walsh and 
McManus. The latter purchased a piece of ground on the Camden pike for 
a cemetery. In 1880 the Catholics of Moorestown were delighted at the news 
that at last they were to have a resident pastor. Bishop Corrigan, of Newark, 
appointed Rev. James McKernan pastor. He celebrated Mass for the people 
on St. Patrick's Day. He was cordially received by the people. Father Mc- 
Kernan seemed at the time to be rather despondent at the prospect of the new 
parish succeeding. The following note was written by him on one of the 
church books : " I came here on Bishop Corrigan's expressed promise that 
Riverton should be joined to this parish. The number of people is so small 
and the debt so large in proportion that I don't yet know that Moorestown 
alone will be able to pay." 

Father McKernan purchased from William H. Haines the two lots and 
a house adjoining the church for $5,000. This house mentioned is the present 
rectory. There was, besides a mortgage of $5,000 against the church and 
floating debts of about $1,100. During his incumbency Father McKernan had 
reduced the debt to $7,650. 

In October, 1886, he was succeeded by Rev. Peter Dernis, who remained 
in charge of the parish until September 29th, 1890, when Rev. John W. Murphy 
received his appointment from the late deeply lamented Bishop O'Farrell. 

Father Murphy took charge of Moorestown on September 30, 1890. He 
found a debt of $8,000.00 and a church that needed many repairs. Rather 
than spend money on repairs, Father Murphy began to collect for a new 
church, and when he had $10,000 in hand he began its erection. The name 
of the church was changed from The Church of Our Lady and St. Patrick to 
Our Lady of Good Counsel. 

The new church was designed by Messrs. Jeremiah and W. P. O'Rourke, 
of Newark, N. J. It is of early English Gothic design. It is 50 feet wide by 
about 120 feet in length, and has a seating capacity of about 600. The mate- 
rial used in its construction is Stockton grey stone with Indiana lime stone 
trimmings. It is heated by steam and lighted by electricity. One of the first 
Episcopal functions performed by the Right Rev. James A. McFaul, D.D., 
after his consecration, was the laying of the corner-stone of the Church of 
Our Lady of Good Counsel, Moorestown, N. J., July 14th, 1895. 

The census of the parish shows a Catholic population of 1,000. 



6S THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Camden, N. J. — Church of the Immaculate Conception. 

Among those who came to Camden in 1830 to assist in building the "Cam- 
den and Amboy Railroad " were many Irish Catholics, but they were not 
sufficiently numerous to warrant the building of a church. Besides it was 
easy for them to cross the river on Sunday and attend Divine Service in old 
St. Joseph's, or one of the other churches. Occasionally, however, a priest 
came over from the Philadelphia Cathedral to minister to the spiritual wants 
of these Catholics. In 1849 Father Waldron was placed in charge of the 
West New Jersey Missions south of Trenton, with headquarters at Gloucester. 
He sometimes came to Camden for services in private houses. But later, in 
the same year, he was replaced by the Rev. Jeremiah Donohue, and he, also 
by Rev. H. B. Finnegan, both attending Camden. Thus matters went on till 
1851 when Rev. Father Hannegan was appointed first resident pastor of 
Gloucester and he came regularly every two weeks to hold services at private 
houses or in some hall, " Starr's Hall " being the one most used. It was 
called the Catholic Chapel. Both the Cooper and Starr families were friendly 
to Catholics and tolerated no bigotry. 

Towards the end of 185 1 Starr's Hall was burned by the " Native Ameri- 
can party," and, as a consequence, no Catholic services were held publicly in 
Camden during the year 1852. 

But in 1853 the Camden Mission was reopened, New Jersey was with- 
drawn from the care of Philadelphia, then ruled by the saintly Neuman, and 
was placed under the care of its own Bishop, Rt. Rev. James Roosevelt Bayley, 
first Bishop of Newark. Although Father Hannegan belonged to the Diocese 
of Philadelphia, yet Bishop Neuman allowed him to remain in charge of 
Gloucester and Camden till the new Bishop could replace him with another 
priest. This did not happen till November 11, 1855, when the Mission at 
Camden was erected into an independent parish and placed under the charge 
of the Rev. James Moran, who found his field of labor extending over all 
Camden County and far into Cumberland and Cape May Counties. Father 
Moran said Mass in old City Hall and resided with Henry M. Inness on 
Bridge Ave. 

In 1857 Father Moran purchased a lot corner of 5th and Taylor Streets 
from W. D. Cooper, and in 1859 erected the first Catholic Church in Camden 
County thereon. This church was dedicated by Rt. Rev. Bishop Bayley, 
under the name of St. Mary's of the Immaculate Conception, November 5th, 

i859- 

In June, 1861, Father Moran began the erection of a rectory, and when 
this was finished he was obliged to add galleries to his church in order to 
accommodate the increasing congregation. Father Moran remained in charge 
of St. Mary's till September, 1863, when he went to Brooklyn, N. Y., where he 
died in 1894. 

Father Patrick Byrne was the next rector of St. Mary's. He arrived in 
June, 1863, and found small chapels at Snow Hill, Fellowship and Waterford. 
His first care was to provide a. cemetery, the ground for which he bought 
from William B. Cooper. This was the old St. Patrick's Cemetery on the 
Westfield turnpike. 




■ WU8# i #i: 



70 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

In June, 1864, Father Byrne again applied to the Coopers and purchased 
a plot 100 x 180 from Abigail Cooper. He realized that the old site was not 
suitable, and, intending to build a new church, determined to change to a 
better location. 

The corner-stone of the new church, (60x140), was laid October 23, by 
Rev. Dr. McQuade, V. G. 

It was Father Byrne who opened the second church in Camden at Van 
Hook and Eighth Streets, which was the original Church of the Sacred Heart. 
Later on Father Byrne obtained the remainder of the square, thus securing to 
the Catholics of Camden one of the finest locations in the city. 

In 1868 he sold the old church property, which had been used for a school, 
to Samuel Craft. A building on Federal Street was used as a temporary 
school, and the pastor used the vestry of the church for a rectory. Father 
Byrne also started temperance societies and a building and loan association. 

In September, 1873, Father Byrne took charge of St. John's, Trenton, by 
request of Bishop Bayley, but not, however, till he had prepared the plans and 
laid the foundations of the present parochial school building. A parish school 
had been opened on the second floor of the church structure, corner Fifth 
and Taylor Streets, by Father Moran in 1862, and conducted by Miss Sarah 
Fields, although this good woman had been teaching Catholic children in her 
own home since 1859. And when, in 1868, the old church was sold, the chil- 
dren of the parochial school were transferred to a house on Federal Street, 
where the school was continued till the opening of the present building. 

When Father Byrne accepted the charge of St. John's Church, Trenton, 
he was succeeded at Camden by Rev. Peter Fitzsimmons, who remained as 
pastor of St. Mary's from June, 1873 to August, 1895. On coming to Cam- 
den, Father Fitzsimmons found very disheartening conditions existing — a 
new but unfinished church, with a heavy debt, the foundations laid of a 
$40,000 parish school, a discouraged congregation, and a financial panic abroad 
in the land. For the present he saw all building must cease, and he began at 
once to reduce the debt on the church. 

In the following year he again took up the school building, to which he 
added a convent, and in the Spring of 1875 the combined structure was 
blessed. Three Sisters of St. Joseph from Chestnut Flill had been assigned 
to take charge of the school in September, 1874, and the academy class had 
been started in the sacristy; all were now transferred to the new school build- 
ing. Later on, 1881, the Rev. Pastor called in the Brothers of the Holy Cross 
to teach the boys, and a house was built for them on Seventh Street. 

In 1885 the Sisters of St. Joseph's withdrew from Camden and were re- 
placed by the Sisters of Mercy from Bordentown, the Brothers continuing in 
charge for a while when they also withdrew, and the school was placed en- 
tirely under the care of the Sisters of Mercy. 

Father Fitzsimmons died August 31, 1895, after twenty-three years of 
labor among the people of Camden. 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 71 

After Father Fitzsimmons' death, the parish was placed in charge of Rev. 
Stephen M. Lyons till the appointment of a permanent rector, which occurred 
on October 23, 1895, when Rev. Bernard J. Mulligan arrived. Father Mulli- 
gan found the parish affairs in excellent condition, and began at once to carry 
out Dean Fitzsimmons' plan of a lyceum for the Catholic young people of the 
city. This structure was soon completed (1896) at a cost of $40,000.00. 
Steam heat was introduced into the school and convent, the rectory was re- 
modelled and a new cemetery was purchased. Dean Mulligan's latest work 
is the frescoeing and improving of the church. 

Swedesboro, N. J. — St. Joseph's Church. 

The history of the present Catholic Church in Swedesboro goes back to 
the year 1848, when a few Irish Catholics gathered to hold services in an old 
house which stood near Clark's Hotel. At that time the Rev. Father Wal- 
dron of Gloucester, pastor of St. Mary's, came occasionally to minister to 
these scattered people. Afterwards, services were held in the home of Henry 
Boyle and William Crow, on the Ogden tract, at the cross-roads. Later on 
services were also held at the homes of Patrick Lyons, Philip Creran and 
Daniel Reagan, on the Woodstown pike. The first Catholics who came to 
this section were emigrants from Ireland, and were employed on the new 
roads or on the adjacent farms. In those days the farmers were not able to 
obtain fertilizers from afar, and, consequently, depended chiefly on the marl 
pit for the success of their crops. Among the earliest Catholic settlers we 
find the names of Daniel Kenny, George Blake, Michael Mulkeen and Michael 
Bowe. These men seem to have come as early as 1847. About the year 1850 
came Michael and John Costello, Martin and Michael Hayes, Dennis Lane, 
Patrick Lyons, Henry Boyle, William Crowe, Patrick Wilson, William Cos- 
tello, Edward McAvoy, Daniel Reagan and Matthew Kelly. Later on came 
the Irwins, Brennans, Tighes, Tooles, McGlincys, Greeleys, Ryans, Duggans, 
McCranes, Muhlbaiers, Riegers, and Mersengers. For many }^ears Father 
McDermott and his successor came from Salem to hold services several times 
a year, and those who desired to attend Church in the interval were compelled 
to go either to Salem or Gloucester. 

About the year 1855 the Bishop of Newark transferred the Rev. John 
McDermott from Salem and placed the Rev. Cornelius Cannon in charge of 
that church, with its outlying Missions. This was no easy field of labor, but 
the good Father Cannon worked assiduously to keep his little flock. Their 
numbers were increasing, and when the monthly services were held in the 
private houses of George Blake or Mat. Kelly, in Irishtown, or in other places, 
the rooms were not sufficiently large to contain all who attended. Then Father 
Cannon began to think of erecting a little church where his scattered flock 
might come to worship. Several plots of ground were sought. Some were 
too expensive and some could not be purchased for a Catholic Church, be- 
cause certain of our good people thought it would be a disgrace to have a 
Catholic Church on the sacred soil of Woolwich Township. Happily, how- 



7 2 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



ever, better counsel prevailed, and Daniel Kenny purchased the church ceme- 
tery from Charles P. Shivers, and at once transferred it to Father Cannon. 
When the time came for building some foolish people threatened to destroy 
any building erected, but such people and their talk were easily suppressed by 
the good sense of the community. The Catholics organized themselves into 
committees and began at once to collect subscriptions from their friends and 
relatives. 

In the Fall of i860 Father Cannon began the erection of a new church on 
the plot of ground purchased from Charles P. Shivers. The congregation 
was small, comprising about thirty families, scattered over an area of almost 




£T. JOSEPHS CHURCH, SWEBESB0R0, N. J. 

as many square miles. Besides, they were poor; yes, very poox, and their 
little offerings had to be taken up by installments as the building progressed 
to completion. But if they were few and poor, and scattered, they were 
always ready at the call of duty ; they were rich in their glorious old Catholic 
trust in God, and their hearts as well as their hands were united in building 
a place where they might practice their religion as they had learned it in their 
childhood homes so far away. Before the year ended the little building was 
completed, and they were happy in the possession of their own Church. So 
bravely had they all labored together that comparatively little debt remained 
to be paid. All could not give money, but all gave what they could. Some 
gave the labor of their brawny arms, and some gave materials, whilst many 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 



73 



of the women supplied money which they had saved for other wants. When 
we hear the stories of these old people, and how they cheerfully made every 
sacrifice for their church, we wonder how some of their children can be so 
careless. 

Finally, when the war was over and matters began to settle themselves, 
Father Cannon had the church incorporated, with Martin Hayes and James 
Brennan as his lay trustees. This was in 1864, and from then on the Swedes- 
boro Catholic Church remained attached as a Mission to Salem till 1873. 

The first church was dedicated in 1861. Several years after the war the 
congregation continued to increase, and Father Cannon was again compelled 
to build. This time he built an addition of a sanctuary and vestry at a cost 
of $500.00. The first church was a simple frame structure forty feet by 
twenty-five feet with a small niche for the altar. After the sanctuary had 
been added the body of the church furnished seating capacity for about 180 
persons, there being fifteen pine benches on each side. The church was now 
sufficiently accommodating for many years, and monthly services were held 
till the Summer of 1873. Father Cannon was recalled from Salem by Bishop 
Bayley, and Father Pattle was sent to take charge of his Mission. It was 
during Father Pattle's term of office that the members of St. Joseph's Church, 
Swedesboro, decided upon requesting the Bishop to send them a priest to live 
at Swedesboro. In the meantime they exerted themselves in erecting a suit- 
able residence for the priest whom the Bishop would send them. 

Anthony Cassesse to the charge. Already a committee, composed of 
Hugh McGlincy, John Blake, Michael Costello, Lawrence Bowe and Michael 
Callahan, had helped materially to meet the expenses of the new Rectory by 
the subscriptions they made. Father Anthony arrived in Swedesboro during 
September of 1872, and, being an Italian by birth, and although he did not 
speak the language of his new charge, yet the people were glad to receive 
him, and tried to make him happy. Besides the church at Swedesboro, Father 
Anthony also attended the Mission at Glassboro, going there monthly, till 1878. 

At last, in 1880, Father Anthony resolved to make some alterations on the 
church so as to meet the wants of the growing congregation. The old church 
was forty feet by twenty-five feet. To this was added sixteen feet front, with 
a steeple six feet above point of roof. The roof was raised four feet higher 
and newly shingled. Another addition of twenty-six feet was placed to the 
rear, and the whole building newly plastered and weatherboarded, so that 
really there was very little of the old church left. New pews were built, and 
the building made ready for about two hundred and sixteen persons. A 
gallery was also placed in position, and the old Sanctuary removed to the side. 
All these much needed improvements cost money, and, yet, the congregation 
was poor, but the priest met these expenses, amounting in all to $1,103.00. In 
advancing the money, he expected to get it back as the congregation could 
afford it, but he also desired that when he died, the unpaid debt should die 
with him. 

After Father Anthony's death the parish was placed in charge of Rev. 
William P. Tracy, an ex- Jesuit, and the people were delighted to get a priest 



74 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

of their own race who could sympathize with them. For several years Father 
Treacy led a quiet and studious life, but in 1892 the trouble which broke out 
in Burlington spread to this quiet little town, for when Bishop O'Farrell de- 
cided to remove Father Patrick Treacy from his charge at Burlington, Father 
William, his brother, took up the case against the Bishop. Then, with the 
advice of a third brother, Mr. James Treacy, and some hot-headed follow- 
ers, began a series of incidents that were very annoying to all good Catholics. 
William was placed under cen'sure by his Bishop. He then appealed his case 
to Rome. It was referred back to the Apostolic Delegate and decided against 
him. On February 28, 1892, he was deposed from his charge, and Father 
Leahy, curate at Perth Amboy, was sent to succeed him, but Father Treacy 
refused to yield. Then ensued a controversy which continued for three 
months, during which time the congregation was divided into two factions. 
Further appeals were made to Rome ; the case went to the Court of Chancery ; 
the rebellious pastor and his supporters were excommunicated and life was 
made miserable for all concerned. Finally the case was settled, and after all 
court expenses were paid, Father Treacy retired to private life until such 
time as the Bishop restored him to a charge. This case gained a great deal of 
notoriety, and drew forth a vast amount of useless criticism, but it also ended 
in loss to Father Treacy. Again, after-events proved the Bishop was right. 

Although Father Leahy went to SweUesboro in February, he did not get 
possession of the church till April, and it was July 4 before he got into the 
rectory. 

When Father Leahy took charge of St. Joseph's Parish the church and 
rectory were located on Church Street, on the north end of the present cem- 
etery. He at once added a Sunday School room to the side of the church. 
The church was now too small for the growing needs of the parish, and the 
cemetery was filling up, so it was finally decided, in order to get more room 
for burials, to move the church and rectory to Broad Street. The new rec- 
tory was begun in April, 1898. In September of the same year the church 
was moved to Broad Street and new additions made to the sides, so that 
instead of seating 216 persons it was capable of seating 400 persons. The old 
rectory was sold. And the Sunday School addition was enlarged so as to form 
a room for society meetings. Father Leahy then improved the present 
grounds. 

The present church and cemetery were dedicated on April 27, 1899, by 
the Rt. Rev. Bishop McFaul of Trenton, the Rev. Father Ward of Trenton 
preaching on that occasion. From February, 1894, till September, 1900, the 
parish of Woodstown was also attended by the Rev. Walter T. Leahy as a 
Mission of Swedesboro parish. On June 14, 1898, Father Leahy also opened 
a mission at Pennsgrove, N. J., and held services there on Saturdays monthly. 
The Mullica Hill Mission was opened in March, 1901, and attended from 
Swedesboro. 

On May 10, 1904, Father Leahy was promoted to St. Paul's Church, 
Princeton, and was succeeded at Swedesboro by Rev. Michael J. McCorristan, 
who at present rules St. Joseph's parish. 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 75 

Red Bank, N. J. — St. James' Church. 

To the passing observer gazing upon the peaceful scene presented by 
this beautiful property, the thought would never occur that its early beginnings 
were fraught with dangers and hardship, the outcome of religious bigotry and 
race prejudice. But such was the case, as the old pioneer Catholics have 
testified. 

The first Catholic services known to have been held in Red Bank was by 
Rev. John Kelly whilst pastor of old St. Peter's Church, Jersey City. This 
was about 1849 and 1850, when Francis Leonard, one of the old Catholics, 
carried his infant son to Jersey City for baptism, and acquainted Father Kelly 
with the fact that there were some Catholics in and around Red Bank. The 
good priest began his visits to this place and continued to come several times 
a year, till the appointment of the Rev. Michael A. Madden as first resident 
pastor of South Ambo}^, when the Mission was transferred to his care. He 
in turn was succeeded by Rev. James Callan, of the same place, from 1853- 
55, and it remained a Mission of South Amboy under Father John A. Kelly 
from 1855-1863, when it became a separate parish, with the Rev. Thomas M. 
Killeen as first resident pastor till March 17, 1867. For many years Mass was 
said in the house of Francis Leonard and in the old hall Called the Forum. So 
bitter was the prejudice against them that on many occasions services were 
disturbed by the acts of rowdyism which at this day are hardly credible, such 
as stoning the building and throwing offensive objects through the windows, 
and the use of scurrilous and profane language. We wonder how many of 
the descendants. are around to-day, and we wonder how they would feel could 
they return and see the changes that time has wrought for the once despised 
and persecuted Catholics. So intensely intolerant were the mechanics of 
those days, that not one could be found willing to take part in the erection 
of a new church. As a consequence, the framework was built in Jersey City 
and brought down on a boat. Even then it had to be guarded at night to pre- 
vent its destruction by the bigoted and benighted people. 

Both Father Madden and Father Callan suffered much from the rowdy- 
ism of the early settlers of Red Bank, and it continued even down to Father 
Kelly's time. 

On April 5, 1863, Rt. Rev. Bishop Bayley (who was himself a convert 
from Protestantism) sent the Rev. Thomas M. Killeen, then curate at St. 
John's Church, Paterson, N. J., to take charge of Red Bank. The constant 
presence of a priest in the town, and the fearless character of the man made 
him respected, and after a while loved by all. Father Killeen also attended 
Long Branch, Sandy Hook and the territory of Sea Bright Highlands, Asbury 
Park, New Monmouth, Morrisville, Lakewood and Manchester. 

It was Father John A. Kelly who, in 1856, purchased a lot corner of Pearl 
and Wall Streets, through Francis Leonard, and thereon erected the first 
Catholic Church. Father Kelly retained charge of this Mission and came 
monthly till 1863, Father Killeen's coming. He erected the first rectory, 
corner Pearl and Monmouth, now occupied by the Sisters, and remained 



76 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

four years (1863-67), when he was promoted to St. John's, Newark, and Rev. 
John F. Salami, 67-76, was placed in charge. Father Salami soon found it 
necessary to increase the seating capacity of the church, and he built the first 
addition, 1870. He also attended Long Branch and Sandy Hook, New Mon- 
mouth and Sally Coyne's Corner as Missions. In July, 1876, he resigned Red 
Bank and went to Long Branch, then to Seton Hall College. He opened a 
school in the basement of the church for about two years, 70-72, under Miss 
Thompson. 

The Rev. Michael E. Kane, of St. Mary's, Elizabeth, was called by Bishop 
Corrigan to succeed Father Salaun, July, 1876. For fifteen years Father Kane 
ministered to this parish (1876-91), during which time his firm sway, his 
learning and abilities made him and his church respected by all. Most- of the 
rabble of bigots had either passed away from earth or had betaken them- 
selves to more congenial places — those who remained learned to love and 
respect the church they once despised and persecuted — the Catholic Church 
had gradually become a factor in the life of the town — the good Protestants 
rejoiced at its growth and influence and all worked in peace and harmony 
for the general good. Father Kane built the school, '79, which had been 
opened by Rev. Father Salami in '73 and then closed. Father Kane also 
bought the present church site on Broad Street, called the Sickel property, 
and made preparations for a new church, which he did not live to begin, for 
he died on April 4, 1891, lamented by all who knew him. 

In April he was succeeded by Rev. James A. Reynolds, who came from 
Mount Holly. 

Father Reynolds saw the necessity of a new church, and on Sunday, 
June 17, 1894, Rt. Rev. Mgr. Satolli laid the corner-stone of the present beauti- 
ful building, which was dedicated and opened for public worship, thus carry- 
ing out the plans for the improvement of the parish formulated by Father 
Kane. Also present at the corner-stone laying was Rt. Rev. Mgr. McFaul, 
Bishop of Trenton. The new church was dedicated on July 17, 1894, and is 
considered one of the most beautiful churches in the State. 

Father Reynolds also transformed the old church building into the pre- 
sent Young Men's Catholic Club by adding an entirely new front, making it 
more serviceable and more beautiful. The present rectory is also the work of 
Father Reynolds. Thus "a parish that was born under trials and hardships 
has survived, and to-day is one of the most flourishing in the Diocese. 

Freehold, N. J. — St. Rose of Lima Church. 

When Father Scollard was pastor of St. Paul's, Princeton, his collecting 
tours for a new church took him as far as Freehold, and here he found a 
number of good Catholics with scant convenience for the practice of their 
faith. He at once arranged to give these good people the public services of 
their Church, and came himself to say Mass for them several times a year. 
Soon the number increased and many who were not known to be Catholics made 
their appearance, so that it was possible for the good priest to purchase a lot 
and erect a little church. This was done in the year 1854, and the church was 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 



77 



dedicated to St. Rose of Lima, and this public profession of the Faith brought 
out still other cold and lukewarm Catholics. Mass was celebrated each month, 
and the priests drove a distance of many miles, Summer and Winter, but he 
rejoiced that many were brought back to God. 

It was Father Scollard's custom to leave Princeton at noon on Saturday 
and put up with some Catholic family, so that he could instruct the children 
and prepare the people for the proper reception of the Sacraments. On the 
Sunday he went to Freehold, there was no Mass at Princeton. Thus Free- 







st. rose's church, freehold, n. j. 

hold became a Mission attached to Princeton Church and remained as such, 
under the care of the Mother Church, for nearly twenty years, being attended 
by the Rev. Fathers Scollard, Young, O'Donnell, and Moran. 

In 1872 Bishop Bayley grouped the Mission of Freehold, Jamesburg, Per- 
rineville, Hightstown, and Colt's Neck, and appointed Rev. Father Kivelitz 
pastor of this district with residence at Freehold. 



78 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Father Kivelitz arrived January 9, 1871, and began at once a life of zeal 
and activity for the church, which still keeps up (1906) with unabated fervor. 
His first effort was to pur-chase a rectory (1872), and as soon as he had a 
place to live he opened a Catholic school (1875), thus assuring the growth of 
his parish. Observing the zeal and faith of their pastor the people became 
more attentive, and with never tiring energy their pastor instructed them in 
the great truths of their religion. With religious instruction and practice 
came enthusiasm, so that the years afterwards (1882) Father Kivelitz was able 
to invite his people into a beautiful brick and terra-cotta church, capable of 
accommodating the growing congregation. The old church was transformed 
into a school, and the Sisters were brought in to teach the children, so 
that to-day the parish of Freehold is one of the best organized and cared for 
in the Diocese. 

Father Kivelitz also attended the Missions of Jamesburg, Hightstown, 
Perrineville and Colt's Neck, and opened Missions at Farmingdale and Eng- 
lishtown. 

Dennisville, N. J. (Dennis Creek) (Goshen). 

As early as 1850 Rev. Edward I. Sourin, C. M., of St. Charles Semi-, 
nary, Philadelpha, visited the Catholics of this place, and held services for 
them. Where, we are unable to say, but some must have continued loyal to 
their Church, for we find it mentioned as a Mission of Millville in 1879, when 
Father Dwyer moved the Port Elizabeth Church to Dennisville. 

Trenton, N. J. — St. Francis' Church. 

Previous to the year 1848 St. John's Church, corner of Market and 
Lamberton Streets, was the only place of Catholic worship in Trenton. In 
that year its pastor, Rev. Father Mackin, moved with his congregation into 
their new and commodious church on Broad Street, which was dedicated as 
St. John's. This left the old building vacant, and as there were a consider- 
able number of German Catholics in the city they began to agitate in favor 
of using the old church for services in their own language, but nothing definite 
was done till 1851 when Father Mackin finally sold the old building to Peter 
Hargous, a prominent German Catholic of the city. He presented it to 
Bishop Neuman of Philadelphia for the exclusive use of the German Catho- 
lics. St. John's Church had now become the possession of the German Catho- 
lics, the Redemptorists of St. Peter's, Philadelphia, came regularly to hold ser- 
vices for the congregation, old Father Hespelein being the first priest of that 
Society to' officiate (1851). They continued till 1853, when, on account of 
the formation of New Jersey into a new diocese, the Redemptorists gave up 
the charge of St. Francis, and Rev. John Gmeiner was appointed first resident 
pastor for the German Catholics, June 21, 1853. In 1856 Father Gmeiner pur- 
chased two lots on Market Street, in the rear of the church, and erected a 
school thereon, October, 1856, which he placed in charge of the Sisters of 







>.. 



m > 



'£ M 



¥/■ 



- 




80 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Notre Dame. In 1858 Father Gmeiner left St. Francis', on account of ill- 
health, and was succeeded by Rev. Anton Miiller, O. M. C, who remained 
in charge from 1858-59, when Father Gmeiner returned to St. Francis and 
remained till 1865, when he was again obliged to give up active duties and 
retire to St. Mary's Hospital, where later on he died. 

The next pastor was Rev. Father Stahr, who, being a proud man, soon 
declared the church was too small and mean-looking and called meetings of 
the congregation to move out and build a better church. For this purpose 
he took option on a lot corner of Cooper and Market Streets, and prepared 
to build in defiance of his Bishop. At this point the Rt. Rev. Bishop sus- 
pended and removed him, and replaced him with Rev. Gregory Misdiziol 
(Mitchell). Father Starr then claimed to be working under a commission 
from Father Weninger, the great missionary whom the people knew and 
revered. This gave him a following of nearly one-half of the German Catho- 
lics. No longer able to hold services in the church, he rented Bechtel's Hall 
on Front Street, and began the schism that worked so much mischief among 
the German Catholics of Trenton. After a while, urged on by Jews and bad 
Catholics, who had no interest in anything, he bought the old Front Street 
Methodist Church, and there continued his rebellious career, always posing 
as an apostolic missionary to the German Catholics, sent by Father Weninger. 
Upon hearing this, Father Weininger at first sent a letter to Vicar-General 
Smith, repudiating the man and his charge and then came on himself to 
prove how false he was, but for nearly two years the factional fight was con- 
tinued. The good Catholics remaining at St. Francis', under their pastor, 
Father Mitchell, the disobedient ones following their deposed and suspended 
priest, and at times the battle became so hot that the Stahrites did not hesi- 
tate to attack and abuse Father Mitchell in the street. 

Finally the dust of battle cleared away, Father Weninger reconciled the 
two factions, and now the little congregation found themselves with two 
churches on their hands, but no pastor, for Father Stahr departed for another 
field of mischief, and Father Mitchell, terrified by his experience, fled to 
New Brunswick, where he was appointed to St. John's German Church. It 
was then agreed that the congregation should abandon old St. Francis' and 
worship in the Front Street Church. The leaders of the schism signed a 
paper of apology to Bishop and people, and the parish now passed in tem- 
porary charge of the Benedictine Fathers from Newark, with Rev. Oswald 
Moosemiller attending, till such time as the Rt. Rev. Bishop could supply a 
regular pastor. To remove old feelings, it was suggested to call the new 
church St. Boniface, but this the Bishop vetoed, and it remained St. Francis 
of Assisium. 

In 1866 Rev. Dr. Gerber was placed in charge. The Benedictine Fathers 
having assumed only temporary charge to please Bishop Bayley till he could 
find a suitable pastor, but during their stay they had a quieting and peaceful 
influence on the warring factions. Finally, when the troubles had subsided, 
Dr. Gerber came, and he, by his zeal and learning, infused new zeal in the 
congregation, so that in 1867 he was able to build the present rectory at a cost 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 81 

of $6,000.00, and to finish the towers of the church. In January, 1869, he also 
placed the Sisters of St. Francis in charge of the school, the Sisters of Notre 
Dame having been recalled to their mother house. 

Dr. Gerber was a man of good character and amiable disposition, and it 
was a great loss to the Diocese of Newark when he left for Europe, not to 
return. 

The new pastor was Rev. Peter Jachetti, O. M. C, who came 
in October, 1869, and in the following year, 1870, Bishop Bayley 
transferred the care of the parish and the Catholic Germans of Trenton and 
vicinity to the Franciscan Fathers from Syracuse. Father Peter con- 
tinued as pastor till 1874, during which time he did much good work in and 
around Trenton, and laid the foundation of the present Franciscan parish in 
Chambersburg. In 1874 he resigned St. Francis' in order to devote all his 
time and attention to the new parish. He was succeeded by Father Avelino 
Izabo, O. M. C., who conducted the affairs of the parish successfully for eight 
years, from '74-'82. He built the present parochial school. 

Father Avelino was succeeded by Rev. Father Conrade Ellison who re- 
mained till November 1, 1883. 

It was now over sixteen years since the old St. Francis Church had been 
abandoned by the German Catholics, and time was showing on its walls. 
The building was going to ruin, the cemetery, where rested the pioneers of 
Catholicity, was neglected. Father Conrade, with a laudable desire to im- 
prove the place by removing the bodies to the new cemetery which had been 
blessed and opened in 1870, arranged to have the bodies exhumed, but no 
sooner was this good work accomplished when the greedy Hargous heirs 
claimed the property which their ancestor had given to the church for the 
benefit of the German Catholics — thus acquiring by the iniquitous process of 
law what they had no right to possess. That the money thus obtained will do 
them no good, is the wish of every lover of right. 

At present the property is built upon and occupied as dwelling houses. 
Thus passed away one of the old land marks of Catholicity in Trenton, and it 
should be held as a reproach to bishops, priests, and laity that no one 
had spirit enough to care for this cradle of their faith and hand it down to 
future times. 

On November 1, 1883, the Franciscan Fathers, in obedience to the wish of 
Bishop O'Farrell, resigned the charge of St. Francis' Church, and were trans- 
ferred to St. Peter and Paul's, Camden, N. J., from which church Rev. 
Joseph Thurnes was called to take charge of St. Francis'. 

Father Thurnes did much to improve the Church, by lowering the floor 
he added to the appearance of the interior, and then by adding new stained 
glass windows and decorating the inside improved it still more. 

Father Thurnes died June 7, 1902. 

Father Thurnes was succeeded by Rev. Dr. Joseph Rathner, who took 
charge June 15, 1902, and began at once an administration that promises to 
make St. Francis' one of the useful churches of Trenton. Genial and kind to 
all, active and zealous in spiritual matters, he is constantly adding to the 



82 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



beauty and usefulness of the parish. One of his first acts was to put steam 
heat in all the buildings, and his latest acquisition is the purchase of the cor- 
ner lot near the church. 



Bridgeton, N. J. — St, Mary's Church. 

This also is one of the old places of New Jersey, and here dwelt a little 
band of Catholics in colonial times, long before the Boston Tea Party or the 
Battle of Lexington took place. They found employment on the farms or in. 
the old iron forges, and the famous Jesuit Father Farmer came here once or 
twice a year to baptize, marry and hold services for these Catholics. How 
many families or individuals he numbered in his flock we do not know, but 
we do know that many of the Catholics who lived around " Cohansey Bridge " 
were related to the Catholics around the old Salem glass house, as is indi- 




IMMACULATE CONCEPTION CHURCH, BRIPGETON, N. J. 

cated by their names and also by the fact that they alternated by acting as 
sponsors for their respective families. Later on this place became known as 
the Bridge, and still later was incorporated as Bridgeton. 

In Father Farmer's baptismal register of 1771-1779 we find the following 
families mentioned: Lawrence and Margaret Caspar, Matthew and Ann 
Margaret Miller, Henry Schrimer, Lawrence and Christina Goeck, Edward 
and Catherine Coleman, John and Eleanor Connor, Simon and Ann Mary 
Geiger, Susanna Benner and Valentine Vosser, Christian and Susanna Thurn- 



UNDER PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK BISHOPS 83 

back, Eva Lehman, Matthew and Charlotte Goeck. But what became of 
these people or their descendants very little is known. Up to a few years 
ago, there were Millers and Lehmans, but the other names are not found in 
or about Bridgeton' parish. That some lost their faith we can readily sup- 
pose, but the presumption is that the disturbances consequent upon the Ameri- 
can Revolution scattered them to other sections of the country, so that even 
now it is impossible to locate the house where Father Farmer held the first 
services in this section ; his Register merely calls it Cohansey Bridge and 
Cumberland County. 

The last baptism recorded by Father Farmer at Cohansey Bridge was in 
November, 1779. After that we find no records of Catholic services being 
held here till 1848, when the Rev. John McDermott of Salem came occa- 
sionally. The Catholics who did remain or who came later found their way 
to Port Elizabeth or Pleasant Mills, as from 1816-1848 these were the only 
regularly-attended stations in that district, but about this date the Redemptor- 
ist Fathers from St. Peter's began to make yearly visits to Millville, and the 
Catholics of Bridgeton went there to attend Divine Services. Rev. Fathers 
Bayer, Coudenhove and Haltzer, C. S. S. R., were particularly active mis- 
sionaries at this period on the West Jersey Missions. 

In 1848-50 Rev. E. Q. S. Waldron of Gloucester made his way into this 
section and visited the scattered Catholics. These visits were continued 
by his successors, Rev. H. B. Finnegan, 1750-51, Rev. J. F. Hannigan, '51-52, 
when it became a Mission of Salem under Rev. John McDermott, who kept 
watch over the few Catholics of Cumberland, Salem and Cape May Counties. 
Following Father McDermott came Rev. Cornelius Cannon who for fifteen 
years had charge of the church at Salem, during part of which time Bridgeton 
was attended from that place till about 1863, when the Mission of Bridgeton 
was placed in charge of the Redemptorist Fathers of St. Peter's, 5th and 
Gerard Ave., who came monthly and held services in private houses and also 
in Grosscup's Hall. About 1863 Bridgeton became a Mission of Millville, and 
in 1863 Joachim Hayman was in charge, and in 1864 Rev. Joseph Wirth. 

From June 16, 1864, Rev. Martin I. Gesner of Millville attended the 
Catholics of the Bridgeton district. He it was who, in 1864, built the first 
Catholic Church in Bridgeton. The church was built upon a lot located at 
the corner of Pearl and North Streets, given to Rt. Rev. Bishop Bayley for 
that purpose by old Mrs. Charles Miller of Deerfield. The church was dedi- 
cated by Bishop Bayley in June, 1867. 

At this date (1867) there were about thirty Catholic families in and 
around Bridgeton, and Father Gesner worked very hard to organize and 
build up this parish. The old church is still standing (1905), a monument to 
his zeal and untiring labors, but time is showing its traces, and a new church 
is one of the works the future Catholics must do. 

Father Gesner remained in charge till February 9, 1873, when he was 
transferred to Elizabeth Port and was succeeded by Rev. Theophilous Degan, 
a Hollander, who as pastor of St. Mary's attended Bridgeton twice a month. 
Father Degan built the present rectory and remained in charge until 1878, 



84 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

when he removed to Cape May. The next priest to take charge of Bridgeton 
was the Rev. P. Vivet, who remained only till 1879, and was succeeded by 
Rev. Bernard J. Mulligan, the present Dean of St. Mary's, Camden. Father 
Mulligan came to Bridgeton as a young man full of zeal and energy. He 
purchased a piece of land which he opened in 1880 as a Catholic Cemetery. 
He also did good missionary work in the surrounding country by visiting the 
scattered Catholics and reviving their faith. 

When Father Mulligan was transferred to New Brunswick in 1883 he 
built the Sacred Heart Church. Rev. Denis J. Duggan then curate at St. 
Mary's, Camden, was placed in charge of the Catholics of Bridgeton, but 
Father Duggan remained only a few months, when he was sent to Mount 
Holly. 

Next came the Rev. James T. Walsh, an ex-Franciscan, who remained 
in charge till 1888, when he was replaced by Rev. Thomas O'Hanlon for about 
one half year, and then followed Rev. Father Wuest, C. S. P., who did not 
remain very long. 

In September, 1889, came the Rev. P. J. Petri, curate at Sea Bright, and 
he put the aflairs of the parish into shape. Besides making many needed 
improvements, he built up the spiritual part of the parish, so that when he 
left to take charge of St. Monica's, Atlantic City, after nearly five years' 
stay at Bridgeton, it was a day of sorrow for the whole parish. 

The next pastor was Rev. William J. O'Farrell, then curate at the Cathe- 
dral, Trenton. Father O'Farrell continued his predecessor's good work, and 
was particularly solicitous for the young people of the parish, for whose benefit 
he opened a small hall to be used as a meeting room and library. 

On May 29, 1901, Father O'Farrell went to take charge of the church at 
Atlantic Highlands, and Rev. John M. Gammell took his place, but Father 
Gammell's health began to grow worse and he resigned the parish and went 
to Vineland, and was succeeded by Rev. Dr. Haggerty, who is still in charge. 
The present census give Bridgeton about 700 souls. 



CHAPTER III. 

PART I.— DIOCESE OF NEWARK. 
Bishop Bayley. 1853-1872. 

From 1800-1840 there were only three Catholic Churches in the whole 
territory of what is now the Diocese of Trenton, viz., St. John's, opened at 
Trenton, Hunterdon County, in 1814; St. Mary's, at Pleasant Mills, Atlantic 
County in 1826; and St. Peter's, at New Brunswick, 1829. 

In 1843 St. John's, at Lambertville, was opened and also St. Mary's at Bor- 
dentown. Then came St. Mary's, Perth Amboy, 1844, and in 1845 St. Eliza- 
beth's, at Port Elizabeth. Stony Hill Chapel, erected by a little colony ot 
Germans, was opened in 1847 ; St. Mary's, Gloucester, and St. Mary's South 
Amboy, in 1848, and St. Paul's, Burlington, 1849. A church was also erected 
in 1850 at Mt. Holly. 

The new church of St. John's, Trenton, was opened in 1848, on Broad 
Street, and the old St. John's, on Lambert Street, was reopened as the St. 
Francis' German Church. At Princeton, in 1850, a church was erected, and 
in 1852 St. Mary's, Salem, was completed. 

These, with the Missions at Camden, Fellowship (Moorestown), Bridge- 
ton, Cape Island (Cape May), Swedesboro, Dennis Creek (Dennisville or 
Goshen), Red Bank, Somerville and Middletown Point constituted the 
Diocese of Newark, in 1853, when Rt. Rev. James R. Bayley became first 
Bishop of New Jersey. 

Most Rev. James Roosevelt Bayley, first Bishop of Newark and eighth 
Archbishop of Baltimore, was born in New York City on August 14, 1814, 
the year when the first Catholic Church was built in New Jersey (Old St. 
John's, Trenton). His parents were Episcopalians, and he himself became 
an Episcopalian minister. In 1842 he renounced Protestantism and joined 
the Catholic Church at Rome, Italy, and, after a due course at the Seminary 
of St. Sulpice, Paris, he was ordained to the priesthood by Rt. Rev. Bishop 
Hughes, at New York, in 1844, becoming assistant at the Cathedral, and lat- 
ter secretary to the Bishop, Chancellor of the Diocese, and still later, Vicar 
General of New York. In 1853, when the State of New Jersey was formed 
into a separate Diocese, Father Bayley was chosen the first Bishop of Newark, 
where he labored for nineteen years to spread the Catholic Faith. On July 
10, 1872, he was promoted to the Archbishopric of Baltimore. He died at 
Newark in 1877, October 3, and his remains were transferred to Baltimore 
and buried beside his saintly aunt, Mother Seton. 

85 




BISHOP BAYLEY. 









DIOCESE OF NEWARK 87 

Bishop Bayley began his administration with only twelve resident priests, 
who attended as many Missions, and only fourteen church buildings, some of 
which were only temporary makeshifts, and none of which had a decent rec- 
tory. The priests lived as best they could, their only desire being to keep 
and encourage their people. Some of them suffered much from the priva- 
tions and hardships they underwent, but they knew their good people were 
enduring similar trials. With a zeal and energy that stimulated his hard- 
worked clergy, Bishop Bayley went from place to place, consoling, confirm- 
ing, laying corner-stones, and dedicating churches and schools, rectories and 
convents, all which seem to spring up as if by magic during the nineteen 
years of his most successful Episcopate. In 1872, the year of his promotion 
to Baltimore, there were twenty-four resident priests and thirty-seven Mis- 
sions, with an increase of sixteen priests and twenty-five Missions ; whilst the 
seed of God's word was planted in a multitude of hearts. He also opened 
several parish schools in South Jersey. His life was indeed a busy one, but 
God blessed his efforts and rewarded him a hundred fold for all his suffer- 
ings and privations. Previous to his appointment the Catholics of New 
Jersey were few and far between, and had much inconvenience and annoy- 
ance to put up with on account of their faith. But about 1840 new railroads 
and canals were planned in different parts of the country, affording much 
work to emigrants. 

During the nineteen years of his administration he labored most success- 
fully in establishing Churches and Missions in New Jersey. Leaving out 
the churches in Northern New Jersey, we will consider those only that are 
included in the Diocese of Trenton. When Bishop Bayley took charge in 
1853 there were only twelve priests attending the scattered Catholics of South 
Jersey; and of these, four were borrowed from Bishop Neuman of Philadel- 
phia. Those twelve priests were attending twenty-five Churches and Mis- 
sions scattered over twenty-one counties. Neither were the conditions and 
prospects of the Catholics in this section hopeful or inviting, for bigotry and 
prejudice were apparent on every side, but Bishop Bayley was not discour- 
aged. Organizing his forces, and utilizing his opportunities, he sent his 
priests to open Missions and erect Churches wherever it was possible to 
do so. 

The great awakening which had stirred England, and brought the illus- 
trious Englishmen Fathers Newman, Manning and others into the Catholic 
fold, had also brought Hecker, Baker, Brownson, Hewitt and others into 
the Church in America, and Catholics were improving their opportunities in 
every way. Added to this was the distressful famine which devastated Ire- 
land in 1847 and 1848, when the crops failed, and scores of thousands of her 
sturdy sons and daughters were obliged to seek new homes in America. For 
two years this steady stream of emigration poured in, bringing to our shores 
a splendid class of men and women who quickly identified themselves with 
the interest of their adopted homes, and planted the Cross in every section 
of the land. They also brought their priests with them, so that following 
quickly upon their arrival the old Missions were reopened and Catholic 



88 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



chapels were erected in Swedesboro, Red Bank Middletown Point, Philipsburg, 
Moorestown and other places. And thus what was the misfortune of Ireland 
turned to be a blessing for America in the rapid growth of the Church. From 
1808-1853 the southern portion of New Jersey had been under the supervision 
of the different Bishops of Philadelphia, — Bishops Egan, Carroll, Kenrick and 
Neuman. The northern part was cared for by Bishops Concannen, Connolly, 
Dubois and Hughes of New York. In the person of Bishop Bayley, the 
Catholics of New Jersey got a Bishop of their own, and one whom they soon 
learned to love and revere as a father and a friend. 

Riverside, Burlington County, N. J. — St Peter's Church (German). 

The former name of this town was "Progre c s," and prior to 1850 the 
Catholics who had settled in this vicinity were attended by the Redemptorists 
Fathers from St. Peter's Church, Philadelphia. Always solicitous for his 
people, the saintly Bishop Neuman visited this town and received the dona- 
tion of a plot of ground from a certain Mr. Bechtold. This was in 1853, and 




ST. peter s church, riverside, n. j. 

the few Catholics began at once to collect funds for the erection of a little 
Church. The Church was begun but before it was finished it was sold by 
the sheriff for $180.00. This sale took place in 1855. The building was bought 
by Charles Behler, with money advanced by Bishop Bayley of Newark, and 
the deed was transferred to the Bishop. The Church was then completed 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK 89 

and opened for service, but in the meantime services were held in private 
houses whenever and wherever opportunity offered. The Church was blessed 
by Bishop Bayley in 1864. Services were held regularly on the last Sunday 
of the month and sometimes on a week day. 

The Redemptorists remained in charge of Progress till 1870 when it be- 
came a Mission of St. Peter and St. Paul, Camden, and was attended for 
three years by Rev. Joseph Thurnes. In 1867 the name was changed from 
Progress to Riverside. Father Thurnes opened a school under the charge of ■ 
the Sisters of St. Francis from Syracuse, N. Y. 

In 1874 the parish was transferred to the care of the Franciscan Fathers of 
Trenton, till March, 1897, during which time Revs. Vincent, Anselam, Fidelis, 
Francis, Bonaventure, Angelus and Alexius attended this Mission. They, 
finding the old Church unsafe, erected a second building to replace it. The 
second Church was opened in 1880 and dedicated by Very Rev. Father 
Francis. This Church, together with a new frame school house, was de- 
stroyed by fire in March, 1882. A new Church was at once started, and 
opened for service in the same year. In March, 1897, the Franciscans were 
withdrawn, and replaced by the Rev. Theodosius Goth, the present beloved 
pastor, who spares not himself to make this parish one of the best in the 
Diocese. 

Long Branch, N. J. — Our Lady of the Sea. 

Long Branch was a popular seaside resort as early as 1830. To this 
place came invalids in search of health from the invigorating ocean breezes, 
and here also gathered pleasure-seekers and people of leisure, who enjoyed 
the sea bathing and the parade of fashion. Several Catholics also settled here 
very early, and remained during the summer season, depending upon the 
visiting priests for the services of their Church. About 1848 Bishop Hughes 
of New York sometimes came here to rest, and said Mass at the old "Cooper 
House," which later became the "Ocean House." Not, however, till 1855 was 
there a regular service established here. Then Father Kelly, of South Am- 
boy, began to say Mass occasionally during the bathing season. This was in 
the house of John Hogan, and later in McCormick's Hotel (afterwards called 
Youch's Hotel). The first Catholic Church was erected on Chelsea Avenue, 
near the New Jersey Street Railroad, the present site of the "Noyes Cottage." 
Father Kelly attended Long Branch Mission till 1863, when it became an 
adjunct of the Red Bank Church, under Father Killeen. In 1867 Father 
Salaun succeeded to the charge of Red Bank and he continued the care of 
this Mission. During his term of office he replaced the old structure with 
a new Church, and in July, 1876, he was transferred to Long Branch as first 
resident pastor, but in the following year he resigned and went to teach at 
Seton Hall College. The next pastor was Rev. James A. Walsh, O. M. Cap., 
who took charge in 1877 and remained till May, 1883. Father Walsh 
erected the present rectory on Chelsea Avenue. From here he also attended 
Asbury Park where he began the present Church. Later he was transferred 



9 o 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



to Bridgeton, N. J. In October, 1890, the Church at Long Branch was placed 
in charge of the Rev. James A. McFaul, the present Bishop of Trenton. 
Father McFaul began at once to exert a strong influence upon civic and 
parochial affairs. He reorganized all departments of the parish work, and 
smoothed over much of the difficulties engendered by his predecessor. For 
nearly eight years he cared for the interests of St. Mary's, during which 
time he also attended the Mission of Elberon, or West End, where, in August, 
1891, he erected the beautiful brick Church of St. Michael's. Father McFaul 
also introduced the Sisters of Charity from Madison, N. J., to open an 
academy for girls of the town. When Father McFaul was promoted to the 
charge of St. Mary's Cathedral. Trenton, he was suceeded by the Rev. Wil- 
liam P. Cantwell. Father Cantwell, finding the parish increasing, erected a 
beautiful parochial schohol and hall. 



St. Nicholas' Church, Atlantic City, N. J. 

The first Mass said in Atlantic City was in summer time offered in the 
parlor of a house owned by Mr. Thomas Bedloe, and Father Michael Gal- 
lagher, O. S. A., from St. Augustine's, Philadelphia, was the celebrant. This 
was in 1855, the year following the entrance of the first train of cars to At- 




ST. NICHOLAS CHURCH, ATLANTIC CITY, N. J. 

lantic City. Later on about three years after Father Gallagher erected the Mount 
Vernon cottage, 1424 and 1426 Atlantic Avenue, and gathered his little flock 
there for services. In 1857, near the junction of Atlantic and Tennessee 
Avenues, the corner stone of a beautiful gothic church was laid, and this 
church when finished was dedicated to St. Nicholas of Tolentino, by the 
Rev. Dr. Moriarity 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK 9 i 

From June, 1858, Father Gallagher resided at Atlantic City during the 
Summer months, and returned to Philadelphia after season, coming back 
occasionally to hold services through the winter till he was transferred in 
1861. St. Nicholas' was then regularly attended as a Mission of St. Augus- 
tine's, under Fathers Meagher, Mark and Peter Crane, Dr. Stanton and 
Father Coleman till 1880, when Rev. J. T. Fedigan was appointed first resi- 
dent pastor, where he remained till 1898, working at all times to preserve 
and spread the faith throughout a pastorate of eighteen years, during which 
time he saw the place grow from a hamlet to the size of a large city. 

The congregation soon outgrew the little Chapel, and Father Fedigan 
purchased a larger site, and, having moved the Chapel there, he enlarged 
it to seat 1000. He also built the present parochial residence and a smaller 
Chapel for daily use. 

In 1885 Father Fedigan bought the site of the present Church of Our 
Lady and erected thereon a large gothic church, dedicated to St. Monica, 
which was afterwards destroyed by fire in 1896, it having previously passed 
to the secular clergy under Rev*. P. T. Petri. In 1883 the Ladies of the Sac- 
red Heart from New York opened an academy in Atlantic City on Connecti- 
cut Avenue, whch was later removed to Park Place. In September, 1886, 
they opened a parish school with eight pupils and continued it for fourteen 
years, till June 5, '1900, when they withdrew from Atlantic City. The 
present commodious rectory was built in 1895. 

In 1898 Father Fedigan was promoted to the Provincialship of his order, 
and was succeeded by the Rev. Francis J. McShane July 28. Again the 
Church of St. Nicholas was found too small for the crowds of Catholics who 
flocked to this popular resort, and Father McShane began the agitation for a 
new Church, the corner stone of which was laid on July 6, 1902, by Rt. Rev. 
James A. McFaul. The cost of the new edifice was about $125,000, and 
when completed will be one of the handsomest Churches in the State. 
Father McShane is an active and successful collector, and deserves the 
heartiest commendation for his great labors. The new St. Nicholas' Church 
was dedicated on Sunday, September 17, 1905, by Rt. Rev. James A. McFaul, 
assisted by Rev. Fathers McShane and Petri, with His Excellency Most 
Rev. Diomede Falconio, D.D., the Apostolic Delegate, presiding at the Mass, 
which was celebrated by Rev. Francis M. Sheerin, Rev. Fathers Emmett and 
Conway, O. S. A's. Rev. William O'Brien Pardow, S. T., preached the ser- 
mon. 

Clinton, N. J. — Church of the Immaculate Conception. 

It is difficult to say at what exact date the first Mass was said in what 
is now the village of Clinton, but after much careful research the author 
places it about 1852, when the Rev. Father Edward Brady, a young priest, 
was sent by Bishop Hughes to say Mass at the home of Dr. Daniel Coxe, a 
Spanish consul to the United States, whose daughter had married John Cara- 
vanna. It is asserted, however, that long before this period Father 
Schneider, the first Jesuit Missionary, visited Clinton district, when he was 



92 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

on his visit to Bound Brook in 1743. But this assertion is tradition only, 
and lacks all supporting evidence. But what we do know as a certainty is 
that when, in 1845, the Mulligan Bros, came to Clinton, there was naught of 
Catholicity save the tradition. 

When in 1854, Father Jeggo, became pastor of Lambertville he made 
frequent visits to Clinton, and continued to say Mass at the Mulligan home- 
stead till 1858. In that year he bought a barn from James Mulligan and re- 
modeled it into a little chapel, fitting it up as neatly as his scanty means would 
allow. This served as a place of worship to the Catholics for many years, 
then about eighteen or twenty families, some coming as far away as High 
Bridge and Junction. But when, in 1858, Father Rolland was made pastor 
of St. Ann's he took up his residence at Clinton. Later on he moved to 
Junction and made that his residence, retaining Clinton, Flemington, Oxford, 
Bloomsburg, and the Valley as Missions. Clinton remained attached 
to Hampton Junction till 1880 when it was appended to High Bridge till 1890, 
then it was attached to Flemington under Rev. Rudden and is still attended 
from that place by Rev. John E. Murray (1905). 

This little Church can boast of having been the nursery of several 
prominent Catholics, notably of Very Rev. Dean Mulligan of Camden, N. J., 
the Rev. Dr. Mulligan of Jersey City, as well as Sheriff T. F. Corcoran, prov- 
ing that the true faith and sturdy Catholicity are frequently craddled in hard- 
ships and trials. Although one of the oldest Catholic Missions in that sec- 
tion, yet Clinton has never had a resident priest, and unless some extraordin- 
ary influx of people takes place its chances are still slim indeed for this honor. 

Flemington, N. J. — Church of St. Mary Magdalene. 

Prior to 1847 there were only two Catholic families in this town — Miles 
Cunningham's and Sheriff Corcoran's but in 1847 the copper mines were opened 
and this brought a few more of the faith. In 1847 Father Mackin came 
from St. John's Church, Trenton, at their request, and said Mass at the 
house of James Hurley. This was on a Saturday and the following day, 
Sunday, he went to Lambertville Mission where he held early services. He 
was the first priest to say Mass in Flemington. He came again on Christmas 
Eve, and again in February, 1848. That same year, 1848, the copper mines 
closed and the Catholics scattered, and then we hear of no priest coming 
near Flemington till 1853, when the Rev. Father Jego, a French priest from 
Lambertville, came monthly on week days and said Mass at the house of 
Miles Cunningham, or William and Joseph Purcell's, as well as at Nicholas 
Barry's and Dan White's. The congregation then numbered about six fam- 
ilies with a few hired girls. It was Miles Cunningham, who, Sunday after 
Sunday, gathered the people in their little Church and recited the Rosary and 
Mass prayers in the absence of the priest. 

In 1858 a meeting was held at the home of Miles Cunningham and as a 
consequence a lot was purchased from Sheriff Bonnell, and later, 1859, a 
little Church, 24x34 feet, was erected. This served its purpose till 1870, 






DIOCESE OF NEWARK 



93 



when it was replaced by a larger building, 37x66, erected by Rev. H. Ter- 
woert of Lambertville. 

Fleming-ton remained in charge of Lambertville till 1880, when it was at- 
tached to Clinton under Father Brady, who, for a while, resided at Clinton 
till he moved to High Bridge. 

When Father Jego had completed his church he brought Bishop Bayley, 
(1858), to bless it, on which occasion the rite of confirmation was administered 
to six candidates, one of whom was Very Rev. Dean Mulligan, and his 
brother Michael, and another was Sheriff Corcoran. 







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ST. MAGDALENE'S CHURCH, FLEMINGTON, N. J. 



In 1861-1864 Rev. Claude Rolland, pastor of St. Ann's, Hampton Junc- 
tion, attended Flemington as a Mission. From 1864- 1869, Father Leonard of 
Junction came here, when later it was transferred to the care of 
Rev. John Brady; the pastors of High Bridge (1880-1884), Rev. B. 
Horan, (1884-1886), Rev. J. J. Griffin (1886-1892), Rev. Joseph Keuper, 
July, 1892, to September, 1893, Rev. Michael Coughlan, September, 1893, to 
May 29, 1901 ; Rev. S. B. Walsh, May, 1901-1903, when the Rev. Thomas 
Rudden, curate at Raritan,was appointed first resident pastor of Flemington, 
December 21, with Stockton as a Mission. In March, 1904, Father Rudden 
was replaced by the present rector, Rev. John E. Murray. 



94 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Woodbury, N. J. — St. Patrick's Church. 

The first account we have of services in this town is found among Father 
Grassle's records, where he notes that on March 25, 1793, he baptized James 
Daly at Woodbury. Nothing more is recorded of this place till 1859. 

Father Daly of Gloucester opened this Mission in 1859, and said Mass 
in private homes once a month and he built the first church. After Father 
Daly, came Father Wiseman, 1869-1877, when the parish passed to Rev. 
Michael A. McManus as first resident pastor. Owing to Father Mc- 
Manus' energy and zeal, Catholic matters picked up a little, and his removal, 
1881, caused much regret to citizens of all classes. He also attended Snow- 
Hill and Glassboro, and in both places did good work. 

Father Murphy succeeded Father McManus. He remained till 1888, 
when the Rev. Michael A. Dolan, the present rector, was appointed to carry- 
on the good work. In connection with his duties at Woodbury Father 
Dolan found time to do much missionary work in South Jersey, so that for 
a long time his territory was limited only by his zeal. 

Snow Hill, Camden County, N. J. — St. James Church. 

The Church at this place was erected by Rev. James Daly of Gloucester 
City, N. J., in the year 1859. The town was a negro settlement, some people 
having come from Snow Hill, Md., and named it. This was before the war, 
and, consequently, quite a curiosity. Later on a negro doctor from Philadel- 
phia bought the land and laid out the town and changed its name to Free- 
haven, but the experiment did not work, and the lots did not sell — even in the 




ST. JAMES CHURCH, SNOW HILL, N. J. 

early day the colored folks preferred the excitement of the city to the quiet of 
the country. The site for the church was given by James Diament, who kept 
a tavern in the hamlet, and thought a church would help improve the town and 
his business. The building was about 15x20 feet, and the street was so nar- 
row that every noise from the outside disturbed the worshippers. Across the 
alley was the combined store and postofnce and general lounging place, and 
opposite was the negro church. 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK 



95 



Snow Hill remained as a Mission of Gloucester till 1856, when it was 
attached to Camden and attended by Rev. Patrick Byrnes, who assured the 
writer that at one time there was a thriving congregation of one hundred 
Catholic farmers. These have since scattered or built themselves the beauti- 
ful churches at Moorestown, Haddon Heights, Laurel Springs or Gibbsboro. 
Snow Hill remained under the care of the Camden priests till 1877, when it 
passed as a Mission to Woodbury, where it remained till 1903, when it was 
attended from Laurel Springs and finally closed and on account of the pecular 
situation will probably never be reopened as a Catholic church. Father Daly 
also said Mass at Blackwood, where there were about eighty Catholics, who 
later on joined other parishes. 

Oxford Furnace, N. J. — Church of St. Rose. 

As its name implies, this town was formerly a great mining camp, as 
were most towns and villages of Sussex County. The early Catholics went 







ST. ROSE S CHURCH AND RECTORY, OXFORD, N. J. 

(Destroyed by Fire 1900.) 
for spiritual help either to Dover or to Easton, but in 1854 Bishop Bayley 
sent Rev. Father McMahon to this section with all Sussex and Hunterdon 



9 6 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Counties as his parish. For a while Father McMahon had no regular resting 
place, but in 1855 he settled down at Newton, and from that place he visited 
the Mission at Oxford Furnace whenever he could do so till July, 1857, 
when the Rev. James McKay succeeded to Newton and also attended Oxford. 
Father McKay built the first Catholic Church, a large and substantial frame 
structure, began in May, 1858, and opened in the following December. In 
July, 1861, Father McKay was succeeded by Rev. John Smith, who died after 




CHURCH OF 'ST. ROSE, OXFORD FURNACE, N. J. 

four months' service. After Father Smith's death, the Oxford Mission was 
attached to the parish of Philipsburg, where the Rev. Cornelius O'Reilly was 
pastor, and was attended by him till 1861, when it passed to Father Roland of 
Hampton Junction. The Church was incorporated on December 3, 1864, un- 
der Father Leonard, who succeeded Father Roland in August, 1864,. Father 
Leonard opened a day school here in a private house, with fifty-seven pupils, 
in 1867, and attended this Mission till. 1869, when the Rev. Francis O'Neil took 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK 



97 



charge of the Junction and came here till 1871. Father O'Neil built the first 
Catholic school here, which later was closed. In 1871 Washington was 
made a separate parish, under Rev. P. E. Smith and Oxford was placed under 
his care. The Church was dedicated under Rev. Father Smith, who brought 
Bishop Corrigan for that purpose and this was the first time any Bishop had 
visited the place. 

In 1873, Rev. Patrick A. Treacy succeeded to this charge, and he enlarged 
the church and became first resident pastor of Oxford. Father Treacy re- 
mained in charge till 1885, when he was succeeded by Rev. John Griffin, who 
did not remain long. Then came Rev. Michael T. Brennan, from 1885-1886, in 
which year it was attended by Rev. P. J. Petri, curate at Philipsburg. From 
1886- 1889 Father Patrick T. O'Farrell held sway, and did much to beautify the 
Church and house and to improve the grounds. 

1889- 1893 Rev. Patrick Hanley exercised his ministry here and during 
his stay occurred the great strike of miners which paralyzed the industries 
of the place and closed the mills, and engendered much bitterness and dis 
tress. For a few months of 1893 Father Hill was left in charge, and in the 
same year, 1893, it became a Mission of Philipsburg, under Rev. R. E. Burke, 
and as such was attended by Revs. John Gammel, Joseph Keuper and John 
Graham till 1894. 

In 1894 and 1895 Rev. Thomas McLaughlin came as resident pastor, 
and by his tact and good management kept life in the place and saved the 
Church from the sheriff. Father McLaughlin was succeeded in 1895, by Rev. 
Henry Russi, who attended Ocean City during the summer and whilst absent 
Revs. Julian Zielinski, M. H. Malloy and Edward Regan attended this Mis- 
sion till 1898. 

In 1899 Father Russi was transferred to Burlington, and Rev. Dennis S. 
Kelly succeeded to this parish, but in the following year, 1900, on Easter Sun- 
day, the Church was totally destroyed by fire, leaving the parish $2,200.00 in 
debt, but from the smoking ruins went up a resolute determination from 
priest and people to begin over again. And they did so. Services were con- 
tinued in an old school house, through the kindness of the Board of Educa- 
tion. The Empire Steel & Iron Company gave land, and a new Church, 
38 x 76, was erected and opened for services by Rev. William T. McConnell, 
who had succeeded Father Kelly, 1900-1905. This Church was dedicated 
November 30, 1902. In 1904 Father McConnell bought a site for a new 
parish hall. The present value of the property is about $15,000 (1900), and is 
in charge of Rev. Peter Kelly, who took Father McConnell's place in 1905. 

New Hampton Junction, N. J. — St. Ann's Church. 

This parish was established in the year 1859, when the Rt. Rev. Bishop 
Bayley appointed the Rev. Claude Rolland, a French priest, first resident 
pastor of New Hampton Junction and the surrounding country, with Mis- 
sions at Clinton and High Bridge, and later at Flemington, Oxford and 
West Portal. Previous to Father Rolland's appointment, Father Kierns of 



98 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

St. Mary's, Plainfield, visited this section on week days and held services in 
private houses. In i860 Father Rolland began the erection of a Church, 
which, although used, was not dedicated till May 14, 1863, when Father 
Rolland dedicated it himself. 

When Father Rolland resigned this charge in 1864 and returned to 
France, he was succeeded by the ardent young Irishman, Rev. Patrick Leon- 
ard, who became pastor August 1, 1864. Father Leonard saw that the con-, 
tinuous growth of the parish necessitated better accommodations, which 
could not be had where he was located. Consequently he and the eminent 
Irish lecturer, Dr. Cahill, selected the present Church location, and it was 
purchased April 1, 1866, and July 4, 1866 the corner stone of the new brick 
structure was placed in position. The Church was completed, and dedicated 
in 1867, and as soon as Father Leonard had completed the new rectory, he 
sold the old church and rectory in January, 1868. The old church building 
was afterwards converted into a dwelling and is still occupied. 

In those days Hampton Junction was a thriving place, and the parish 
was prosperous, but with the removal of the railroad shops all material pros- 
perity seems to have gone. Father Leonard was a kind and good pastor 
and left many happy memories after him. 

In July, 1864, Father Leonard was promoted to St. Mary's Church, Bor- 
dentown, N. J., and was succeeded by Rev. Francis O'Neil. Father O'Neil 
remained eleven years (1869-1880), during which time he continued to build 
up the material and spiritual interests of the parish and to exercise his in- 
fluence for good on the country Missions, for not content with doing good at 
home, he opened the first churches at High Bridge and at West Portal. He 
also built a new two-story school at Hampton Junction, which, as early as 
1875, numbered 120 children. Father O'Neil was transferred to St. Mary's 
Elizabeth, N. J., in 1880, and Rev. Michael J. Brennan was chosen by Bishop 
Corrigan to fill this important charge. Father Brennan remained in care of 
Hampton Junction till 1885, but much of its prosperity had departed. Then 
came the following pastors, in regular succession, with nothing to mark 
their pastorates except the continual struggle against debt, and a moving 
congregation : 

Rev. M. T. Dolan, curate of the Cathedral of Trenton, October, 1885, to 
January, 1888. 

Rev. William T. Donovan, January 1, 1888. 

Rev. Nicholas M. Freeman, of Bound Brook, N. J., January 3, 1893, to 
February 1, 1895. 

Rev. John W. Norris, curate at Sacred Heart, Trenton, from February 1, 
1895, to November, 1895. 

Rev. John H. Kenny, curate of St. Mary's Cathedral, Trenton, to Hampton 
November, 1895, to October. 

Rev. M. T. Hagerty, curate of St. Mary's Cathedral, Trenton, N. J., at 
Hampton Junction, February, 1897, to May, 1901. 

Rev. M. T. McCorristan, curate of St. Peter's,New Brunswick, at Hampton 
Junction, May, 1901, to May 12, 1904. 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK 99 

Rev. Thomas T. Allen, of Sandy Hook, to Hampton Junction, May, 1904, 
to present time. 

Phillipsburg, N. J. — Church oe St. Philip and James. 

On September 25, 1781, Father Farmer records the baptism of Anna Eva 
Wider, of Joseph and Margaret Wider at Greenwich, Warren County, which 
must have been at or near the present City of Phillipsburg. After this we 
read of no services being held in this vicinity till 1858. 

Prior to i860, services were held by Rev. Father McKee in the old brick 
house on Sitgreaves Street, owned by John Smith, which was recently torn 
down to make room for improvements in the Warren Foundry ; also in the 
houses still standing at 526 and 561 Main Street. 

Father MeKee was succeeded by Rev. John Smith, who served the con- 
gregation but a few months when he was taken sick and died in a Newark 
hospital. 

In September, 1859, the late 'Squire Walsh purchased from Hiram Heck- 
man, president of the land company, a tract of land 100 x 200 feet upon which 
was erected a small church at a cost of about $500. 

The corner stone of this Church was laid by Bishop Bayley in i860, and 
on December 25th of the same year, Mass was celebrated by the late Rev. C. 
J. O'Reilly, whose life of exceptional piety and devotion to his duties marked 
him pre-eminently as a man of God. Fresh, indeed, is that memorable 
Christmas morning in the minds of those who assisted at Mass, when there 
was nothing to keep out the bitter cold except the muslin tacked in the win- 
dow frames to serve as windows. 

The pastorate of Father O'Reilly extended over a period of 24 years, dur- 
ing which time he was assisted by the Revs. James Hanley, Michael Connolly, 
James Cusick, William Curtin, J. J. Griffin and John O'Leary. God alone 
knows the hardships he had to suffer during those years. When he came, he 
'found but a handful of Catholics ; but when he was called to his reward, in 
December, 1885, he left a large and well organized congregation as the fruit 
of his labors. Previous to the death of Father O'Reilly, Father B. J. Mulli- 
gan, at present pastor of the Immaculate Conception Church at Camden, was 
sent here by Bishop O'Farrell to look after the welfare of the parish until 
Father O'Reilly would be restored in health. Until the parochial residence 
was erected, in 1863, Father O'Reilly made his home among various members 
of the congregation. 

The land on which the Parochial Hall stands was purchased in 1873 and 
the structure erected in 1875 at a cost of $22,000. 

In 1873 the corner stone of the new Church was laid by the Rt. Rev. 
M. A. Corrigan. Work progressed until one-third of the church was com- 
pleted and connected with the old building. It remained in this condition 
until 1886, when work was resumed by Rev. R. E. Burke who succeeded 
Father O'Reilly. 



IOO 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



When work was resumed by Father Burke in 1886, the corner stone was 
relaid. While the side and front walls of the new church were being built, 
Mass was celebrated in the old Church as before, and never during the whole 
work were the regular Sunday services interfered with. 




CHURCH OF STS. PHILIP AND JAMES, PHILLIPSBURG, N. J. 

During the eleven years in which Father Burke labored in Philipsburg, 
great advancement was made. He finished the Church, fitted it with all mod- 
ern improvements and built an addition to the Parochial residence. On Sun- 
day, December 1, 1889, he had the pleasure of enjoying the reward of his 
•earnest labors in having the present grand edifice formally dedicated by the 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK 101 

Rt. Rev. M. J. O'Farrell, D. D., Bishop of Trenton, who was assisted by the 
Rt. Rev. J. J. Conroy, D. D., Bishop of Albany, who celebrated Solemn 
Pontificial Mass. Father Sheppard of Passaic officiated as Archdeacon, Rev. 
John Ward of Philadelphia as Deacon, Rev. Joseph O'Neil of Philadelphia as 
Sub-deacon, Father Petri of Bridgeton and Father Lawrence of Washington 
as Masters of Ceremonies. The sermon on that occasion was delivered by 
Bishop O'Farrell. 

In September, 1897, Father Burke was appointed to St. Mary's Church, 
Bordentown, and on the 22nd of the same month Bishop McFaul appointed 
the Rev. Patrick F. Connolly pastor of St. Philip and James' Church. Upon 
taking office Father Connolly found himself confronted with the thankless 
task of struggling to pay off a huge debt, which years of accumulation had 
made almost impossible. This work he took up bravely and with the helpful 
assistance of his curates, he has succeeded admirably up to the present time, 
and the people of Philipsburg owe him a debt of gratitude for his self-sacrific- 
ing labors. 

The first census of the congregation was taken in 1861. , There were then 
800 souls; m 1867, there were 1,500; in 1889, there 2,500, and in 1900, there 
were 3,000 souls in the parish. Other church property in Philipsburg in- 
cludes the Parochial Hall building and the Young Men's Catholic Club rooms 
which, besides being elegantly fitted up for the purpose intended, contain a 
library of 500 volumes presented by Bishop O'Farrell. The cemetery on Fill- 
more Street was bought by Father O'Reilly in 1861 from Daniel Block for 
$1,100. Up to the present time there have been about 3,000 burials. The first 
two bodies to be laid to rest in the cemetery were those of Mary and Julia 
O'Neil, daughters of Mr. and Mrs. Michael O'Neil of Howard Street. 

During the years 1876 and 1877 the Sisters of Charity had charge 
of the education of the children of the parish, and conducted a school in the 
basement of the Church, and resided in the building now occupied by the 
Elks. 

Mr. Slowey was the first of the old regime to undertake the task of 
teaching the young idea how to shoot, and was succeeded in turn by Mr. 
James Fogarty, who only a few months ago sought his long repbse on the 
hill surrounded by many of his former loving pupils ; Messrs. Hogan, Rooney 
and Mullen, M. Boyle, Philip Growney and Miss Caff fey, who is now a 
teacher in the public schools. Among the first aspirants to learning were 
the Rev. Father Bernard O'Connell, Messrs. Michael Conlain, Robert 
O'Hara, Hugh Smith and Mrs. Thomas Newman, and many others. 

St. Philip and St. James' parish has contributed to the priesthood the 
Reverend Fathers Bernard T. O'Connell, Neal McMeninin, John Gammel, 
Peter J. Kelly, James Prendergast, John E. Murray, William Tighe, James 
Maroney and Thomas Rudden. 

Basking Ridge, N. J. — Church of St. James. 

In 1766, ten years before the Declaration of Independence was signed 
and proclaimed, Catholic services were held in this hamlet among the hills. 



102 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Father Farmer spells it Bascon Ridge and records that on April 24, 1766, he 
baptized George Louis Hoffman, born of Paul and Magdalene Hoffman (the 
latter being a Protestant). In the following year, 1867, June 24, he was 
again there and baptized Mary Christina Schreiner, of Henry and Anna 
Schreiner, with Mary Wolf, James Zein and Christina Fister, as witnesses. 
Of course on both those occasions, and probably oftener, the good missionary 
offered up the Holy Sacrifice in these pleasant Somerset hills, and brought 
hope and consolation to those scattered Catholic people. 

After this there comes a halt, and we hear very little of Catholics in or 
around Basking Ridge till the middle of the next century, when it was a 
Mission attended first from Morristown, and in i860 from St. Elizabeth's 
Convent by the active young Irish priest, Father McNulty, now Dean of St. 
John's, Paterson. It was in this year, i860, that Father McNulty purchased 
a lot, on which stood an unused blacksmith's shop. This structure, the young 
priest had converted into a little Chapel, and was happy to say that he had 
built a church. It was a great boon to the poor Catholics of those hills, and 
the name of Father McNulty was long held in benediction. During all these 
years, whilst other places sprung up and prospered and enlarged, the Ridge 
seemed to remain at a standstill. The Church was incorporated in 1866, and 
was attached as a Mission to Morris Plains. Later this Mission became an 
attachment of the more successful Mendham parish and was attended from 
that Church till 1898, services being held every Sunday. In that year, how- 
ever, where the Rev. Joseph Ryan was commissioned to found a parish at 
Bernardsville, he received Basking Ridge as a " consolation," and, whilst ad- 
miring its historic past, received little comfort from its long, cold drives over 
the hills, Sunday after Sunday, Summer and Winter. 

Millville, N. J. — St. Mary Magdalene Church. 

As early as 1848 Father Holzer, C. S. S. R., and Father Bayer, 1848, 
visited this town to minister to the few Catholics who had come to work 
in the glass-house, for when the glass industry of Port Elizabeth began to 
decline it was revived in Millville, and many of those who were employed 
at the Port found work in the new town, which had sprung up along the 
railroad. These, however, were only occasional visits that the Redemptorist 
Fathers from St. Peter's, Philadelphia, paid to Millville, sometimes coming 
twice or thrice a year, and we know of no regular attendance of any priest at 
Milville till 1861, when the Rev. Joseph Wirth was placed in charge of this 
Mission. It was Father Wirth who built the little Catholic Church in this 
town. The Church stood on Buck Street. 

In 1864 we find the Rev. Joachim Hayman pastor, but he did not stay 
long, for, on June 16, 1864, the Rev. Martin Gesner was sent by Bishop Bay- 
ley to Millville with all the surrounding country as Missionary territory. For 
some time Father Gessner occupied a rented house, but towards the end 
of 1865 he began a rectory, the same house which is now used for a convent. 
His next work was to open a school, and in order to have plenty of room, 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK 



103 






he built the present combination house and school. Father Gessner also at- 
tended the Missions at Bridgeton, Egg Harbor and Cape May, besides visit- 
ing the Catholics at Malaga, Dennisville, Port Elizabeth and Vineland. It 
was usual for him to say Mass at 8 o'clock in Millville and then to drive to 
Bridgeton for late Mass. In the Summer time he attended Cape May and 
resided there from June to September. The other places he visited on week 
days, and often said Mass at Mr. Ward's in Leesburg. 

In 1873 Father Gessner went to Elizabethport and was succeeded at Mill- 
ville by Rev. Theophilous Degan. Father Degan remained at Milville from 
February, 1873, to November, 1873, when he moved to Bridgeton, and Rev. 
Peter Vinet became pastor of Milleville. 

Rev. William T. Dwyer, an ex-Passionist Father, was next placed in 
charge. He was an eloquent preacher and a hard worker. He built the 
present beautiful rectory, and the parish at Goshen also owes its foundation 
to him. Fie died April 5, 1881, in St. Michael's Hospital, Newark, N. J., and 
is buried at Milville. During Father Dwyer's illness, Rev. James Durick was 
in charge, until the appointment of Rev. Charles J. Giese in June, 1881. 
Father Giese continued the good work, improving the buildings and grounds, 
reopened the school with forty-five children, Alice Marshall teaching. He 
brought the Sisters of Charity to teach in the schools. 

In October, 1901, Father Giese was appointed to succeed Father Con- 
nolly at Gloucester, and after a nineteen years' pastorate left Millville, re- 
spected and regretted by all classes, leaving a flourishing parish and school 
to his successor, Rev. William T. Fitzgerald, the present rector. 



WOODBRIDGE, N. J. — St. JAMES' CHURCH. 

About the year 1660 a new and fine quality of potter's clay was dis- 
covered at this place, and with the opening of these clay-beds came also 
several Catholics, who received occasional visits from Fathers Henry Har- 
rison, S. J., and Charles Gage, S. J., Chaplains to Governor Dongan of New 
York. Their Chapel was at Fort James. 

Prominent among these first Woodbridge Catholics were Hugh Dunn and 
James Kelly. How long these visits continued cannot now be determined at 
this time. 

Not till i860 do we find another reference to Woodbridge, in which year 
Rev. Thomas Quinn of Rahway began to hold services in the homes of Pat- 
rick Masterson and John Dunn, near the clay banks, also in a loft over an old 
stable. Later on Father Quinn purchased a lot, 120 x 250, on Main Street, 
from a Mr. Dally, and, after many difficulties, erected a fair-sized frame 
church, which did service till the new church was opened. Since then it has 
been used continuously as a school. It was this good priest who also opened 
the Catholic cemetery in Woodbridge. 

In 1863 Father Quinn was relieved of this Mission, it was attached to 
the newly-formed parish of Perth Amboy, and attended by Father Cornell 



104 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



till 1865, when Father Cornell left and Father Quinn was again placed in 
charge of both Perth .Amboy and Woodbridge. 

In 1871 Father Connelly took charge of this Mission from Perth Amboy. 
He enlarged the original structure. Father Connelly was succeeded in this 
Mission by the Rev. Father Betoni, who became the first resident pastor, and 
remained in charge till October 14, 1882. 

On October 14, 1882, Rev. James Devine was appointed as successor to 
Father Betoni, but he remained only a short time, for, in 1883, Father Devine 
was succeeded by Rev. James Walsh, who built the first rectory and extended 








ST. JAMES CHURCH, WOODBRIDGE, N. J. 



the church. Father Walsh, owing to some difficulties with the people, was 
removed, and Father Devine returned to St. James, where he once more took 
up the work of the parish, and, with the good will of all, began improve- 
ments. He secured the present rectory and built the new church. He also 
built a convent for the Sisters. 

In October, 1893, Father Devine was promoted to the more important 
parish of the Sacred Heart, New Brunswick, and was succeeded by Rev. 
Joseph Flannagan, who died there as pastor. The present pastor is the 
Rev. John J. Griffin, whose success in handling the difficulties of other places 
makes him seem the right man in the right place at St. James'. 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK 105 

Egg Harbor, N. J. — St. Nicholas' Church. 

As early as 1793 the village of old Egg Harbor was a landing place for 
vessels, and that some Catholics came very early we are assured by the fol- 
lowing record : 

Dempsey, John, born August 31, 1795, of Bernard Dempsey (Catholic), 
and his wife, Mary Wier (Protestant), was baptized at this place November 
2, 1795, by Rev. Michael Ennis of St. Mary's Church, Philadelphia. The 
sponsors were Oliver Rhea and Catherine Wintley. — A. H. S., June, 1905, p. 
221. 

Thus we see that a Catholic priest found his way into the South Jersey 
wilderness, whenever his services were needed, and, as Catholics were few 
and far between, these visits were only quarterly or half yearly, till the 
Church was built at Pleasant Mills, 1826, fourteen miles away, and then all 
gathered at that place for services. And so Pleasant Mills continued to be 
the parish Church for Egg Harbor Catholics till 1863, when the Rev. Father 
Wirth, C. S. S. R., then in charge of Millville, began to make occasional 
visits to Egg Harbor. In the old baptismal record we find the names of 
the following Redemptorist Fathers Rods, Werth, Wayrich, Luhrman, Hes- 
pelein, Yunker, and Kuhn. 

On August 12, 1866, Rev. Joseph Thurnes was sent to Egg Harbor City 
as the first resident pastor of St. Nicholas' Church. Bishop Bayley, ever 
watchful of the Church's need, deemed it time to make it a separate parish. 
On February 14, 1866, the Church was incorporated, and pastor and people 
began at once to make preparations for a school building, and the much talked 
of work was accomplished. Father Thurnes had been living in a rented 
houses, but later he built a rectory alongside the Church, which later on was 
converted into a convent for the Sisters. 

In November, 1878, Father Thurnes was sent by Bishop Corrigan to open 
a German Church at Camden. He was succeeded in Egg Harbor by Rev. 
Anthony Hechniger, a priest from Rochester, who remained only for a few 
months, when he was transferred to Greenville, N. J., was succeeded by Rev. 
Joseph Esser, November 1, 1878. Father Esser was not only a pious and 
learned priest, he was also a good business manager, and he soon paid off the 
long standing debts, and spent considerable money upon necessary repairs and 
improvements. Besides Egg Harbor, his labors extended to all the sur- 
rounding Missions, Hammonton, Waterford, Manchester, Tom's River, Win- 
slow, Lakewood and Atsion. His zeal and energy and amiable disposition 
made him loved and respected by all who knew him, so that when on April 
the 5th, 1885, he died from an injury received by being thrown from his 
buggy, the mourning for him was general and genuine. 

The next priest in charge of St. Nicholas' was the Rev. Anthony Van 
Riel, who came in June 12, 1885, and remains still in charge. Father Van 
Riel, in his own quiet but determined way, has wrought much good among 
his people. He reopened the school, which had been closed for several years, 



106 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

brought three Sisters of St. Francis' from Glen Riddle, whom he engaged 
to teach in his school, giving up to them the old rectory and building another 
for himself. 

Hackettstown, N. J. — St. Mary's Church. 

St. Mary's parish, Hackettstown, N. J., was established by Rev. James 
McMahon as a Mission to St. Joseph's Newton, N. J. Rev. Father Riordan, 
of Easton, prior to this date, attended to the spiritual needs, but Mass was 
first celebrated by Rev. Father McMahon, 'in one of the humble homes of 
his parishioners, near the present site of the Lackawanna railroad depot. 
He was succeeded by the Rev. James McKee, who also was resident pastor of 
St. Joseph's Church, Newton, and who continued the services in the same 
place. Rev. John Callan was next appointed to attend St. Mary's, but it 
was then adjoined to the Dover parish, of which Father Callan was pastor. 
Like his predecessor, he was after a short time, transferred to a more im- 
portant charge. 

In 1864 it was again adjoined to the Newton parish. Rev. Edward Mc- 
Cosker, now being in charge, at once secured a site and erected the present 
church edifice. The church was dedicated by Rev. B. T. McQuade, V. G. He 
had the church incorporated on the 24th day of August, 1864, under the title 
of the "Roman Catholic Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary." The trustees at the time of the building of the church comprised 
the following : Rt. Rev. James Roosvelt Bailey, Rev. Edward McCosker, Mr. 
James C. Martin and Mr. John Cummings. After eight years of very suc- 
cessful service, Father McCosker resigned, November 20, 1872, in order to 
give more attention to the increasing demands of the Newton parish. Rev. 
William H. Orem was then appointed resident pastor, with St. Michael's, of 
Stanhope as a Mission. When the Diocese was divided in 1883, Stanhope 
became a part of the Newark Diocese, under the jurisdiction of Rt. Rev. W. 
M. Wigger, D. D., while Hackettstown became a separate parish, under Rt". 
Rev. M. J. O'Farrell, Bishop of Trenton, with Father Orem still as pastor. 
He remained in charge for a period of seventeen years, until the time of his 
death, which occurred in April, 1889. His death caused universal regret, for 
he was greatly beloved by the people of Hackettstown, irrespective of creed. 
The Rev. Neal McMenamin then was given charge temporarily, as was also 
Rev. John A. Lawrence. In the latter part of 1890, Rev. Father Accorsini 
was appointed pastor, but after a few months resigned. Hackettstown was 
then assigned to St. Joseph's parish, Washington, with Rev. Henry Ward as 
pastor, until 1898, when, having been transferred to St. Joseph's Church, 
Trenton, he was succeeded by the Rev. Joseph A. Rigney.Father Rigney was 
appointed pastor of St. Joseph's, with St. Mary's as a Mission, September 8, 
1898. The property of the parish comprises the Church edifice and land on 
which it is erected, 75 x 200 feet on Liberty Street, also a valuable strip of 
land on High Street, 200 x 300 feet. Among, the early prominent members of 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK 



107 



the parish are the following: James C. Martin, Patrick Larkin, John Cum- 
mings, John Ivory, Dennis Crowe, Patrick Walsh, William Connolly, Michael 
Timmens, Thomas Ledwith, Michael Grace, Peter Crannon and Michael 
Pendy. 

New Brunswick, N. J.— St. John's Church. 

Up to the year 1865 the Catholic Germans of New Brunswick worshipped 
in St. Peter's, although they had services in their own language several years 
before this, for when Father Hayman, 1865, came as assistant to Father 
Rogers they assembled after the congregation had left on Sunday and had 
their own services, intending in time to form a separate parish. This ar- 
rangement continued under Father Neiderhauser, i860- 1864, the next assist- 
ant, for Father Hayman remained at St. Peter's only a few months. Father 
Neiderhauser remained longer. Then came Rev. Gregory Misdziol, who on 




ST. JOHN S CHURCH, NEW BRUNSWICK, N. J. 

November 8, 1865, formed a committee to collect for a new Church. The 
committee consisted of George Henry, President ; George Deinzer, Treasurer ; 
Francis Neuberger, Secretary; George Pfisterer, John Walter, Henry Pfis- 
terer and M. Martin. 

About this time they purchased the present property on Nelson Street 
and began the building of a Church. Father Misdziol drew up the plans and 
superintended the building. He was not only a good manager but also a 



io8 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

good collector, going from house to house until he had collected a good 
amount. All seemed willing to help. Prominent among the German Catholics 
of this time were, beside the committee, Wendelin Jewnee, Martin Klein, John 
Pfister, John Nieser and John Zimmerman families. 

Father Misdziol completed the exterior of the Church and was much 
beloved by the people, but in 1871 he was transferred to another charge and 
was succeeded by Rev. Peter Paul Niederhauser, formerly curate of Father 
Rogers. He remained from 1871 to 1873, when he was succeeded by Rev. 
John J. Martens, who finished the interior and began a school. Whilst the 
Church was being built Mass was said in the little house which stood in the 
middle of the lot back of the present rectory. Father Martens was a good 
and zealous priest, but in 1888 he died. His successor was Rev. Henry 
Bruns, who remained about six months, when he gave place to the Rev. 
Bernard Friezenburg, who remained till April 20, 1896. 

The next pastor of St. John's was the Rev. Joseph Keuper, who came 
from Ht. Holly by request by Bishop McFaul. Father Keuper soon won 
the confidence of the people, and made many needed improvements. He 
renovated the church and school, and, by improvements, changed the whole 
appearance of the property infusing new life into the parish. He still 
holds the helm and boasts of the best people and parish in the Diocese. 

Bound Brook, N. J. — St. Joseph's Church. 

It was Father Theodore Schneider, one of the early Jesuit missionaries, 
who, in the Summer of 1744, visited the Catholics of Somerset and held ser- 
vices for them somewhere near the present Bound Brook, where he bap- 
tized Anna, daughter of Bartholomew Kelsen, in her father's house, Michael 
Power being sponsor. This, was July 30, 1744. His successor, Father Far- 
mer, also traversed this section on his way to the mines of Northern New 
Jersey and New York. Later on Mass was said at the home of James Devlin, 
and thus the spirit of faith was kept alive by this little band of Catholics in 
spite of numberless difficulties and trials. In ^858, Bishop Bayley placed the 
Catholics of Bound Brook under the fostering care of the Benedictine Fathers 
of St. Mary's Church, Newark, N. J. Rev. Louis Fink, O. S. B., afterwards 
Bishop of Leavenworth, Kansas, was the first regular pastor. Father Louis 
took charge in July, 1858, and, as there was no church in the place, Mass was 
celebrated in a room over the shoe store of Joseph Prehm and later in the 
homes of Lawrence Wells and Edward Butler. This arrangement continued 
for many years, till 1866, when a neat frame structure was erected and dedi- 
cated by Bishop Bayley on June 17, 1866. The cost of the first church and lot 
was about $2,500, and this was accomplished under Father Bernardine Dol- 
weck, O. S. B. Many of the first Catholics were Germans, and the parish 
was regularly attended by the Benedictine Fathers till 1868. Father Louis 
was succeeded by Father Bernardine, Father Rupert Seidenbush, afterwards 
Bishop of St. Cloud, Minn., Father Bernard Mauser, later Abbott of St. 
Bernard's Abbey, Alabama, and Father William Walter, all of whom 
attended it from Newark, N. J. 






DIOCESE OF NEWARK 



°9 



In 1868 Rev. Maurtius Kaeder was placed in charge of the Church 
at Raritan, and Bound Brook was attached thereto as a Mission. 
In 1873 Father Kaeder was succeeded by. Rev. J. A. Marshall, an ex-Domini- 
can Monk, who remained in charge of Raritan and Bound Brook till 1876, 
when he was succeeded by the Rev. Joseph J. Zimmer, who resigned the 
charge of Bound Brook, and Rev. Martin A. v. d. Bogaard became the first 
resident pastor of St. Joseph's, December, 1876. 




ST. JOSEPH S CHURCH, BOUND BROOK, N. J. 

Father Bogaard built the first rectory and worked hard to better the 
parish. In 1882 Father Bogaard resigned St. Joseph's to build up Jthe new 
parish of Somerville, which, up to this time had been attended from Raritan. 
Rev. John H. Fox then took charge for six months and was followed by 
Father James Devine. who succeeded to Bound Brook, but remained only 
three months, when he was transferred to the curacy of the Sacred Heart 
Church, Trenton, N. J. Father Devine was succeeded by Rev. B. T. O'Con- 
nell. 



no THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Father O'Connell took charge August 4, 1883, and, after paying off a debt 
of $3,500, succeeded in building the present beautiful stone Church. The 
old Church was removed and converted into a school, which was opened 
September 1, 1891, under the charge of the Sisters of Mercy of Borden- 
town. The Church, erected at a cost of $22,000, was dedicated by Rt. Rev. 
Bishop O'Farrell on June 7, 1891. Father O'Connell also opened a ceme- 
tery. 

Later Father O'Connell was transferred to St. Joseph's Church, 
Trenton, and was replaced at Bound Brook by Rev. Nicholas Freeman, who 
remained only one month, when Father O'Connell returned to his old charge. 
Later, in 1898, he was promoted to Perth Amboy, and Rev. J. A. Law- 
rence of Metuchen took charge till September, 1895, when he was trans- 
ferred to Allentown, and Rev. William A. Dittrich of Vineland came to Bound 
Brook September 21, 1899. Father Dittrich still gives all his time and atten- 
tion to the Catholics of St. Joseph's. 

Dorothy, Atlantic County, N. J. — St. Bernard's Church. 

The Catholics of this district formerly attended East Vineland. About 
1900 it was attached to Ocean City under Father John McCloskey, who, in 
1903, built a small chapel for their convenience. The chapel was dedicated 
and opened for service by Rt. Rev. James McFaul, on June 21, 1903. On this 
occasion the Rt. Rev. Bishop confirmed twenty-eight children and six adults. 
Mass is said monthly, and these poor scattered Catholics fully appreciate the 
privilege they now have, and St. Bernard's will be a centre of religion and do 
much to preserve the faith in that section. 

At present (June, 1906), this Mission chapel is attended by the Rev. 
Theodore McCormick, who resides at Milmay. Father McCloskey having left 
in January, 1905. 

Camden, N. J. — St. Peter's and Paul's Church. 

Previous to 1867 the German Catholics of Camden went either to Holy 
Trinity in Philadelphia or to St. Mary's, Camden. In 1867, at the request 
of Bishop Bayley, Rev. Father Thurnes of Egg Harbor came to Camden, and 
held a meeting of German Catholics at the home of Anthony Kobus, 419 
Spruce Street, to arrange for the erection of a German Catholic Church. At 
this meeting a committee, consisting of James Welsh, Valentine Voll, An- 
thony Kobus and Anthony Voll, were appointed to look after the work. They 
bought the old Second Street Baptist Church for $4,000.00 in January, 1868, 
and after remodeling it, Vicar General McQuade of Newark dedicated it, 
and Father Thurnes became the first resident pastor with about seventy 
families in attendance. In 1869 it was enlarged. 

Father Thurnes remained in charge till 1873, when he was transferred to 
St. Francis', Trenton. He built the rectory and school. In 1873 St. Peter's 
and Paul's was transferred to the Franciscans and Father Frances Neubauer 
was made the second resident pastor. 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK 



in 



Since the Franciscan Fathers have taken the charge of this parish they 
have erected a beautiful stone Church, and are now engaged in the erection 




STS. PETER AND PAUL'S CHURCH, CAMDEN, N. J. 

of a new school and rectory. The present rector is the Rev. Lucius Matt, 
O. M. C, under whose supervision the parish is improving wonderfully. 

Glassboro, N. J. — St. Bridget's Church. 

Whilst Father Daly was pastor of Gloucester he opened the Glassboro 
Mission. About 1866 he began to hold services at the home of John Cuddy 
in the town, and at the home of J. Gowan, out at the old Marl pit. To each 
place he came once a month, and the people received him royally. This ar- 
rangement continued for about a year, when in 1867, Mr. Thomas Whitney 
kindly devoted a church site out at his Chestnut Ridge farm. The Church 
was at once begun, and completed in a short time, but in 1868 Father Daly 
was succeeded by Rev. Father Wiseman, who was followed by Rev. Father 
Pattle, of Salem. 






ii2 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

In 1872 Glassboro was placed in charge of the newly-appointed pastor 
of Swedesboro, Rev. Anthony Cassesse. In 1877 another change was made, 
and St. Bridget's was attached to Woodbury as a Mission, under the care of 
Rev. Michael A. McManus, at present pastor of St. Aloysius' Church, 
Newark, N. J. It remained (1881 to 1886) in charge of Woodbury, under the 
Rev. Father McMenamin, who, finding the distance too far out of town, ex- 
changed the Church site for a town lot and moved the building to its present 
location. 

From 1886-1889 Rev. Charles Kane, an energetic but delicate young 
priest, was appointed first resident pastor of St. Bridget's, Glassboro. He im- 
proved the Church and built the present rectory, but died in the midst of his 
labors, January, 1889. 

Father Dolan of Woodbury attended the Church for about one month, 
and the Fathers of Mercy from Vineland also came for a few months, when 
again it became a charge of Woodbury, under Fathers Murphy, Hanley and 
Dolan. 

In July, 1903, it once more became an independent parish, with Mullica 
Hill and Elmer as out-missions, and received as pastor the Rev. Richard J. 
O'Farrell of South Amboy. Father O'Farrell worked zealously to improve 
the Church and its surroundings, and in 1904 enlarged the building at con- 
siderable expense, so that now St. Bridget's is a model country parish that re- 
flects credit on pastor and people. 

Some of the old pioneers were : J. Cuddy, P. Cahil, J. Bowe, J. Tuohy, 
P. and W. Irwin, M. Casey, M. Carey, M. Corrigan, G. Geuser, J. Kenzinger, 
Maurice Simon, Terrance Wood, James and Patrick Powers. 

Lakehurst, N. J. — St. John's Church. 

This was the old "Manchester Mission," which was opened under Bishop 
Bayley about the year 1869. The first services were held in the home of 
Patrick Gratton by Father Kelly of South Amboy. 

In 1874-1878 Rev Father Danielou of Red Bank was in charge, and when 
he resigned this Mission it was attended from Egg Harbor by Father Esser, 
1879- 1880, in which year it was attended by Father Glennon from Asbury 
Park. 

In 1881 to 1884 the Franciscan Fathers from Trenton received the care 
of Manchester and Fathers Jachetti and Angelus attended this Mission 
till 1884. 

In 1884 Manchester was formed into a separate parish with Tom's River, 
and other places as Missions. Father Flanagan was made first resident pastor, 
and lodged in a rented house near the Church. The Church was built under 
the Franciscans, Patrick Gratton donating the brick. Father Flanagan was 
succeeded by Father Hosea, who left in December, 1887. 

After Father Hosea's departure Manchester was attended by Rev. 
Father Dolan, who yielded to Father Healey. This parish now became a 
Mission of Lakewood and was attended by Father Healey, and from 1892-1896 
by Father McCullough. 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK 



n3 







ST. JOHNS CHURCH, LAKEHURST, N. J. 

From June 1888 to January, 1902, Father Joseph A. Egan was in charge 
and did much to improve this Mission in every way. At the present writing 
Father Moroney is in charge. 

Metuchen, N. J. — St. Joseph's Church. 

In the year 1867 Mass was celebrated for the first time in Metuchen in a 
" shed " erected on the present lot. In the Fall of 1869 ground was broken 
for a church which was built under the direction of the Rev. Father Duggan 
(an English convert), of St. Peter's Church, New Brunswick, New Jersey. 
The edifice was dedicated in 187 1. 

The parish was attended as a Mission by priests from St. Peter's 
Church, New Brunswick, N. J., till 1877, and during this time they always 
found a kindly hospitality at the home Mr. Nat. C. Robbins, who, although 
a non-Catholic, took special delight in entertaining the priest and helping 
along the good work. 

The resident pastors assumed charge as follows : 

The Rev. S. Bettoni, D. D„ , 1877. 

The Rev. Thomas J. McCormack, July 30, 1882. 

The Rev. William P. Cantwell, May 1, 1885 who built the rectory. 

The Rev. J. Joseph Smith, , 1890. 



1 14 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



The Rev. Michael A. O'Reilly, , 1891. 

The Rev. Nicholas M. Freeman, , 1895. 

The Rev. John A. Lawrence, , 1895. 

The Rev. Michael A. O'Reilly was reappointed rector of "St. Francis* 
Church, Metuchen," September 8, 1898. 

The Rev. John A. Graham, the present rector, was appointed, April 17, 
1900. 

On Monday afternoon, about 4.15 o'clock, December 21, 1903, while the 
choir was rehearsing Christmas music, an oil lamp exploded and the whole 
organ gallery was soon in flames. The church, which was built of wood, was 
soon burned to the ground. 

On Christmas, 1903, two Masses were celebrated in Washington Hall, at 
5 and 10.30 A. M. Masses were celebrated in this hall for one year, until 
the present edifice was erected. 




METUCHEN, N. J. — ST. FRANCIS CHURCH. 



The corner stone of the new St. Francis' Church was laid, June 12, 1904, 
"by the Rt. Rev. Monsignor John A. O'Grady of St. Peter's Church, New 
Brunswick, N. J., who also preached the sermon. 

The church was dedicated on Sunday, December 18, 1904, by the Rt. Rev. 
James A. McFaul, D. D., Bishop of the Diocese of Trenton, New Jersey. 
The dedicatory sermon was delivered by the Rt. Rev. Monsignor John A. 
O'Grady. 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK 115 

Trenton, N. J. — St. Mary's Cathedral. 

Whilst Father Anthony Smith was pastor of old St. John's on Broad 
Street he observed the rapid growth of Trenton, northward, and in 1865 he 
purchased the site of the present St. Mary's Cathedral, the corner-stone of 
which was put in place by Rt. Rev. Bishop Bayley on July 15, 1866. It took 
five years to complete the structure, and it was blessed and opened for service 
January 1, 1871, also by Bishop Bayley. Up to this time it remained a Mis- 
sion of St. John's but after the dedication, St. Mary's was formed into a 
separate parish, and Father Smith resigned the old parish to take charge of the 
new one. He seemed to foresee the fact that in some future day the Diocese 
of Newark would be divided and that Trenton would become the See of the 
new Diocese. Therefore he built for the future, and in 1880 his expectations 
were realized and although he was not chosen for Bishop, yet he became the 
first Vicar General of the Diocese of Trenton. 

Before the church was opened he purchased the McCully property on 
Bank and Chancery Streets for a school site (1868), and in 1870 began the 
erection of the present St. Mary's school building, which he opened on Oc- 
tober 2, 1 871, with one hundred and twenty scholars, and three Sisters of 
Charity from Madison, as teachers. 

In the following year, 1872, he purchased land for a cemetery out on the 
Lawrence Road, but finding much of the soil unfit for burial purposes, a new 
tract of thirteen acres was bought, to which ten acres were added in 1886. 

When separated from St. John's, 1871, St. Mary's comprised about two 
hundred and fifty families, and for six years Father Smith attended to all 
the pastoral duties himself. Not till 1877 did he get an assistant in the per- 
son of Rev. Michael Holland. In the same year he opened the Hopewell 
Mission, where he built the present St. Alphonsus' Church. So rapidly did 
St. Mary's parish grow that three years after the opening of the school of 
six class rooms, Father Smith was obliged to purchase the adjoining property 
from James H. Farrand on Chancery Street, and add six more class rooms 
to accommodate the increasing number of children. The present accommo- 
dation is seven hundred pupils. 

At last, in 1880, came the news of the formation of the new Diocese of 
Trenton, and Father Smith was again obliged to go into the real estate 
market and purchase from John L. Taylor a lot on Warren Street adjoining 
the rectory. On this site he erected the present Bishop's house, which was 
completed in 1883. Thus we find that the present beautiful Cathedral parish 
owes its existence to one energetic and zealous priest, and today it stands 
as the grandest monument that could be erected to his memory. The site 
of the Cathedral is historic ground, for here occurred the famous battle 
of Trenton, December, 1776, and a frame house which stood on the site of 
the present Cathedral rectory was Colonel Rahl's headquarters, whither he 
was carried when wounded in battle, and where he died, December 27, 1776. 

In 1882 Father Smith turned his attention to East Trenton, and finding 
a large number of Catholics in this section he purchased a plot of ground, 



n6 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



corner of Sherman and St. Joe's Avenues, and in 1882 erected the brick 
building now used as a rectory. This building was used as school and 
church till Father McFaul, now Bishop McFaul, built the present school 
structure. 



#*■':§' I' 1 




ST. MARYS CATHEDRAL, TRENTON, N. J. 

When, in November, 1881, Bishop O'Farrell took up his residence in 
Trenton, he lived in a rented house on West State Street till 1883, when the 
Bishop's house was completed. At this time Father Smith also enlarged the 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK n 7 

Cathedral rectory, joined it with the Bishop's house, so that it looks like 
one large building. This was his last great work. He died August II, 1888. 

After Father Anthony Smith's death, no permanent rector was ap- 
pointed for a while, the Bishop himself acting in that capacity with the Rev. 
Joseph Smith as temporary rector. This arrangement continued till 1890, when 
Father Joseph Smith resigned his charge and retired to the little parish of 
Metuchen. Succeeding Father Smith came Rev. John M. McCloskey, who 
was acting-rector from the Spring to the month of October, when the Rev. 
James A. McFaul was transferred from Long Branch to become rector of St. 
Mary's, where from 1879-1881, he had been assistant to Father Anthony 
Smith. Father McFaul at once inaugurated many needed improvements, 
both in school and church, besides placing in position the present beautiful 
organ. 

St. Mary's remained in charge of Father McFaul, who was successively 
Chancellor, Secretary and Vicar General, till January 1, 1895, when, the 
Rev. John H. Fox was called from St. Joseph's to the rectorship of the 
parish. Father Fox (now Monsignor Fox), spared no effort to make St. 
Mary's what it should be, the model church of the Diocese. During his term 
of office the sacristy was enlarged, the sanctuary extended, and the whole in- 
terior and exterior of the building improved and decorated. At present he 
is assisted in his work by Revs. Arthur D. Hasset, Thomas Whelan and Dr. 
Griffin. 

The schools have just passed out of the charge of the Sisters of Charity, 
who, for thirty-five years have ministered so faithfully to the generations of 
Catholics, but their services are needed in the Newark Diocese. Their places 
will be ably supplied by the Sisters of Mercy. 

Besides the ordinary parish work, the priests of the Cathedral attend the 
almshouse, the State Hospital for the Insane and the State Industrial School 
for Girls. 

The parish numbers about 4,300; school, 650. 

Washington (Mansfield), N. J. — St. Joseph's Church. 

This parish was started as a small Mission and attended by the Rev. 
Father Roland of Hampton Junction, who came occasionally to hold services 
in private houses, 1861-1864. 

Father Leonard, who succeeded Father Rolland, continued these visits 
till his transfer in 1869, when Father Francis O'Neil, also of Hampton, came 
to Washington for services, till 1871. 

At the old £hange Water Furnace, about three miles from this place, 
Father Farmer stopped to hold services for the iron workers of that dis- 
trict. This was the year of the Declaration of Independence. In that year, 
1776, October 17, he records at this place the baptisms of John Wm. Call, and 
on May 17, 1781, William Sary, on May 29, Margaret Robin, May 29, Hannah 
Wilson, showing that he must have spent several weeks in that section. 

In 1871, the Rt. Rev. Bishop Bayley, always ready to recognize merit 
and advance the cause of Christ, established a new parish in Warren county 



n8 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



by grouping the Missions at Washington, Oxford and Belvidere, and placing 
the Rev. Patrick E. Smyth, then curate at Philipsburg, in charge of that dis- 
trict. Father Smith took up his residence at Washington as its first resident 
Catholic pastor, and said the first parish Mass in the home of James Allen, 
on March 19, 1871, with about thirty Catholics present. This was a small, 
but encouraging beginning, for the people, appreciating the privilege of having 
their own pastor, went vigorously to work under the guidance of their en- 
terprising and enthusiastic priest. They secured the use of a barn, which 
they fitted up for a temporary chapel. A small altar was erected and a 
number of benches constructed from rough boards, all having been done dur- 
ing the following week, so that on the second Sunday of his pastorate Father 
Smith had a little chapel which served for worship for over a year. Here 
Mass was celebrated three times per month. 




st. Joseph's church, Washington, (mansfield), n. j. 

Thus the Washington parish continued to grow, and in Mr. James 
Allen, Father Smyth found an efficient Sunday school teacher, as well as a 
capable altar boy who, although a devoted Catholic, was loved and honored 
by his Protestant neighbors and fellow townsmen. 

So great was the enthusiasm of pastor and people that in the Fall of the 
same year the site of the present St. Joseph's Church was purchased. Then 
plans for a new church were made by John A. Keily, the famous Brooklyn 
architect. These plans called for a $7,000.00 structure, but so great was the 
hope of these people that the building actually cost $10,000.00. Even the 
Protestants showed their readiness to help on the good work, and we find 
a $100.00 donation from J. B. Cornish, A. W. Crevalling, J. W. Van Doren 
and Sheriff Sweeney respectively. 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK 



119 



The following April, 1872, the corner-stone was put in place, and blessed 
by Vicar General Corrigan, who preached on the occasion. Fathers O'Reilly 
of Phillipsburg, O'Neil of Hampton Junction, and McCusker of Newton, were 
also present. 

In August the building was ready for dedication, and this 
service was performed by Rt. Rev. Monsignor Seton, the Right Reverend 
Bishop being unable to attend. The Mass was sung by Rev. Pierce Mc- 
Carthy of Dover, Fathers O'Reilly and O'Neil as ^Deacon and Sub-deacon, 
respectively. The church was dedicated under the title of St. Joseph's, and 
was considered one of the ornaments of the town. Whilst the people of 
Washington contributed most generously towards its erection, yet a very 
large portion of the building fund was subscribed by the Catholics of Jersey 
City, Trenton and Phillipsburg. 

Some of the gallant pioneer Catholics of Washington who put their hearts 
and hands into this great work were : James Allen, Thomas Sexton, Thomas 
Byres, James Nolan, Lawrence Dempsey, Thomas O'Hallorin, David Dodd, 
Timothy Sheehan, Patrick Hastings, John Mahoney, Michael Leonard, 
Michael Meagher, John Connors, Roger Hayes, Matthew Casey and John 
Gleason, all brave men and true who with their wives and sweethearts, did 
many other faithful works that space will not permit us to mention. 

St. Joseph's Church was incorporated in 1872, with James Allen and 
Thomas Byrne as first lay trustees. 

In May, 1873, Bishop Corrigan promoted Father Smythe to the more im- 
portant parish of Madison. The second pastor of St. Joseph's was 
the Rev. Patrick Treacy, who remained at Washington till 1882, during which 
time he opened a day-school for the parish children. In 1882 Father Treacy, 
preferring the town of Oxford, took up his residence there, thus making 
Washington a Mission Church, much to the dissatisfaction of the people and 
the detriment of religion. Soon, however, a new pastor, the Rev. Father 
Fitzpatrick was appointed to Washington, with Belvidere as a Mission, but in 
1883 Father Fitzpatrick resigned this charge, and Washington became a part 
of the newly established Diocese of Trenton. Rev. William H. Donovan, a 
priest of the Trenton Diocese, now succeeded to this charge, and for five 
years he worked with persevering energy towards the liquidation of the debt, 
which had become heavier on account of the hard times. Father Donovan 
made many needed improvements, and kept the property in excellent repair. 

In 1888 he was transferred to New Hampton Junction, which parish was 
then afflicted with a big debt and a dwindling congregation, owing to the re- 
moval of the railroad shops. 

Rev. John A. Lawrence took charge of Washington parish in 1888 and 
remained till 1890, when he was succeeded by Rev. Henry Ward, April 28, 
1890, from the Cathedral, Trenton, where he had served as assistant, who, 
on taking charge, was given the parish of Hackettstown as a Mission instead 
of Belvidere, which was- left in charge of Oxford. Father Ward remained 
at Washington for eight and one-half years, and succeeded in reducing the 
debt considerably as well as keeping the property in repair, but the congre- 



120 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

gation, never very large, was gradually diminishing. Father Ward also had 
stations at the following places where he went from time to time to say 
Mass, administer the Sacraments and instruct the children in Catechism: 
At Schooley's Mountain Mass was offered during the Summer months in the 
parlor of Heath House Hotel for guests and cottagers and domestic help. 
Mr. Coleman, proprietor of the hotel, a Protestant gentleman, always gave 
him a cordial welcome. Near Waterloo, Mass was offered in a farm house 
of Michael Kenny once a year, in Paschal time, in order to give some aged 
and infirm people in the vicinity an opportunity to fulfill the Easter duty. 
At a point near Mr. Kenny's farm the three counties of Morris, Essex and 
Warren meet. Near Allamuchy, Mass was celebrated in the house of John 
Smith and was attended by the Catholics employed on Mr. Rutherford's 
"Tranquillity Farm." Near Danville, Mass was offered in the home of 
Michael Preston. Near Vienna Mass was offered three or four times a year 
in the farm house of a good Irishman, Patrick Larkin. 

Father Ward also had a station at Harker's Hollow, west of Montana, 
which he visited, at the home of James Gorman, for the purpose of baptizing 
infants and instructing children. 

On September 8, 1898, he was transferred to St. Joseph's, Trenton, and 
succeeded by Rev. James Rigney, 1898-1905. Father Rigney made many re- 
pairs on church and rectory. In May, 1906, he was transferred to the High- 
lands and was succeeded by Rev. John Caulfield, of Ocean City, the present 
pastor. 




BISHOP CORRIGAN. 



CHAPTER III. 

PART II.— DIOCESE OF NEWARK. 

Bishop Corrigan. 

Following the firm and energetic Bishop Bayley came the courteous and 
pious Dr. Corrigan, who was called from the presidency, of Seton Hall Col- 
lege, to rule the growing Diocese of Newark. His constant associations with 
Bishop Bayley in administrative work had fitted him for his new position, so 
that, although only thirty-four years of age, he entered upon his duties as 
one prepared. Some thought his youth and inexperience as a pastor unfitted 
him for this position, but they were mistaken. His administration of nearly 
nine years proved that he was not only scholarly and pious, but shrewd in 
the management of all details, for he put every department of the Diocese 
in the best possible condition. Upon taking up office he found twenty-five 
parishes and twenty-six Missions in South Jersey. When he left they had 
increased very considerably and his energy and zeal seemed to infuse itself 
among priests and people. The Diocese of Newark was the school in which 
he prepared himself for the greater task of ruling the great Arch-Diocese of 
New York. In his dealings with priests and people he was gentle but firm, 
knowing that oftentimes broad-mindedness meant a neglect of duty, and that a 
good bishop will always meet criticism when he attempts to regulate things 
that have gone wrong for years, and no matter what he does there are always 
some who think they could have done it better. 

Rt. Rev. Michael A. Corrigan, D. D., was born in Newark, N. J., August 
13, 1839, attended old St. John's school, Mulberry Street, and in 1855 St. 
Mary's College, Wimington, Del., whence he went to Mt. St. Mary's, Em- 
mitsburg, Md. From here he went to Rome where he became one of the 
first students to enter the American College of that city. Ordained Septem- 
ber 19, 1863, ne returned to Newark and was made Professor of Dogma and 
Sacred Scriptures in the Seminary at Seton Hall. From this he passed to 
the charge of the Seminary and then to the vice-presidency of the college, later 
becoming president of that institution. In 1873 he was appointed second 
Bishop of Newark, to succeed Bishop Bayley. The new Bishop at once took 
up and carried out the plans formulated by his predecessor. 

Bishop Corrigan was always most assiduous in visiting the parishes of 
his Diocese, but so scattered and poor were the Catholics of South Jersey 
that the appointment of a priest to this district was considered like banish- 
ment to Siberia, in fact, for a long time it was called the Siberia of the 



22 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK 



123 



Diocese. Finally, in October, 1880, Bishop Corrigan was promoted to the 
See of New York, and the new Diocese of Trenton was formed out of the 
old Diocese of Newark. Both priests and people grieved to lose him, but his 
elevation to this honor pleased them very much. 

Woodstown, N. J. — St. Joseph's Church. 

The old stage road between Gloucester City and Salem passed through 
Sharptown, about two miles west of the present Woodstown. This whole 
district was then called Pilesgrove, and when Father Farmer went thither on 
his quarterly trips to hold services for the Catholics in the homes of Matthew 
and Adam Geiger, at the Glass house, near Allowaystown, Salem County, as 
early as 1770, he found many Catholics scattered around Pilesgrove, 
working on the farms of that section. These had clung together under Father 
Graessle, but after the Revolutionary War we hear no more of the Piles- 
grove Mission, till in 1848, when the first Catholic Church was opened in the 
City of Salem. 




ST. JOSEPH S CHURCH, WOODSTOWN, N. J. 

Beginning with Father Waldron, in 1848, the various pastors of Salem 
continued to look after the Catholics of the Woodstown district, but these 
people as a rule went to Salem for services. Occasionally Mass was said at 
the home of the old Matthew Durr, in order to keep up the tradition of the 
Pilesgrove Mission. Especially was this the case with Father McDermott 
(1851-1855), whose missionary travels extended over all Gloucester, Salem, 
Cumberland and Cape May counties. So also did Father Cannon visit 
Woodstown for services (1855-1870). On these visits Mass was said at var- 



124 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

ious places, at Durr's, near Sharptown; at Mr. Michael Byrnes, near the old 
Harrisonville toll-house ; and at James McCrane's, near the County line. 
From 1870- 1875 Father Pattle continued this arrangement, but about 1872 the 
number of Catholics increased so much, that it was agreed to erect a little 
church at Woodstown for their convenience. To do this it was deemed neces- 
sary to assess each member the sum of $7.50, by which means $150.00 were 
realized, but hardly was the frame-work raised on high when a violent wind 
storm levelled it to the ground, where it remained lying for a long time, as 
the contractor could not raise sufficient money to go on with the building 
Later the lumber was sold by the sheriff to satisfy other claims against the 
builder. Father Pattle's next venture succeeded, and in 1872 we find a neat 
little building, 25 x 40 feet, ready for use, located at the forks of the Mullica 
Hill and Harrisville roads. 

When Father Pattle was transferred to St. Paul's, Burlington, he was 
succeeded at Salem by Father Dernis, who attended Woodstown Church as a 
Mission from 1876 till 1887, when it was detached from Salem parish, and 
made a Mission of the Swedesboro parish under Rev. William P. Tracy. 
Father Tracy attended this Mission up to 1890, when Father Dernis resigned 
his parish at Salem and took up his abode as first resident pastor of St. 
Joseph's Church, Woodstown, where he remained till January, 1894. In 
January, 1894, the Rev. Father Dernis was transferred to New Brunswick, 
N. J. The parish at Woodstown again became a Mission of Swedesboro, 
with Rev. Walter T. Leahy in charge, who, after consulting with the people, 
obtained Bishop McFaul's permission to purchase a new site for church and 
cemetery. Five lots were purchased on Elmer Street, from Charles Kuhn, 
for $500.00, and a little later a lot was purchased on Broad Street, from 
Edward Haines, for $180.00. The church was then moved to the Broad 
Street lot, and an addition of 25 feet and sacristy were added. New pews 
were installed, and several minor improvements made, costing in all about 
$2,500.00. In 1899 Father Leahy bought the lot adjoining the church from Dr. 
Ewen of Allowaystown, N. J., and erected the present rectory thereon. The 
present cemetery, on Elmer Street, was then opened and the bodies were 
removed from the old graveyard on the Pike. Father Leahy remained in 
charge of Woodstown till November 1, 1899. 

In November. 1899, the Rev. John J. O'Farrell was transferred to St. 
Joseph's, Woodstown, as its second resident pastor, with the Missions of 
Pennsgrove and Elmer as his charges. Father O'Farrell furnished the new 
rectory, improved the grounds around church and house, built horse sheds, 
added many new articles of church furnishing and built a beautiful church 
at Pennsgrove, N. J. Upon the death of Father Carey, at Carteret, Bishop 
McFaul promoted Father O'Farrell to the charge of that growing and im- 
portant parish. Father O'Farrell left Woodstown on March 15, 1901, and 
was succeeded by the Rev. William J. Morrison, who remodeled the church 
and made many improvements. Father Morrison also attends the Penns- 
grove Mission twice each month. 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK 



'25 



Florence, N. J. — St. Clare's Church. 

As far back as 1857 there were Catholics around the Florence Iron Works, 
but these attended Mass either at Bordentown, Mount Holly, or Burlington, 
but in 1873 Rev. Patrick Delaney, O. M. C, opened a Mission here and said 
Mass in private houses. In that same year, 1873, Father Delaney erected the 
first Catholic Church in Florence, at the corner of Second and Sayre Streets. 
This little frame church seated about 150 persons, and continued to be served 





mm ESI 

illtl J I 




itiitiiia 

if-liiwitsiir' 




ST. CLARE S CHURCH, FLORENCE, N. J. 



by the Franciscan Fathers of Trenton until 1883, when the Rev. M. J. O'Far- 
rell attached it as a Mission to Bordentown, then in charge of Rev. P. F. 
Connolly. 

Whilst in charge of the Franciscans we find it attended monthly. Father 
Connolly continued in charge of St. Clare's till 1894, during which time he 
made provision for the future, by purchasing four lots on Front and Walnut 
Streets. As a Mission of Bordentown it was attended either by Father Con- 
nolly or his curates. 

The Rev. Thomas Degnan was appointed pastor of Florence in 1890 and 
remained till May, 1891, when he was made pastor of Beverly. In 1894 Rev. 
Cornelius Phelan boarded at the home of Mrs. Hughes and became the first 
resident pastor of St. Clare's parish. Father Phelan labored hard to pay off 
the indebtedness on the church and for six years held the people together. 



i 2 6 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

In 1900 Father Phelan was transferred to Sea Isle City, and, owing to 
the smallness of the congregation, St. Clare's was again attached to St. Mary's 
Bordentown, and has since been under the care of the Rev. D. J. Duggan and 
his assistants. 

In 1904, as the congregation grew, Father Duggan saw the necessity of 
a new church, and in July, 1904, the ground was broken for the foundations. 
On the following April 16, 1905, the new St. Clare's was blessed and opened 
for use. It is a beautiful Gothic structure, substantially built of brown stone, 
neatly fitted up for the accommodation of about 300 people. Most of the 
windows and furnishings are gifts from the good people of the parish. We 
regret that the reverend pastor was too modest to furnish us a picture of his 
beautiful church. And it must not be forgotten that the non-Catholics of 
Florence were generous in their aid to the building fund of St. Clare's. 



Riverton, N. J. — Sacred Heart Church. 

Prior to the year 1873 the Catholics of Riverton and vicinity were accus- 
tomed to attend Mass at Riverside, Moorestown and Camden. Though sum- 
mer sun or wintry blast could not prevent those sturdy old people from assist- 
ing at the Holy Sacrifice on Sunday, still the inconvenience of travel often 
turned their thoughts towards the hope and desire of one day having their 
own little house of worship which they could visit more often to pour forth 
their petitions and prayers of thanksgiving at the feet of Our Crucified Re- 
deemer. This feeling it was that moved the Farleys, Burns's, O'Neils, Mc- 
Keons and others to consult Rev. Peter Jachetti, then pastor of St. Joseph's 
Church, Riverside, and enlist his aid towards assembling the few Catholics 
of Riverton, with the view of building a church. The first meeting of these 
people was held in the house of Owen Farley, presided over by Rev. Father 
Anselm, O. M. C, who represented Father Jacetti. It was decided then to 
purchase a lot of ground. In 1874 ^ ass was celebrated for the first time, 
within what is now the borough of Riverton, at the house of Edward McKeon, 
which still stands on Main Street. 

From this time on Mass was said occasionally at the houses of Owen 
Farley, James O'Neil and Michael McDonald. It was at last arranged to 
purchase ground on Lippincott Avenue, but when it became known that a 
Catholic Church was to be erected on the site, some of the residents on that 
thoroughfare petitioned the owner not to sell his property for that purpose. 
In this trying time, however, there was one man, Mr. Lemuel Davis, a Pres- 
byterian by faith, who did not share the opinion of his neighbors. Liberal in 
his views and deep in his practices of the Christian religion, this man as- 
serted, "The more churches we have the better it is for the people." He 
came to the aid of these zealous Catholics, and what they could not purchase 
for money, he in the charity of his heart and the nobleness of his soul donated 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK 



i 27 



to them. His gift was a piece of ground on Fourth Street, near Main, on 
which the first church was erected, which is now used as a kindergarten to 
the public school. Though live and twenty years have passed, and the priest 
who accepted his gift has gone to his eternal reward, we take this occasion to 
express our gratitude to Mr. Davis and to wish him length of days and happi- 
ness of years for this noble and Christian act. 




SACRED HEART CHURCH, RIVERTON, N. J. 

The corner stone of the first church was laid May 31, 1879, by the Rev. 
Peter Jacetti, O. M. C, who had charge of the Mission. The edifice was dedi- 
cated to Divine worship on July 6 of the same year by Rt. Rev. M. A. Corri- 
gan, Bishop of Newark, who afterwards became Archbishop of New York. 

The Catholics of Riverton and vicinity attended Mass at this church until 
the erection of the present edifice. This Mission was attended from time to 
time by the Franciscan Fathers, among whom were Rev. Peter Jacetti, Father 
Sharoun, Father Anselm, Father Francis Lehner. Faithfully and loyally for 
nine years they attended to the spiritual wants of their flock with that zeal 
that has always characterized their lives. 

The secular priests, under the guidance of our late and lamented Bishop 
O'Farrell, took charge of the Mission in the person of Rev. James McKernan, 
February 26, 1888. Father McKernan at the time 'was pastor of St. Joseph's 



128 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Church, Beverly, and attended Riverton every Sunday. Seeing that the edifice 
was becoming too small for the growing congregation, he resolved to pur- 
chase a plot of ground for a more commodious church building. 

Father McKernan started a building fund and purchased the nicely lo- 
cated site of the present church, which is now conveniently attended by the 
Catholics of Riverton and Palmyra. In 1891 this zealous and pious man was 
transferred to the pastoral charge of St. Joseph's Church, Sea Isle City. 
After his transfer the parish was attended by Rev. Father Degnan, who died 
after three months' work here and in Beverly. He was succeeded by the 
Rev. John M. McCloskey, who took up with ready and willing heart the work 
so nobly begun by Father Degnan. Father McCloskey immediately had 
plans and specifications prepared for the proposed new edifice, having a seat- 
ing capacity of five hundred, the corner stone of which was laid August 6, 
1892, by the Rt. Rev. Michael O'Farrell, D. D., first Bishop of Trenton. It 
was dedicated August 20, 1893, by Bishop O'Farrell, the sermon on this oc- 
casion being preached by Very Rev. James A. McFaul, Vicar General, now the 
Rt. Rev. Bishop of the Diocese of Trenton. 

Father McCloskey, like his predecessor, lived in Beverly, but said a second 
Mass in Riverton every Sunday. In 1894 he was promoted by Rt. Rev. Bishop 
McFaul to the Chancellorship of the Diocese of Trenton, which position he 
filled with credit to himself and his Diocese until called to his eternal reward 
October, 1898. He was succeeded at Beverly by Rev. M. J. Haggerty, D.D., 
who attended the Mission of Riverton for three months. In 1895 Rev. Simon 
B. Walsh was transferred from the curacy of St. Mary's Church, Gloucester, to 
the pastorate of St. Joseph's Church, Beverly, thereby succeeding Father 
Haggerty in .charge of the Mission of Riverton. For six years Father Walsh 
carried on the work of the Mission and made great efforts to liquidate the 
debt. He was transferred from Beverly to St. Joseph's Church, High 
Bridge, 1901. 

The increasing membership of the Riverton Mission necessitated such 
frequent visits here of a priest that the Rt. Rev. Bishop McFaul decided to 
separate it from Beverly and appoint to it a resident pastor. On May 28, 
1901, Rev. J. F. Hendricks was transferred from Vineland and appointed first 
resident pastor of Riverton. Father Hendricks began his work by collecting 
funds for the building of a rectory. The people responded generously to his 
appeals and as a result a beautiful parochial residence was built 
on the north lot adjoining the church. He then turned his attention to the 
much-needed renovation of the church. He repaired the exterior and added 
materially to its beauty with pretty green lawns and shading trees. 

Trenton, N. J. — Church of the Immaculate Conception. 

It was Father Jachetti who organized this parish. At the time he was 
in charge of old St. Francis' Church on Front Street, but finding the field of 
labor too small and restricted, he obtained the approval of Bishop Corrigan 
to open a Mission chapel for the convenience of the German Catholics of 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK 



129 



South Trenton and Chambersburg. This he did in 1874, when he purchased 
a large plot of ground on Chestnut Avenue, and erected a frame church. 
The corner stone was placed July 19, 1874, by Vicar General Smith and the 
chapel was dedicated by Rt. Rev. Bishop Corrigan April 25, 1875, under the 
title of "Our Lady of Lourdes." This chapel was 85 x 35 feet, arranged for 
three altars, and could seat over four hundred. 

A little previous to this time hundreds of immigrants from Germany, Ire- 
land and Italy began to settle in this section of Trenton, so that in a little 
while Father Jachetti found his church inadequate for their accommodation, 
and consequently, in 1887, he began the erection of the present commodious 
church building. The new church was dedicated October 5, 1890, by the Rt. 
Rev. Bishop O'Farrell, under the title of the "Immaculate Conception." The 
old church still stands and is used for parish purposes. The new Gothic 
church is 182 x 101 feet and 56 feet high, and will seat twelve hundred people. 
The towers are still unfinished, but are designed to be 173 feet high. 

The dedicatory Mass was said by Rt. Rev. Bishop Wigger, and the ser- 
mon for the occasion was by Rt. Rev. Bishop O'Farrell. 

1875 a school was opened by Father Jachetti in the basement of the con- 
vent, where it continued till 1880, when a new frame school was built, 
but, as there are now over 6oo children in attendance, Father Bernardine, the 
present pastor, has begun the erection of a permanent stone structure for 
school purposes. 

Father Jachetti remained in charge till 1892, when he was recalled to 
Albany, and was succeeded by Rev. Francis Lehner, who continued the good 
work till 1896, when Rev. Bonaventure Zoller became pastor. Father Bona- 
venture increased the size of the school, and when he left, Rev. Dominic 
Reuter assumed the direction. 

The parish is now under the care of the Rev. Bernardine Ludwig, O. M. 
C, who is now (1906) supervising the erection of the new school. 

In June, 1898, the corner stone of a new college was laid. The work on 
the building was advanced so rapidly that it was blessed by Bishop McFaul 
and opened for students on September 28 of the same year. The college is 
a three-story brick building, having a frontage of no feet, and has all the 
equipments of a first class institution. It is intended only for students who 
wish to become members of the Franciscan Order. One of the Franciscan 
Fathers is the Catholic Chaplain to the State Prison. He devotes a great 
deal of time and care to the inmates, instructing them in their faith, and pre- 
paring them for the Sacraments. Mass is said every Sunday and instructions 
given twice a week. Besides their labors in Trenton, the Franciscan Fathers 
did considerable missionary work in different parts of the Diocese, and built 
churches in Camden, Riverton, Riverside, Beverly, Toms River, New Egypt 
and Point Pleasant. The population of the Immaculate Conception parish is 
somewhat over three thousand. There are five hundred and fifteen children 
in the parochial school. 



13° 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



New Monmouth, N. J.— St. Mary's Church. 

Father John Callan, who died as pastor of Dover, seems to have been the 
first priest to do missionary work in the district now called New Monmouth. 
This was about 1853, and Father Callan was then living at Middletown Point 
(now Mattawan), whence he later removed to South Amboy. He held the 
first services in Dr. Edwin Taylor's barn, through the courtesy of that gentle- 
man. Father Callan continued his visits to New Monmouth till 1855, as did 
his successor, Father John Kelly, of South Amboy, from 1855- 1863, but when, 
in December, 1863, the Rev. Thomas M. Killeen was appointed first resident 
pastor of Red Bank, the New Monmouth district became a part of his mis- 
sionary territory. In this year, 1863, George P. Fox, a Summer visitor, 
offered Bishop Bayley a lot for a church site, but owing to the unsettled con- 
ditions during the Civil War, the Rt. Rev. Bishop declined the obligation of 
building a church here. 




ST. MARY S CHURCH, MONMOUTH, N. J. 



Later on, however, in 1875, Mr. Fox again offered Bishop Corrigan an 
acre of land, which, after the usual preliminaries, was accepted. 

The care of Catholic interests had now passed from Father Killeen to 
Rev. John F. Salaum, who had succeeded to Red Bank in October, 1867, 
where he was ably assisted by Rev. Father Danielou, as curate. 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK 131 

In July, 1876, Father Salami retired from the charge of Red Bank and 
went to Long Branch, and later took a position as professor at Seton Hall 
College, South Orange. At Red Bank he was succeeded by Rev. Michael E. 
Kane, but Father Danielou still remained in charge of the New Monmouth 
and Highlands Missions. 

During Father Salami's time Mass was first said at Francis Viering's, 
at Port Monmouth, a few times a year. 

It was in 1874 that the Rev. Father Danielou began to hold monthly 
services, and these were held in various private houses, sometimes at Thomas 
Logan's, in New Monmouth, at Matthew Ahearn's in Keanesburg, in Michael 
Dowd's at Belford, in Mrs. Hastings' and Peter Finnegan's at Port Mon- 
mouth. 

Finally after much delay and correspondence, Mr. Fox turned over the 
deed of the long promised lot on January 11, 1880. The church had already 
been incorporated on March 27, 1879, with Thomas Logan as lay trustee. 

On July 28, 1879, the New Monmouth district with the Highlands was 
formed into a new parish and the Rev. J. J. F. O'Connor of Belville was 
made first resident pastor of Highlands. As yet he had no house, no church, 
and only a promise of a lot. This was indeed a poor beginning, but Father 
O'Connor was a brave hearted, cheerful man, with boundless confidence in 
God. For several Sundays he said Mass at Mrs. Mary Hortnedge's house, 
on the New Monmouth and Middletown Road. Later he secured the parlor 
of the Fox homestead, then occupied by John Reddington, Sr. There Mass 
was said every Sunday till the new church was completed. 

The following March, 1880, plans for a chapel to cost $1,500.00 were ac- 
cepted and Father O'Connor laid the corner stone, on Easter Sunday, March 
28, 1880, during a belated snow storm. 

Owing to the growth of the congregation the Fox house was found too 
small so that long before the building was finished it was used for services. 
Finally on September 13, 1880, the church was dedicated by Bishop Corrigan 
amidst fervent prayers of crowds who had gathered for the occasion. The 
first church was a building 36 x 60 feet and rested partly on a brick wall and 
partly on locust posts. It was a frame building with Gothic windows. The 
necessary church furniture was donated by generous friends. The next step 
was to secure a resident pastor which was accomplished in the Fall of 1883 
when, by order of the Rt. Rev. Bishop O'Farrell, Father O'Connor pur- 
chased the old Hollenback property on the Highland Road for $1,600.00 and 
removed there, thus becoming the first resident pastor of New Monmouth. 

Up to this time St. Mary's, New Monmouth, was the only church on 
bay or ocean between Keyport and Long Branch and Father O'Connor's 
territory covered about 36 square miles embracing Atlantic Highlands, Morris- 
ville (now Everett) and Sandy Hook, and his incessant labor began to tell on 
him. He died in the old rectory, October 31, 1894, aged 55 years, beloved by 
his people, who remember him today as a plain, old-fashioned character, kind 
to all in word and action, always ready to help the poor and needy. His 
remains are interred next to the grave of his old friend, Father Kane, 



132 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

of Red Bank, in Mt. Olivet cemetery, Hedden's Corner, where a handsome 
stone was erected by his parishioners. 

After Father O'Connor's death, Rev. John W. Murphy, now of Moores- 
town, was left in charge for, a few days till the arrival of the new pastor, Rev. 
Daniel P. Geoghegan, curate at South Amboy, who took charge November 5, 
1894- 

Father Geoghegan's work was the erection of a new rectory to replace the 
old house, which had stood for nearly 150 years. This was begun in 1895, 
but hardly was the foundation finished when Father Geoghegan lost both his 
mother and sister by sudden deaths, and this so affected him that he resigned 
his charge in December and retired to his father's home in Brooklyn, where 
he died the following January 15, 1896. 

The Rev. John R. O'Connor, curate at Long Branch, was appointed the 
third resident pastor of New Monmouth, and he took charge December 17, 
1896, thus becoming the second O'Connor. Father O'Connor completed the 
rectory and the old rectory which had formerly served as a store, was now 
torn down. The grounds were .graded and ornamented and many other 
needed improvements made. 

The beautiful new rectory and the constant growth of the parish, now 
suggested the possibility of a new church. The adjoining land was soon se- 
cured and ground for the new St. Mary's was broken on October 31, 1900, but 
the corner stone was not laid till the following year, March 24, 1901, when 
Rt. Rev. James A. McFaul officiated, assisted by a number of priests. The 
Bishop also preached on the occasion and it was he also who dedicated the 
building on April 13, 1902, the Rev. I. T. Campbell preaching the sermon. 

The Silver Jubilee of the parish was fittingly celebrated on Sunday, No- 
vember 5, 1905, as a crowning work, after twenty-five years of labor by pas- 
tors and people. But during that time many of the old folks had gone to their 
reward. Bishop Corrigan, Fathers Salaum, Danielson, Kane and O'Connor, 
as well as Mr. George Fox, and a host of others who would have rejoiced to 
see that day. 

Hopewell, N. J. — St. Alphonsus' Church. 

The present parish of Hopewell, began its existence when the Rev. 
Thomas R. Moran of St. Paul's, Princeton, N. J., came twice a year (in the 
Spring and in the Fall) to say Mass at the home of Daniel and Hannah 
Reardon, on their farm along the Provence Line Road. This was about the 
year 1874. Besides the Reardon family, there came also the families of Ed- 
ward Brophy, Patrick Cashell, Michael Norton, Stephen King, Miles Carney, 
James Shelvey and Daniel Kirwin. For many years before this date the scat- 
tered Catholics of that section either' attended the church at Lambertville, or 
went to Princeton. That many of them were faithful and regular attendants 
at Princeton, the church records shows. 

About 1876 Father Moran began to take up subscriptions for a new 
church, and in 1877 Father Anthony Smith, of the Cathedral, took charge of 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK 



133 



the Hopewell Mission and purchased the lot where the present St. Alphonsus' 
Church stands. The corner stone was laid on July, 1877, by Bishop Corrigan, 
of Newark, who also preached on this occasion. For many years services 
were held in the covered basement until such time as funds for a building 
could be gathered. At this time Father Michael Holland, who was assistant 
at the Cathedral, had charge of Hopewell, and he worked hard to advance 
the building. Lectures and concerts were held and much home talent de- 
veloped. Too much credit cannot be given to Edward Brophy and Daniel 
Reardon, for the interest thev took in the work. After Father Holland came 





% 



ST. ALPHONSUS CHURCH, HOPEWELL, N. J. 

the Rev. Father McFaul, the present Bishop of Trenton, then a young priest, 
assisting at the Cathedral. He was followed by Father Fox. The Mission 
then passed to Father O'Connell, of Bound Brook, who attended it semi- 
monthly. The parish of Hopewell remained in charge of St. Mary's till 1883, 
when it was transferred to the charge of the Rev. Father Lawler, pastor of 
Dunellen. 



134 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Later on another change was made, and this Mission was attended from 
Bound Brook. Again Hopewell was a Mission to St. Mary's, and had as 
many changes of pastors as the Cathedral had assistants, Fathers Gammell, 
O'Riely, O'Farrell, Cunningham and Ward, until finally the parish got the 
first resident pastor in the person of the Rev. Father J. Keuper, who organ- 
ized a choir and bought the first organ, much to the people's delight. Father 
Keuper resided for a while with Mr. and Mrs. Hugh Kearney, and subse- 
quently at St. Mary's Cathedral. He was in charge about six months when he 
was promoted to Mount Holly, and Father Murphy succeeded him at Hope- 
well. Then came Dr. Hagerty, Fathers O'Hanlon, Cunningham, Dunphy, 
Powers and Reddan. 

At the present writing the Hopewell parish is in charge of Rev. James 
J. Powers, who is also Chancellor of the Diocese and Secretary of the Rt. 
Rev. Bishop McFaul. 

Tom's River, N. J. — St. Joseph's Church. 

This was one of the many Missions revived under Bishop O'Farrell, for 
although it had been irregularly visited from Red Bank, South Amboy, before 




ST. JOSEPH S CHURCH, TOM S RIVER, N. J. 

Kelly of South Amboy said Mass here prior to 1874. Between 1874 an d 1879, 
1881, yet not till that year does it figure as a regular Mission station. Father 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK 



135 



Father Danielou attended it from Manchester. After 1879 it passed to the 
Franciscan Fathers of Trenton. Later came Fathers Esser of Egg Harbor, 




FIRST CHURCH, ST. JOSEPH' S, TOM'S RIVER, N. J. 

and Hosea. Who built the first church we do not know. In 1884 Father 
Joseph Flannagan of Manchester, attended this place. At present it is under 
the care of Rev. Patrick J. Powers. 



Bradvelt, N. J. — St. Gabriel's Church. 

The first name of this settlement was Hillsdale or the " Big Woods," and 
Father Kelly of South Amboy was the first priest to say Mass there for the 
Catholic settlers. In 1871, at the request of the Rt. Rev. Bishop Bayley, 
Father Kivelitz took charge of this Mission, and went monthly on Sundays to 
say Mass in the houses of John Carthy and Patrick Brophy during the 
Winter seasons, but in the Summer time services were held in the woods. 
He likewise held catechism classes on Wednesday of each week for the children. 
Father Kivelitz also erected a neat brick church, 30 x 30 feet, at a cost of 
$1,150.00. Bishop Corrigan blessed this church and called it St. Gabriel's. 
On August 24, 1885, Bishop O'Farrell made it a separate parish, and placed 
the Rev. John O'Leary as the first resident pastor, adding to it Morrisville as 
a Mission. Later on this settlement changed its name to Hillsdale, but when 



136 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

the Central Railroad of New Jersey was built nearby the town assumed the 
name of the railroad station, and is now called Bradevelt. 

Father O'Leary was succeeded in 1890 by John A. Lawrence till 1894, 
who in turn was succeeded by Rev. William P. Treacy. Father Treacy re- 
mained in charge till the Fall of 1905, when he was transferred to Millstone, 
and replaced by Rev. John A. Lawrence of Allentown, the present pastor. 

Beverley, N. J. — St. Joseph's Church. 

Old Father Lane of Philadelphia attended this place as a Mission of 
Burlington. Next we find it in charge of the Franciscan Fathers of Trenton, 
under whom the first church was incorporated and erected (1878). From 
1885-1887 this church was in charge of Rev. Michael Gibson. He built the 
present rectory, but owing to ill-health he resigned this charge and was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. James McKernan, who remained at St. Joseph's till 1891, 
when he was appointed to Sea Isle City, and Rev. Thomas Degnan succeeded 
him at Beverley. With all the zeal of a good priest the young pastor took up 
the work of the parish, and there was plenty of it to be done. Sickness and 
poverty had prevented Father Gibson from attending to many things, so that 
Father Degnan had ample opportunity for manual labor as well as spiritual 
work. How ardently he threw himself into his work, only those know who 
watched him, and the traces of years of neglect were soon effaced, and the 
faith and courage of the people were revived. Father Degnan also attended 
Riverton as a Mission, and had plans drawn for a new church when death 
called him away. 

From May till September he worked with all the energy of his soul for 
the people under his care, and if God had spared him he would have been a 
great worker. Father Degnan died on September 21, 1891, and was succeeded 
by Rev. John J. McCloskey, who up to that time had been in Rome. Father 
McCloskey carried out Father Degnan's plans, and built the church at River- 
ton. 

When, in 1894, Father McCloskey was promoted to the Chancellorship of 
the Diocese, he was succeeded by the Rev. Dr. Haggerty, who remained only 
three months. The next pastor was Rev. Simon B. Walsh, curate of St. 
Mary's, Gloucester. Father Walsh remained six years-, from 1895-01, 
during which time he paid off much debt and made many improvements and 
repairs. He also attended Riverton. In May, 1901, Father Walsh was pro- 
moted to High Bridge, and Beverley passed under the charge of Rev. Father 
Dernis, the present pastor. 



Vineland, N. J. — Church of the Sacred Heart. 

For many years this place was a Mission attended from Millville. Father 
Gesner often said Mass here in private houses back as far as 1864. Later he 
was allowed the use of the upper room of the old Pennsylvania Railroad 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK i 37 

depot, and there arranged for monthly services. In 1872, when Father Gesner 
went to Elizabeth Port, he was succeeded by Father Degan, who left the care 
of the Vineland Mission to his curate, Father Vivet. It was the latter who 
built the first Catholic church there in 1874, and opened it for services on 
Christmas Day. 

In 1879 came Rev. William Dwyer, a former Paulist, and his curate, 
Father Durrick. Father Dwyer purchased a small Protestant chapel in North 
Vineland, and opened it for Catholic service. This venture was a failure, and 
the building was later resold. After Father Dwyer's death in 1881, Rev. 
Charles J. Giese succeeded to this Mission, but after two years' service the 
church at Vineland was placed in charge of the Fathers of Mercy, with the 
Rev. Father McTeague as pastor. 

For nearly eleven years the Fathers of Mercy worked in the Diocese of 
Trenton. They began their labors at Vineland, when towards the end of the 
year 1883 Rt. Rev. Bishop O'Farrell placed them in charge of the Sacred Heart 
Church, which had formerly been attended as a Mission of the Millville 
.Church. Father Thomas McTeague was appointed first pastor. In the fol- 
lowing year, after consultation with the Rt. Rev. Bishop O'Farrell, the 
Fathers purchased a large building, located on the outskirts of Vineland, and 
adapted it for school purposes. The following September, 1884, this institu- 
tion was opened under the name of the Sacred Heart College, with Rev. 
Edward H. Porcile as its first president. For ten years the Fathers of Mercy 
struggled to make this college successful, and during this time much good was 
done for the education of the youth of the Diocese. Bishop O'Farrell also 
patronized it by placing his seminarians therein, and using it for the annual 
retreats of the clergy. For various reasons the college did not prosper. 
Finally, in 1894, it was closed, and the Fathers withdrawn, but the parish 
church was left in their charge till the Summer of 1895, when the last Father 
of Mercy, the Rev. J. Courvoisier, left Vineland and returned to Brooklyn. 

The college building was afterwards disposed of and is now a State 
home for old soldiers and their widows. 

Among the Fathers of Mercy who labored in the Diocese of Trenton, we 
may mention Rev. Edward H. Porcile, Rev. Thomas McTeague, Rev. I. M. 
Wiest, Rev. E. Kelly, C. Elert, Rev. J. E. Sheedy. Rev. J. J. McCullough, and 
Rev. J. Conwosier. 

Whilst in charge of Vineland the Fathers of Mercy built a church for 
the Italians at East Vineland, which they attended till they resigned. Lake- 
wood was also one of their Missions and they helped in various parishes. 

On October 1, 1895, Bishop McFaul appointed Rev. William Dittrich to 
this parish and its Italian Mission of East Vineland, where the Fathers of 
Mercy had opened a chapel for the Italians. The next incumbent was Father 
Hendricks who stayed till May, 1901, when he was replaced by Father Gam- 
mel, who in turn was followed by Father Reddan, the present pastor. The 
parish has always had good pastors, yet the growth of the church has been 
slow. 



138 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Morrisville, N. J. — St. Catherine's Church. 

This Mission was opened by Rev. M. L. Glennon in 1879. Father Glen- 
non had been curate at St. Bridget's, Jersey City, when he was appointed by 
Rt. Rev. Bishop Corrigan to look after the scattered Catholics in and around 
Morrisville, but as there was neither church nor rectory at Morrisville he 
resided at Red Bank with Father Kane till such time as he could make better 
arrangements. At once the young pastor set to work and built a church, but 
in 1880, February 6, he was sent to Asbury Park with Morrisville as a Mis- 
sion. 



Colt's Neck, N. J. — St. Mary's Church. 

The first priest to celebrate Mass in this town was the Rev. Father 
Salaun, then pastor of Red Bank. This was prior to 1871, in which year 
Father Kivelitz of Freehold assumed charge and said Mass there Sundays 
monthly at the house of James Guire, and held catechism classes each suc- 
ceeding Monday for the children. In 1879 he built a brick church, 30 x 55 feet, 
costing $2,400, and in the same year, 1879, Bishop Corrigan blessed this 
church and called it St. Mary's. On October 15, 1890, the Rt. Rev. Bishop 
O'Farrell raised it to the dignity of an independent parish, and commissioned 
the Rev. Thomas Roche, curate at St. Mary's, Camden, as its first resident 
pastor, giving him also Farmingdale as a Mission. Father Roche was then a 
young man, full of zeal and ready to dare or die, but the small number of his 
parishioners (about one hundred) was too little for him. The child had been 
taken away from its mother too soon and could not thrive, so on February 
15, 1891, it was returned to its mother parish of Freehold, and is again at- 
tended by Father Kivelitz, who says Mass there on Sundays and Holy Days, 
and holds catechism instructions for the children on Tuesday at Vandeburg, 
and on Wednesday at Farmingdale. Father Roche was transferred to the 
pastorate of Atlantic Highlands. 



Asbury Park, N. J. — Church of the Holy Spirit. 

The early Catholics of this beautiful seaside paradise went to church to 
Long Branch. This meant a drive or a walk of four miles, and, consequently, 
good Catholics shunned the place on this account. The founder, Mr. Bradley, 
always watchful over the interests of his guests, was quick to notice this 
drawback, and arranged to have free stages ready for the convenience of 
those who desired to attend church at Long Branch. The proximity of this 
town to. Ocean Grove afforded ample facilities to Protestants. Yet the long 
stage ride meant a loss of time for pleasure seekers and domestic help, and 
Mr. Bradley then offered the present site for a church to Bishop Corrigan, 
who commissioned the Rev. James A. Walsh of Long Branch to erect a 
church thereon. In the following Summer, 1880, the new church was dedi- 
cated, but before the church was completed there was a change of pastors, the 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK 



*39 



Rev. Michael L. Glennon, who was in charge of Morrisville, was now sent to 
relieve Father Walsh of the care of Asbury Park. 

Father Glennon became the first resident pastor, with all the territory on 
the South Coast as far as Point Pleasant as his Mission. Later he built 
churches at Belmar and Spring Lake. The church at the Park was soon 
completed, the grounds were beautified, and with this change ever-increasing 
crowds of Catholics came from New York and adjoining cities, until five and 
six Masses were necessary to accommodate them. Being a man of social 
habits and great personal magnetism, as well as a scholarly gentleman, Father 
Glennon was successful in all his Mission work. For a while he attended 
Morrisville from Asbury Park, and when he relinquished this charge he took 




CHURCH OF THE HOLY SPIRIT, ASBURY PARK, N. J. 



up the care of Tom's River and Manchester. Father Glennon erected 
the present beautiful rectory beside the church after having boarded for 
many years. 

About 1873 he purchased ground and opened the present Mount Calvary 
Cemetery, on one of the west side hills. 

From February 6, 1888, to October, 1900, Father Glennon was in charge 
of this Mission, and became during these twelve years a part of the life of 
this progressive town. He died October 15, 1900, in Ireland. His successor, 
the Rev. Thomas S. Roche, of Atlantic Highlands, took charge on October 18, 
1900, and continues his zealous care for the Catholics of this place. The con- 
stantly increasing numbers of Catholic people who frequent the Park in 
Summer make it necessary now to have several services in the old Casino, 



i 4 o THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

until such time as a larger church can be built. The regular congregation 
numbers about one thousand people, with an increase of several more thous- 
ands during the Summer. 



Perrineville, N. J. — St. Joseph's Church. 

Father Moran of Princeton extended his missionary labors to this place, 
and prior to 1871 came at intervals to hold services and instruct the few 
Catholics scattered about this section of Mercer County. These services 
were always held in private houses, where it was convenient to gather the 
people. 

In 1871 Father Kivelitz began to attend this place monthly on Sundays, 
and formed catechism classes for the children on Tuesday of each week. In 
1879 he succeeded in having built a small brick church, 30 x 55 feet, costing 
$2,500.00. It was a great day for the Perrineville Catholics and their zealous 
pastor when the Rt. Rev. Bishop Corrigan blessed their church under the 
patronage of St. Joseph. 

In 1880 this church was made a Mission of Jamesburg, and attended by 
Father Ruessing from that place till 1883 when it became a separate parish, 
under the charge of Rev. Bartholomew Carey, who continued in charge till 
February 15, 1891, when, on account of the poverty of the place, Father Carey 
was transferred to the Sacred Heart Church, Trenton, and the church at 
Perrineville was again attached to the mother church at Freehold, much 
against the will of Father Kivelitz, who received it back burdened with a debt 
of $5,000. Since then the parish of Perrineville is content to remain a Mis- 
sion, having Mass on Sundays and Holy Days and catechism class on Tues- 
days. 



St. Joseph's Church — High Bridge, N. J. 

The early Catholics of thi-s parish were natives of Ireland, who, on ac- 
count of famine and oppression, sought homes in hospitable America. They 
labored in the iron mines then in operation, and aided in the construction of 
the railroad which unites New York and Scranton, Pa. Their spiritual wants 
were attended to by priests who occasionally visited them from Pennsylvania 
and those residing near New York until the year 1865, when the resident pas- 
tors of Junction also included the Catholics of High Bridge in their ministra- 
tions. For a number of years they were compelled to attend Mass in the 
small church at Clinton, some three miles away. As their numbers increased 
they felt assured they could support a church of their own, and, despite 
the strenuous opposition of the congregation of the Clinton Church, of which 
the Catholics of High Bridge had been the main support, and mainly through 
the efforts of the late Mark Devlin, the Rt. Rev. Bishop of Newark, M. A. 
Corrigan, promised and sent them shortly afterwards a resident pastor. A 
short time previous to this, Father O'Neil, at present pastor of St. Mary's 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK 



141 



Church, Elizabeth, N. J., but at that time the resident pastor at Junction, who" 
attended the Catholics of the surrounding country from 1869 until 1880, pur- 
chased a building on Church Street, which had been used by the Methodists 
for a number of years as a place of worship. The site of this structure was 
not satisfactory and a new location was sought. The present 
church property was bought from a Mr. Criger, as a site for a wire factory, 
through a Catholic lawyer of Elizabeth, and great indeed was the utter dis- 




ST. JOSEPH S CHURCH, HIGH BRIDGE, N. J. 

appointment of the bigots of those days when they learned that the Catholic 
Church and not a wire factory was to be erected on the premises. The 
building on Church Street was shortly afterwards removed to its present 
site by order of Father O'Neil. A short time afterwards Bishop Corrigan 
made good the promise he had given to Mr. Devlin and others of the congre- 
gation by sending them a resident pastor in the person of the Rev. John 
Brady, who was at the time assistant at St. James' Church, Newark, and at 



i 4 2 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

present permanent rector of St. Mary's Church, South Amboy. Father Brady 
arrived in High Bridge July 3, 1880, and remained nearly four years. During 
his strenuous administration, he accomplished much for religion and the gen- 
eral good. He also attended the churches at Clinton and Flemington. He 
was promoted to the pastorate of the church at Lambertville and was suc- 
ceeded in High Bridge by the Rev. B. Horan in April, 1884, who remained 
until February, 1886. 

The Rev. J. J. Griffin, the present rector of the church at Woodbridge, N. 
J., was the next pastor and remained until July 1, 1892. During his pastorate 
he erected the first priest's house next to the church. His departure was much 
regretted by his congregation and fellow citizens. 

Father Griffin was succeeded by Rev. Joseph Keuper, who acted as ad- 
ministrator from July, 1892, until September, 1893. 

The Rev. Michael Coughlin, fresh from the old sod, was the next pastor 
from September, 1893, until May, 1901. During his administration the 
church and rectory were destroyed by a disastrous fire July 9, 1898. Both 
were afterwards substantially rebuilt, much to the great joy of the members 
of the congregation. Father Coughlin was transferred to his native land, 
Cloyne, Ireland, May 29, 1901. He was succeeded by the present rector, Rev. 
S. B. Walsh, who had charge of the churches at Beverly and Riverton, N. 
J., the previous six and a half years. Since his advent the church property 
has been materially improved, the church itself has been beautifully frescoed 
and furnished, the grounds neatly laid out and the debt on the property con- 
siderably reduced. At his urgent request the churches at Clinton and Flem- 
ington, which had been attended from High Bridge since 1880 were separated 
and a resident pastor appointed for Flemington with Missions at Clinton and 
Stockton, in the latter part of December, 1902. The Catholics living in Anan- 
dale and Lebanon now attend Mass at High Bridge. The Catholics of High 
Bridge, who had always been generous in their support of the churches at 
Junction and Clinton, take a just pride in the flourishing condition of their 
parish and town, and feel they have done their share in the building up of the 
faith in the Diocese of Trenton. 

Hammonton, Atlantic County, N. J. — St. Joseph's Church. 

In 1880 Father Esser opened this Mission and said the first Mass in Mrs. 
Cokeley's house, chiefly for the Italian immigrants who began to arrive in 
large numbers. Later on he rented a hall where he established weekly 
services. 

In 1886 Father Van Riel, of Egg Harbor, erected a neat little church at 
a cost of $2,800.00. The church was dedicated by the Rev. Gerard Huggens, 
of Stanhope, N. J. The lot upon which the church stands was donated by 
Judge Byrnes, and he and Mrs. Cokeley, with $100.00 donation, were the most 
generous donors. 

The next priest in charge was Father Ramot, who remained but a few 
months, October-December, 1890, and was succeeded by Rev. B. Grom, De- 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK 



43 



cember 28, 1890, to November 16, 1891. In 1891 we mid Father Van Riel 
again in charge for a short time, till December, 1891, when it was trans- 
ferred to the Rev. Father Barral, .one of the Sacred Heart Fathers, who 
experimented for several years trying to make it a missionary centre. He 
had planned the erection of an Apostolic College, but after a while 
he betook himself to other quarters, leaving the Mission once more to 
Father Van Riel from November, 1893, to June, 1895. The Rev. Caspar 
Spigardi took charge (June, 1895, to October, 1897), following whom 
came Rev. Nicholas Cerruti, October, 1897, to October, 1899, followed by 
Rev. Frassenotti, October, 1899, to June, 1900, when he was replaced by Rev. 
Father Coscia July, 1900 to November, 1900, when Rev. P. T. Hendrick took 
charge November, 1900, to June, 1901. 




ST. JOSEPH S CHURCH, HAMMONTON, N. J. 

The Rt. Rev. Bishop, already tired of supplying this Mission with wan- 
dering Italian priests, finally placed it in charge of the Fathers of the Pious 
Missions, and in June, 1901, Rev. Father Joseph Roleder took charge of Ham- 
monton. He remained till October, 1903, when Father Joseph Transericci as- 
sumed charge and continues his work successfullv among the Italians. 





BISHOP FARRELL. 



CHAPTER IV. 
PART I.— DIOCESE OP TRENTON. 

BISHOP OFARRELL. 

Most Rev. Michael Joseph O'Farrell, first Bishop of Trenton, N. J., was 
born in the city of Limerick, Ireland, December 2, 1832. He began his early 
studies at Limerick and completed his classics and philosophy at All Hallows' 
College. Thence he went to St. Sulpice, Paris, where he made his theology 
and became a Sulpitian and was ordained in his native city, August 18, 1855, 
by Most Rev. Dr. Ryan. His superiors then sent him to Montreal, Canada, 
where he taught Dogmatic Theology at the Grand Seminary, but his health 
failing, he was forced to give up this work and he then engaged in missionary 
work in St. Patrick's and St. Bridget's, and later became pastor of St. Anne's 
of the same city. In July, 1869, he left the Sulpitians and came on to New 
York, where he was made assistant at old St. Peter's, Barclay Street, where 
he remained till he was made pastor at Roundout, N. Y., in 1872, but later on 
he was returned to St. Peter's as its pastor, and remained for eight years, 
till, on November 1, 1881, he was consecrated first Bishop of Trenton by 
Cardinal McCloskey, in St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York. 

The task of organizing a new Diocese is no easy work, but Bishop O'Far- 
rell brought learning and experience with him, and in a little while every- 
thing was in running order. New parishes and Missions were formed, an 
orphan asylum was opened at New Brunswick and a home for the aged at 
Beverly. Parochial schools and academies came into existence, and a new 
life seemed to be infused in priests and people, and all parts of his Diocese 
received his attention. 

Bishop O'Farrell was not only an active, zealous churchman, but he was 
also a great scholar and an eloquent preacher. So marked was his ability in 
this line that he was in constant demand at public functions. A lover of 
books and of children, he remained so to the end, which came to him on April 
2, 1894, when he passed out of life. His body was placed temporarily in a 
vault in St. Mary's cemetery, Trenton, and was later removed to the chapel 
of St. Michael's Home, which he had endowed to the extent of $25,000.00 
and the site of which he purchased before his death. Bishop O'Farrell took 
part in the Third Council of Baltimore, where he was considered one of the 
most eloquent and gifted speakers. On December 14, 1886, he opened the 
First Synod of Trenton, in which he put in force the discipline enacted in 
the recent council. 



'45 



146 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Kind and paternal to those under him, yet, when duty required it, he 
could be stern and uncompromising with those who attempted to undermine 
the principles of truth and justice. A great reader and a versatile writer, 
he was a most entertaining and instructive conversationalist, always ready to 
speak, his services were in constant demand at public functions, and at times 
he held his audiences spell-bound with his eloquence and charmed them with 
his erudition. A loyal friend to Ireland, he always sympathized with her 
troubles and helped her with his purse. 

But troubles come uninvited into the most peaceful lives and they came 
to disturb the peace of Bishop O'Farrell. First came the Spiering's case, 
which, after much bitterness, was finally decided against the priest. Next 
came the Treacy troubles, when Rev. Patrick Treacy, of Burlington, suffering- 
from mental disease, was removed from his charge by the bishop. His 
cause was at once espoused by his brother, Rev. William P. Treacy, of St. 
Joseph's Church, Swedesboro, N. J., who attacked Bishop O'Farrell in the 
public press, thus causing a scandal, which was kept alive for several months, 
causing the suspension and excommunication of these two rebellious priests 
and ending in their complete discomfiture. Neither of them ever regained 
the confidence of priests or people. But it seems that in' the life of every 
Bishop there must be some martyr ready to give up his place and peace of 
mind for principles he himself never attempted to put in practice. Who will 
be the next? 

To be constantly harrassed by difficulties, to meet ingratitude where we 
expect kindness, affects even the calmest and most pious people. And so it 
did in Bishop O'Farrell's case. The Swedesboro troubles ended in July, 1893, 
but in the following Spring the good Bishop died, his naturally kind heart 
chilled and embittered. 

His remains were placed in St. Mary's cemetery until a vault in the 
Hopewell Chapel was ready. In 1906, they were transferred thither, where 
at present they remain in a building he had seen only in fancy, near an altar 
he had never known, but the endearing gratitude of his personal friend, and 
successor had made him a resting place among the orphans he loved in life. 

Dunellen, N. J. — Church of St. John. 

The present beautiful town of Dunellen was formerly a part of New 
Market, and the few Catholics who lived in that section of Somerset County, 
attended Mass on Sundays either at Plainfield or Somerville (1850-1851). 
Old Father Howell, pastor of St. Mary's, Elizabeth, had this district as part 
of his missionary charge from 1843-1851, when it became part of the Somer- 
ville parish and later of St. Mary's, Plainfield, under Father James McDon- 
ough and his successors, till, in 1879, under Rev. John P. Morris, the people 
became sufficiently numerous to erect a little church of their own. The cor- 
ner-stone was laid that year and the structure was erected under the super- 
vision of John Moynahan and John Meyers, and was dedicated on October 24, 
1880, by Bishop Corrigan. Father Morris came from Plainfield occasionally, 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 147 

till 1882, when it was made a Mission of North Plainfield. Rev. Thomas 
O'Hanlon held services at first monthly, and later on, twice a month. The 
same year Dunellen was attached to Somerville under Rev. Father Bogaard, 
and to Bound Brook in 1885, under Rev. Fathers Lawler, O'Reilly and Free- 
man. 

In 1902 Rev. Father Kerr was appointed first resident pastor of Dunellen, 
with Fleming-ton as a Mission. After Father Kerr's death, 1902, this parish 
became a Mission of East Millstone, under Rev. Edward J. Dunphy, till Jan- 
uary, 1903, when Father Dunphy moved to Dunellen and rented a house till 
the new rectory, begun in the Fall of 1901, was ready and Dunellen again 
became a separate parish with Father Dunphy as its second resident pastor, 
with South Plainfield as a Mission. 

Some of the earliest Catholics of Dunellen were John Meyers, John Hunt, 
Michael Heyle, Michael Donohue, and Mrs. Catherine Maier. 

The present census (1905), ennumerates about 400 Catholics in the parish 
with prospects of more coming with the new factories in course of erection. 

Lakewood, N. J. — Church of St. Mary of the Lake. 

The first services of the Catholic Church that were held in this vicinity 
as far as can be actually known, were in 1850 when Mass was said in the 
small house of Larry Reilly, between the two lakes. Later, a small shed- 
like building was erected east of the railroad crossing at the Cedar Bridge 
road, and here the sevices of the church were conducted by priests from var- 
ious parishes such as Freehold, Red Bank and Trenton. Gradually this build- 
ing was allowed to go to ruin, and Mass was then said for a number of years 
in the private houses of the Murphy's, Wilson's, Carrol's and Reilly's. Father 
Flannagan also attended this Mission in 1884, as did Fathers Duggan and 
Dolan. 

In 1889 Father James E. Sheehy, S. P. M., came to Lakewood and erected 
a temporary chapel on Second Street where the present church now stands. 
On the first day of November, 1889, the parish of St. Mary of the Lake was 
founded by the Right Reverend M. J. O'Farrell, Bishop of Trenton, who ap- 
pointed Rev. Thomas B. Healy, rector, with instructions to build a church. . 

On his arrival in Lakewood Father Heaiy said Mass in the small frame 
chapel on Friday, November 8, and on the following Sunday he celebrated 
two Masses and read the letter of the Bishop appointing him rector, and an- 
nounced that he was about to build a church. 

At that time there were only six Catholic families living in Lakewood, 
comprising about thirty souls, with as many more who worked in the one 
hotel, the Laurel House, and in the cottages and boarding houses throughout 
the town. 

Not only was there no money to build the church but the parish was then 
in debt to the extent of $1,600 for the lot on which the chapel stood. The 
Bricksburg Land Company had given to the church two lots in the eastern 
portion of the town which Bishop O'Farrell had exchanged for two others in 
a more central location at an increased price of $1,600. 



148 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Many means were resorted to by Father Healy in which to raise money 
for the new church and in all of them he was successful. He met with the 
hearty co-operation of the residents of Lakewood and received material assist- 
ance from them individually and collectively ; Captain Albert M. Bradshaw, 
Mr. Nathan Straus and William J. Harrison having been liberal contributors 
from the beginning. The kindness to Father Healy of the prominent Protest- 
ant clergymen of Lakewood was fully appreciated by him, especially that of 




ST. MARYS CHURCH, LAKEWOOD, N. J. 

Rev. Dr. Alfred H. Dashiell, Rev. Dr. Charles H. McClellan and Rev. Ralph 
L. Bridges, and at the house of the latter fellow-clergyman he took his first 
dinner in Lakewood. People who visited Lakewood also showed their interest 
in the struggling church, and Mrs. Grover Cleveland at that time " the first 
lady of the land," with Baroness McDonald, of Canada, attended and made 
generous purchases at the first church fair which was held in Larrabee's 
Hall. 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 



149 



When three thousand dollars had been raised, two trustees were chosen 
for the church, Mr. Charles McCue and Mr. Andrew J. Murphy, and they 
have remained trustees ever since. 

Sufficient money having" finally been raised, ground was broken for the 
church on May 9, 1890, and the corner stone was laid August 15 of the same 
year. 

The church was dedicated with imposing ceremonies by the Right Rever- 
end Bishop O'Farrell, assisted by thirty-five priests on April 29, 1891. After 
the dedication Pontificial High Mass was celebrated by the Bishop, with a 
sermon also by the Bishop. In the evening the Bishop celebrated Solemn Ponti- 
ficial Vespers, and the sermon was preached by the Rev. James A. McFaul, 
the present Bishop. 

The parish, which on Father Healy's installation was in debt for $1,600, 
now has a property value of not less than $50,000. In March, 1892, a rectory 
was built on land adjoining the church, and later a home for the sexton, and 
stable was erected. The church itself is fully equipped ; it owns land to the 
east and west of it with an entire frontage of 175 feet, and it has a good- 
sized cemetery just west of River Avenue, the cemetery of St. Mary of the 
Lake. This was consecrated by the Right Reverend Bishop McFaul, as- 
sisted by Father- Norris, Father McCullough and Father Healy on Sunday, 
April 30, 1899. 

In the autumn of 1898, three Sisters of Mercy from St. Joseph's mother 
house at Bordentown, N. J., came to Lakewood and established the convent 
and academy of St. Mary of the Lake, with Sister Superior Gonzaga in charge. 
The academy was opened with eight pupils, but from that small beginning 
it has grown now to have an attendance of forty pupils with eight Sisters, at 
the head of whom is Sister Superior Mary Raymond, and this autumn their 
house was doubled in size. 

Among those who celebrated Mass in Lakewood when it was a station 
were Bishop Corrigan, of Newark, now Archbishop of New York, and the 
Rev. John J. O'Connor, the present Bishop of Newark. 

During Father Healy's incumbency in Lakewood he has had to assist him 
in his ministrations, Father John J. McCullough, Father John R. O'Conner, 
Father Joseph A. Ryan, Father John J. Sweeney, Father James E. Sheehy, 
Father Peter J. Harold, Father Michael J. Brennan and Father James J. 
Hughes. 

Trenton, N. J. — St. Joseph's Church. 

About 1882 the eastern section of Trenton began to improve so rapidly 
that Father Smith, then Vicar General and pastor of St. Alary's Cathedral, 
erected the present rectory, to be used as a combination church and school. 
This served the purpose till 1891, when Rev. James A. McFaul, then rector 
of the Cathedral, converted this building into a convent and erected the 
present school building, the upper floor of which was fitted up for church 
services. 




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DIOCESE OF TRENTON 



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In April, 1893, this district was formed into a separate parish and placed 
in charge of Rev. John H. Fox, of Sea Bright, as its first resident pastor. 
Father Fox remained in charge till February 1, 1895, when he was transferred 
to St. Mary's Cathedral as rector, and was succeeded at St. Joseph's by the 
Rev. Bernard T. O'Connell, of Bound Brook, who remained only one month. 

In April, 1895, Rev. Michael O'Reilly assumed charge of this parish, and 
remained till September 8, 1898, when he was transferred to Metuchen. 
Father Ward of Washington, N. J., was the next pastor, September 8, 1898. 

When Rev. Henry Ward took charge of St. Joseph's parish, East Tren- 
ton, on September 8, 1898, he found a debt of $14,000 on the school build- 
ing and a yearly rental of $300 to be paid for a temporary parochial residence. 
There was no church. The third story of the school edifice was used as a 
chapel since the parish was established. In April, 1899, Father Ward pur- 
chased the house No. 135 Sherman Avenue and fitted it up for the use of the 
Sisters, who teach in the school. The former Sisters' house he converted 
into a rectory. When school reopened in September, 1899, the Sisters of 
Mercy from Bordentown, N. J., took up the work of teaching, which until 
then had been done by the Sisters of Charity. 

Father Ward and his parishioners then went to work in order to accumu- 
late funds for a new church, which was much needed. Success crowned their 
efforts, and on Friday, April 22, 1904, ground was broken by the pastor for a 
new structure on the corner of Olden and St. Joe's Avenues. The architects, 
Hooper & Co., of Newark, N. J., and the contractors, T. H. Prior & Sons, of 
Trenton, N. J., pushed the work along so that the church was dedicated to the 
service of God by Rt. Rev. Bishop McFaul on the Feast of St. Joseph, Sun- 
day, March 19, 1905. 

The new church is a handsome Romanesque structure of granite with 
steel girders supporting the roof. It has a seating capacity of 1,000, and its 
estimated value is $65,000. 

The Missions of Pennington and Lawrenceville were attached to this 
parish for awhile. 

Point Pleasant, N. J. — St. Peter's Church. 

Father Jachetti, as superior of the convent in Trenton, was requested 
by the Rt. Rev. Monsignor Doane, administrator of the Diocese of Newark, 
to take charge of the Mission of Manchester. From Manchester the Fathers 
drifted to Point Pleasant, where they proposed to erect a Summer cottage for 
their members. 

Monsignor Doane on April 1, 1881, gave his consent to the Fathers to 
locate in Point Pleasant, and on April 7, 1881, a special committee, comprising 
the Rev. Fathers Jachetti, Salvatelli and Graziani, went to Point Pleasant in 
order to select a site. 

In the beginning of 1882 Rt. Rev. Bishop O'Farrell kindly allowed Father 
Jachetti to proceed with the building of the church. The Point Pleasant Land 
Co., realizing what a benefit a Catholic Church would be for the place, urged 



i 52 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Father Jachetti to build, promising to donate two lots, provided the church 
would be built at once. The offer of the land company was accepted. 

On April 18, 1882, the corner stone was blessed and laid by Father Jachetti. 
The only other clergyman present was the Rev. Angelus Goesman, O. M. C. 

June 29, 1882, witnessed the dedication of the church by the Rt. Rev. 
Bishop O'Farrell, who also preached the sermon. Present at the ceremony 
were the Rev. Fathers Peter Jachetti, O. M. C, Avellino Szabo, O. M. C, 
Leonard Reich, O. M. C, Francis M. Neubauer, O. M. C, and five Franciscan 
clerics from Trenton. 

Being only a small Mission, Point Pleasant had no permanent rector until 
almost the year 1884, when the Rev. Fidelis M. Voight, O. M. C, became the 
first rector. Prior to Father Fidelis' appointment, the Mission was visited 
at intervals by various priests of the Order. 

In the Spring of 1888 Father Fidelis was succeeded as rector by the Rev. 
Peter Scharun, O. M. C. During the administration of Father Scharun 
many improvements were made. The Rev. Roger Kexel, O. M. C, the suc- 
cessor of Father Scharun, assumed charge in the early Summer of 1890. 

Father Rogers' successor was the Rev. Daniel Lutz, O. M. C, who still 
retains charge. During the first four years of his incumbency the church and 
rectory were remodelled and the property improved. Scarcely had the im- 
provement been completed when a disastrous fire, on January 14, 1901, com- 
pletely destroyed the church and rectory, and in a few hours wiped out the 
hard work of years. 

The rector at once began preparations for the rebuilding of the church. 
However, as there had been many objections to the locality of the former 
church, owing to its distance from the hotels and cottages, in March of the 
same year a new site, consisting of four lots, 50x125 each, located on the 
corners of Forman, St. Louis and Atlantic Avenues, with the adjoining house, 
was purchased for $4,500.00. 

On June 16 the corner-stone was blessed and placed by the Very Rev. 
John H. Fox, V. G., who also preached the sermon. Father Fox was assisted 
by the Very Rev. Provincial of the Minor Conventional, Louis M. Miller, the 
Very Rev. Dominic Reuter, O. M. C, the Revs. Thomas J. McLaughlin of 
Spring Lake, and Daniel Lutz, O. M. C, the rector. The new church has 
a seating capacity of 600, and is built in the English rural design, and was 
finally completed at a cost of $22,000.00, and was dedicated by the Rt. Rev. 
James A. McFaul, D. D., on July 27, 1902. The Solemn High Mass was sung 
by the Very Rev. Louis M. Miller, D. D., Provincial, O. M.C., and the dedi- 
cation sermon was delivered by the Rev. Dr. John N. Norris. 

The Jane Hookey memorial bell was blessed Thanksgiving Day, Novem- 
ber 30, 1905, by the Very Rev. Bernardine Ludwig, O. M. C. The church 
property is valued at $30,000.00. There is at the present time a debt of less 
than $8,000. 

Point Pleasant now has two Summer Missions to supply — Mantalooking 
and Sea Side Park. The first Mass ever said in Mantalooking, Ocean County, 
N. J., was celebrated by Rev. Daniel Lutz, O. M. C, rector of Point Pleasant, 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 



if3 



on July 24, 1904. There are about forty or fifty Catholics, mostly servant 
girls. The Mission has no church as yet, but Mass is celebrated every Sun- 
day during the Summer in a studio. 

Seaside Park is also attended from Point Pleasant. The first. Mass was 
said in a small church, supposed to be non-denominational, by the Rev. Father 
Gregory, O. M.C., July 16, 1905. 

Seabright, N. J. — Church of the Holy Cross. 




CHURCH OF THE HOLY CROSS, SEABRIGHT, N. J. 

In May, 1883, Rev. John H. Fox of Bound Brook was commissioned by 
Bishop O'Farrell to organize a parish at this place. Father Fox said the first 



i 5 4 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Mass in a hall on June 17, 1883, for nearly two years. After purchasing the 
site of the present church, the corner stone was placed in position on August 
30, 1885, and June 27, 1886, the present church was dedicated by Rt. Rev. 
Bishop O'Farrell. In the year 1886 a parish rectory was built by Father Fox, 
and some years later, in 1893, a neat and substantial parish hall was added. 

It was a great joy to the Summer visitors as well as to the scattered 
Catholics of this district to have a church of their own so conveniently lo- 
cated, and all worked bravely and contributed generously towards its erec- 
tion. 

In 1898 Father Fox was transferred to the rectorship of St. Joseph's 
Church, Trenton, and was succeeded by Rev. Edward J. Egan, of Sea Isle 
City, who continues to labor assiduously for the good of the people. For a 
time Fort Hancock at Sandy Hook, was attended as a Mission of this parish, 
as was also the present parish of Atlantic Highlands. 

North Plainfield, N. J. — St. Joseph's Church. 

The Catholics who first settled in and around Plainfield were obliged to 
go to New Brunswick or Elizabeth, when they wished to assist at Mass or 
approach the .Sacraments. In the year 1851, Judge James Verdun, a promin- 
ent and influential citizen, was commissioned by his fellow Catholics to visit 
Bishop Hughes, and request the appointment of a priest to look after the 
Catholic settlers in this section. Later on, when the German Catholics 
erected the little chapel at Stony Hill on the second mountain, about five 
miles away, that Mission became the rallying point for the Catholics of Som- 
erset and vicinity. The Archbishop promised to send the Plainfield Catholics 
a priest whenever he could do so, and he foresaw it would be soon, although 
at this time priests were few and Catholics increasing rapidly. In the Fall of 
1851, in accordance with his promise, the Archbishop sent the Rev. James 
McDonough to take charge of this district. In October, 1851, Father McDon- 
ough, who rode from Elizabeth with Captain Whelan, father of Rev. Isaac 
Whelan, of Newark, said the first Mass in Plainfield. This occurred in the 
Verdun homestead, called "Shady Lawn." The house is yet standing on 
Somerset Street, in North Plainfield, and is in St. Joseph's parish. It is still 
occupied by the descendants of Judge Verdun (1906). After a few services 
were thus held, it was found that more space was needed, and Judge 
Verdun then gave the use of a large new barn. Here Mass was said for some 
time until this also became too small. The next move was to rent a hall 
which stood in the middle of the village. Thus we see that it was in North 
Plainfield that the congregation was organized which later became St. Mary's, 
and remained the only Catholic Church in Plainfield till 1882, when Bishop 
O'Farrell sent the Rev. John F. Brady to establish a new parish in what is 
now North Plainfield, Somerset County. This was in Passion week, 1882, 
and Father Brady celebrated the first Mass in the engine house on Somerset 
Street, on Palm Sunday, but meeting with opposition from some of the 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 



155 



Catholics and having officiated only two Sundays, he shook the dust of Plain- 
field off his feet and went to High Bridge. Rev. Thomas O'Hanlon was sent 
to succeed him. Father O'Hanlon built the present frame church which was 
dedicated by Bishop O'Farrell March 3, 1883. 




ST. JOSEPH S CHURCH, NORTH PLAINFIELD, N. J. 

In September, 1888, after a six years' pastorate, Father O'Hanlon was 
transferred, and succeeded by Rev. Michael Freeman, September 12, 1888, 
who remained till November 1, 1891, when Father McKernan came to take 
charge. Father McKernan purchased the rectory February 15, 1903. In 1893 
he was appointed to Sea Isle City. On April 17, 1893, Rev. William H. Miller, 
the present beloved and pious pastor, assumed charge of St. Joseph's. Father 
Miller added a chapel for the children and made many other improvements, 
as well as paid off much debt. 

In August, 1897, the Sisters of Mercy opened a home for working girls 
and a sanitarium for old people; they also opened a St. Gabriel's Academy at 
a cost of about $6,000. 



New Brunswick, N. J. — Sacred Heart Church. 



The mania for big churches seems to have come to these shores early, 
and this was particularly so in the case of New Brunswick. Not from 1865 
till 1883 could another parish be found, although St. Peter's took in the whole 
city. In 1883, however, Rt. Rev. Bishop O'Farrell very wisely determined to 
establish a second English parish in New Brunswick. The parish of the Sac- 



156 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

red Heart was "the outcome, and this church was located improperly by its 
proximity to St. John's, impairing its future usefulness. The first parochial 
meeting for the establishment of this parish was held on August 15, 1883, in 
the basement of St. Peter's, with Bishop O'Farrell presiding and about 70 
heads of families present. Parish lines were given, plans for a new church 
discussed, and a site selected by Rev.. Dean O'Grady, and Rev. Bernard J. 
Mulligan was appointed first resident pastor. Father Mulligan began at once 
his new work, and so rapid was his progress that on October 14, 1883, Bishop 
O'Farrell placed the corner-stone in position. By the following December the 
basement was finished and a temporary roof placed over it, so that Mass 
was said in it on Christmas day. The church was dedicated and opened for 
service in May, 1886, also by Rt. Rev. Bishop O'Farrell, who spoke of the 
generosity of the people which had been so beautifully displayed towards 
the new pastor and his undertakings. Father Mulligan opened a school in 
the basement of the church in July of 1886. The frame building on Throop 
Avenue was removed to Suydam Street, where it was fitted up and enlarged 
for the Sisters, who now came to live in the parish. The good pastor then 
built the present rectory on Throop Avenue, which was completed in 1887. 
His next care was to provide for a new school, and in order to do this he was 
obliged to purchase from St. Peter's Church the old cemetery, on the corner 
of which a new school was started October 6, 1889, and opened September, 
1890, with 220 children. 

Thus in twelve years was organized and built up a parish that is a credit 
to any town. In October, 1889, Father Mulligan was promoted to the more 
important church of the Immaculate Conception, Camden, and his departure 
was much regretted by the people of New Brunswick, but their sorrow was 
lessened when they found the Bishop was sending them another pastor, who 
would continue the good work, Rev. James Devine, who left a successful 
charge at Woodbridge to take up this new work. 

Father Devine completed the church by adding a tower, beautified the in- 
terior by many fine paintings and added the massive stone steps to the front 
of the building. He also installed a new $4,000 organ, and erected the present 
beautiful convent for the Sisters at a cost of $7,000. 

Sea Isle City, N. J. — St. Joseph's Church. 

About the year 1880 the late Charles K. Landis, who laid out and fostered 
Vineland and Ocean City, recognizing the influx of visitors to the sea, laid 
out Sea Isle City and began the selling of lots in 1881. In 1884 he donated 
a lot to the Catholic Church. Father Giese, then pastor of Millville, began 
to attend Sea Isle as a Mission and built the first church in this resort. 

Then came Father Edward Egan, who was appointed first resident pastor 
by Rt. Rev. Bishop O'Farrell. Father Egan added new life to the place. He 
built the handsome rectory and removed the church from its first site to its 
present location. Later Father Egan was promoted to the larger parish of 
Sea Bright as pastor, and was succeeded by Rev. James McKernan, who 
came from the pastorate of North Plainfield. Soon after Father McKernan 
suffered from a slight stroke of paralysis, and being obliged to give up active 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 157 

work, he was succeeded by Rev. John J. McCullough, who remained till 1900, 
when he left to labor in the Diocese of Brooklyn and was succeeded by Rev. 
Cornelius Phelan, the present pastor. 

Goshen, N. J. — St. Elizabeth's Church. 

The little church at this place has a peculiar history. As long ago as 
1843, the church stood in the then thriving village of Port Elizabeth, but that 
village dwindled away, and in 1879 Father Dwyer, of Millville, had the 
church put on a raft and moved down the river and placed on its present 
site, where it was repaired and improved, and dedicated by Bishop Corrigan, 
since which time it is a Mission of Cape May. 

Spring Lake, N. J. — St. Catharine's Church. 

To the Summer visitor strolling through Spring Lake a visit to the 
Church of St. Catherine is, indeed, a great pleasure and a profit. The soft 
appealing whiteness of its general appearance, its strikingly beautiful propor- 
tions, its glistening golden cross surmounting an exquisite dome, all rising 
from the greensward, gives us a picture of such earthly beauty as we do not 
often meet. And to find this gem of architecture and art near such a lovely 
beach surprises us still more, for St. Catherine's is, indeed, like a pearl cast up 
by the sea, a church such as one might expect to find amidst the wealth and 
refinement of a large city. 

It is a prayer carved in marble and wrought in metal, and its influence is 
to lift our hearts to God. It is a thanksgiving offering to God, as well as a 
memorial to a lovely daughter, whom God called away in the innocence of her 
girlhood — one of those quiet sweet-souled creatures who seem sent here to re- 
mind us of God's kingdom, where the angels roam at will. 

St. Catharine's is the generous gift of Martin J. Maloney, of Philadelphia, 
in memory of his daughter, Catharine, who died May 20, 1900, and who loved 
to stroll through the lovely groves of Spring Lake. But St. Catharine's is 
only the successor of old St. Ann's, a neat frame church which was erected 
by the Rev. M. L. Glennon, of Asbury Park. Old St. Ann's was built on 
Monmouth Avenue, near the Pennsylvania railroad, and Father Glennon came 
during the Summer seasons of 1880 and 1881 to Spring Lake and said Mass in 
the parlor of the Parker House at Sea Girt, then controlled by Thomas Dev- 
lin. At that time the congregation varied from twenty to twenty-five in Win- 
ter to about two hundred in Summer seasons. In 1882 and 1883 he held ser- 
vices in the old Devlin cottage at Spring Lake, as a more central location. 
In 1884 the corner-stone of old St. Ann's Church was put in place, and in 
Autumn of the same year the new church was dedicated by the Rt. Rev. 
Bishop O'Farrell. It was Father Glennon's custom to enclose the building 
only and then to plaster and finish when he had received sufficient money. 
And by these stages St. Ann's was completed and remained the parish church 
for seventeen years till the generosity of Mr. Martin Malony substituted the 
beautiful marble edifice called St. Catharine's. 



15 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Let me describe my first trip to old St. Ann's Church in 1888. I was 
then a Summer assistant to Father Glennon of Asbury Park, and as such at- 
tended the Spring Lake and Belmar Missions. It was the early gray of a 
June morning when Miss Bridget Smith, rapped to announce the time of ris- 
ing, 5.30 A. M., and in a few more minutes, Jim Carton brought around the 
rig, and I was off for my six-mile drive to Spring Lake. The first Mass was 
fixed for 6.30, with a chance for some confessions before Mass. The drive, 
though new to me, was very pleasant, as it always is during the Summer 
season. Passing by the sleepy Methodists of Ocean Grove, and seeing the 
milk man's wagons waiting outside the gates (for in those days no wagon was 
permitted to disturb the Sabbath slumbers of these saints), I went on through 
Bradley Beach, which was then a few scattered houses, and on through 




ST. CATHERINE S CHURCH, SPRING LAKE, N. J. 

"Avon-by-the-Sea," across the Shark River bridge, leaving the little church 
at Ocean Beach for Father O'Connor (now Bishop of Newark), who on this 
particular morning was allowed a longer sleep' on account of the shorter dis- 
tance he had to go, I finally arrived at St. Ann's and put up my horse in the 
little shed. No one seemed to be near, and the church was locked. After a 
short wait, however, old John O'Shea appeared from a group of pines, and 
made me feel at home, for old John was a perfect Irish gentleman, and had 
seen better days than as the sexton of St. Ann's. The church was a pretty 
little frame structure already plastered inside, having altar and sacristy, but no 
organ loft; no pews, only plain deal chairs were arranged for the people. 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 159 

About 100 people attended the early Mass, and dispersed as rapidly as 
they gathered, no one stopping to say a word. The next Mass was at 10.30, 
and there was nothing left for me to do except to be patient. First I read 
my Breviary, then I strolled out along the swamp which skirted the railroad 
in the rear of the church — all the time being absolutely alone. Luckily the 
pastor, always thoughtful for the comfort of his guests, had placed a lounge 
in the sacristy and when tired of strolling, and overcome with the malaria 
of the spot I enjoyed a restful nap and was ready for duty at 10. Again 
about 200 were in attendance, and after services I returned to Asbury Park in 
time for dinner. In those days it was a matter of great scheming to get 
funds.' The pew rents and door money as well as the collections were small, 
so that other means of revenue had to be devised. This was done by festivals 
and fairs and contests to catch a few elusive dollars from the Summer people, 
some of whom were very good and generous, and others indifferent about 
church work. 

Prominent among the early Catholics of Spring Lake were Tim Hurley, 
Thomas Devlin, etc. 

During this time Father Glennon had some, now distinguished assistants, 
among whom were the Rt. Rev. Bishop of Newark, Rt. Rev. J. J. O'Connor, 
Rt. Rev. Dr. Dennis T. Dougherty, Bishop of Nuern Segorid, Rev. Fathers 
Heuser, Sigifried, Synnott of Seton Hall, and Leahy of Princeton, and Mon- 
signor Kennedy of the American College, Rome, Italy. 

Thus matters went on till 1900, when on March 17, the corner stone of 
the new St. Catharine's Memorial Church was laid and on Trinity Sunday, 
May 25, 1901, the church was consecrated by the Rt. Rev. James A. McFaul, 
the preacher of the occasion being the Rt. Rev. P. J. Ryan, Archbishop of 
Philadelphia. Father Glennon had resigned charge of St. Ann's in the Spring 
of 1897, when Rev. Father Miller of North Plainfield, took charge, as tem- 
porary pastor from May till August, 1898. In June, 1898, Father Norris, who 
had just returned from Rome, was placed in charge, thus becoming first resi- 
dent pastor of St. Ann's. In the following January, 1898, Rev. Thomas 
McLaughlin succeeded Father Norris, who went to Trenton. 

It was during Father McLaughlin's administration that the present church 
was planned and given as a free gift to the Diocese of Trenton by Mr. Martin 
Maloney. To the generous donor, Mr. Martin Maloney, we all owe a debt of 
gratitude for his munificent gift to Spring Lake, and we wish him and his, 
a long and prosperous life in spreading the Ancient Church in this new land 
where our wealthy Catholics have done so little for their church. We need 
more Count Maloneys to come forward to assist the struggling Bishops with 
their wealth in founding charitable as well as religious and educational insti- 
tutions. 

The Sea Girt Camp is also attended from the Church of Spring Lake and 
Father McLaughlin has been ably assisted in his duties by the following as- 
sistants, : Rev. Fathers Sweeney, Callahan, Morrison, Murray and Morrisey. 

The cost of new St. Catharine's was about $175,000, all of which Count 
Maloney paid, thus leaving this beautiful edifice entirely free of debt. 



i6o 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Atlantic City, N. J. — Our Lady Star of the Sea. 

For a long time St. Nicholas' Church, in charge of the Augustinian 
Fathers, was the only Catholic parish in Atlantic City. The marvellous 
growth of the city towards the south necessitated the opening of another 
church, and consequently in 1885 the Rev. Father Fedigan purchased a lot 
at the corner of Atlantic and California Avenues, and began the erection of a 
large frame church, which in 1887 was dedicated under the name of St. Mon- 
ica, by the Rt. Rev. Bishop O'Farrell. This church remained in charge of the 
Augustinian Fathers till 1894, but was used only in the Summer time. 







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OUR LADY STAR OF THE SEA CHURCH, ATLANTIC CITY, N. J. 



On January 24, 1894, Bishop O'Farrell kindly relieved the Augustinians 
of this burdensome Mission and placed the parish in charge of Secular priests, 
appointing the Rev. P. J. Petri as its first resident pastor. 

Father Petri found the church sadly in need of repairs and improvements 
in order to make it fit for Winter use. 

Besides there was a debt of^$2,ooo.oo to be paid. But the new pastor at 
once took up the task and in a little while spent and raised $7,000 for improve- 
ments and repairs. 

St. Monica's was a large church and stood on the corner of Atlantic and 
California Avenues, fronting on the latter. 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 161 

In the Spring of 1895 Father Petri built the beautiful rectory at the cost 
of $6,500.00, and everything was now progressing when on December 21, 1896, 
a fire broke out in the sacristy, and in a few hours the stately Church of St. 
Monica was a mass of ruins. 

The insurance did not cover the mortgage, and as a consequence the pas- 
tor found himself $2,000.00 in debt and without a church. Father Petri, noth- 
ing daunted by this sudden setback, began at once to prepare for the future. 
Mr. Thomas Hudson offered the use of the large dining hall of the 
Hudson House, and here Mass was celebrated on Sundays for many months. 
The corner-stone of a new church was blessed on Monday, April 19, 1892, by 
Bishop McFaul. Rev. Walter T. Leahy of Swedesboro preached the ser- 
mon. When it was decided to rebuild the church, a new name was selected, 
"Our Lady of the Sea." 

The dedication took place on July 18, 1897. 

At 10 A. M. Pontificial High Mass was celebrated by Rt. Reverend Ed- 
mund F. Prendergast, D. D., Auxiliary Bishop of Philadelphia. The building 
was blessed by the Right Rev. James A. McFaul, D.D., Bishop of the Diocese 
of Trenton. 

Bishop Prendergast was assisted in the dedicatory exercises by the fol- 
lowing prominent clergymen : Rev. P. J. Daily, rector of the Annunciation, 
as assistant priest; Rev. D. Egan, of St. Anne's, as Deacon; Rev. B. F. Gal- 
lagher, rector of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, as Sub-Deacon, and Rev. T. H. 
Allen, of the parish of Our Lady Star of the Sea, as Master of Ceremonies. 

The sermon was preached by Right Rev. Leo Haid, D.. D., Bishop of 
North Carolina. 

In the evening Pontifical Vespers was sung by Right Rev. Bishop Mc- 
Faul, with Rev. C. J. Giese, of Millville, as Assistant Priest; Rev. D. J. Dug- 
gan, of Salem, as Deacon; Rev. W. T. Leahy, of Swedesboro, as Sub- 
Deacon and Rev. T. H. Allen, as Master of Ceremonies. 

An interesting sermon was preached by the Very Rev. Dean Burke, of 
Philipsburg, N. J. A great number of priests from other cities were present, 
among them Fathers J. J. Ward, Sinnot, Frank Quinn and Dr. Dougherty, all 
of Philadelphia; Fathers S. M. Lyons, of Mt. Holly, and Fathers M. E. Brie 
and Dean Mulligan, of Camden, Father D. Kelly and Father T. H. Deegan, of 
Cape May. 

After the completion of the church, the reverend pastor began at once to 
beautify the grounds so that today Father Petri's church is considered one of 
the handsomest in Atlantic City. 

Father Petri is now actively engaged in collecting funds for a parochial 
school which he hopes to begin soon. That success may crown his labor is 
the heartfelt wish of his many friends, for knowing Father Petri, as we do, 
we can honestly say that it will be a model parish school. 

Like all seaside churches, this structure is intended not only for the resi- 
dent Catholics, but affords accommodation to a large contingent of Summer 
visitors from Philadelphia and other places. During the height of the season 
there are five regular Masses. 



1 62 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Pleasantville is also attended from St. Mary's, and Father Petri is as- 
sisted in the Summer by Rev. Dr. Duffy, of Dunnwoodie Seminary, N. Y. 
Rev. Thomas F. Kerns is the present assistant. 

Carteret, N. J. — St. Joseph's Church. 

This continued till Christmas of 1890, when a temporary altar was erected 
in Mr. Radley's house, near the shore. The first Catholics to locate in what 
is now Carteret, were Patrick Sexton and family, James Peyton and wife, 
Peter Finnegan and son, the Higgins' family, Thomas Whitty, John Vidson, 
James Kelly and the Quinn family. 

The old residenters and pioneer Catholics of Carteret remember the house 
called the "Ship" (1885). This was a big boarding house owned and run by 
Patrick Sexton's family In this so-called ship the first Mass was celebrated by 
the Rev. Edward McCosker of Rahway. In the Spring 1890 this little hamlet 
was attached as a Mission to the parish of Perth Amboy and attended by 
Father P. L. Connolly and assistants till it was made a separate parish. 

Services were continued in the "ship" till Christmas of 1890, when a tem- 
porary altar was erected in a room of Mr. Radley's house, down near the 
shore, then occupied in part by Mr. and Mrs. Peyton, who cared for the 
comfort and convenience of the visiting priests. The author was one of 
them, and remembers the crowds of big men, women and children who gath- 
ered on Sundays for Mass and instruction. Sometimes the cold would be 
intense, sometimes the smoke would blind us, but we did not mind these 
little inconveniences. 

Cartaret remained as a Mission of Perth Amboy till March, 1893, when 
Rev. Bartholomew Carey was transferred from Trenton to organize a new 
parish. Father Carey found about one hundred people ready to help him, and 
he set about energetically to do his work. On a lot donated by Mr. Canda 
he built the first church in Carteret, but finding the growth of the town des- 
tined to take another direction, he made an exchange and moved the church 
to its present site. Later on he built a beautiful rectory. 

After a lingering sickness of many months Father Carey died in March, 
1893, and was buried in front of the church. He was succeeded by Rev. John 
J. O'Farrell of Woodstown, N. J. Father O'Farrell made many improve- 
ments to the property, and paid off considerable debt. There are many for- 
eigners in the parish. 

Hightstown, N. J. — St. Anthony's Church. 

The first Catholic service held in Hightstown was in 1852, when the Rev. 
John Scollard of St. Paul's Church, Princeton, N. J., visited this place, and 
said Mass at the home of John Sutcliff, who, although himself a Protestant, 
assisted his Catholic wife and children to practice their own religion. It 
appears that Father Scollard did not return to Hightstown, but advised the 
few Catholics to attend Princeton or Trenton churches, and consequently we 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 163 

have no account of any services till four years later, in 1856, when Father 
Biggio journeyed from Bordentown to give the people services. This time 
services were held at the home of Dennis Murphy, near Cranbury, on the Day 
road. Later on Mass was said at the home of Thomas Welch, at Red Tav- 
ern, and still later on the same priest held services at the home of William 
Nutt, who lived about two miles south of Hightstown. Then the growth of 
the parish at Bordentown prevented Father Biggio from attending Hights- 
town, and the people were once more compelled to attend services at Prince- 
ton, Trenton, Bordentown, or Freehold. In 1871 the Mission of Freehold was 
detached from the Princeton parish, and Father Kivelitz was appointed the 
first resident pastor of Freehold, and Hightstown fell to his charge, but as it 
was impossible for Father Kivelitz to have Sunday service on account of his 
other Missions, he came on weekdays, and these were really holidays, for the 
Catholics young and old enjoyed these visits very much. On these occasions 
Father Kivelitz said Mass at James Dullard's on Morrison Street, opposite 
the monument. He also came twice a week at times to instruct the children 
for first Holy Communion and Confirmation, displaying a zeal for these poor 
people which made them love and reverence his ministry amongst them. 

In July, 1878, Bishop Corrigan placed Rev. Joseph Borghesi, an Italian 
priest, in charge of the Allentown Mission, with New Egypt and Hightstown 
as Missions. Father Borghesi continued to hold services at Mr. Dullard's 
residence, but in the following year, 1879, finding the work too much for him 
he discontinued services at Hightstown, and the people went either to Allen- 
town or Jamesburg or Perrineville. 

In July, 1879, Father Danielou succeeded Father Borhesi at Allentown, 
and also at Hightstown. He remained in charge till 1885, when it became a 
Mission of Perrineville under Father Carey, who, at the request of Bishop 
O'Farrell, took up his residence at Perrineville with Hightstown and Eng- 
lishtown as Missions. Father Carey said Mass in a little building on Main 
Street, corner of Mercer, formerly used as a law office by S. M. Schank. A 
month later the church was incorporated, as The Catholic Church of St. 
Anthony of Padua, Hightstown, N. J. The first lay trustees were John P. 
Dullard and Frank F. McGowan. In the Spring of 1886 the corner-stone was 
placed by Very Rev. Anthony Smith. 

Owing to various difficulties in 1888 Father Carey left and Hightstown 
was re-united to the church at Allentown, under Father O'Donnell. Father 
O'Donnell made many improvements during his stay, but in 1889 Father 
Carey returned to this charge, where he remained till 1891, when he was 
transferred to Perth Amboy, and the church was closed for two years, 1890- 
1892. Later when the church was reopened it was placed in charge of the Fran- 
ciscan Fathers from Chambersburg. Father Angelus, O. M. C, was the first 
pastor after the reopening. Then came Fathers Edward, Berard, Aloysius, 
and Charles in succession, all zealous and faithful pastors, and all beloved by 
the people. On June 1, 1906, Bishop McFaul appointed Rev. John B. Mc- 
Closkey in charge, and again made it a regular parish. 



164 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Camden, N. J. — Church of the Sacred Heart. 

The Rev. Patrick Byrne, rector of the Church of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion, in the early seventies perceiving the disadvantages and hardships under 
which the scattered Catholics of this section of the city labored, decided to 
establish a mission chapel to supply their spiritual needs. With this purpose 
in view three and one-quarter acres of land were purchased between Vanhook 
and Jackson Streets, bounded on the east by Ninth Street and on the west by 




SACRED HEART CHURCH, CAMDEN, N. J. 

Eighth Street, and here a small frame building was erected, 
the corner stone of which was laid by the now venerable Dean 
McNulty, of Pater son, in 1872. To this humble house of God belongs the 
distinguished honor of being the first religious edifice dedicated to the honor 
of the Sacred Heart in New Jersey. This temporary sanctuary was used 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 165 

for divine service, under the care of Father Byrne and his successor, Rev. 
Peter Fitzsimmons, as a Mission from the Immaculate Conception. 

In September, 1885, Rt. Rev. Michael O'Farrell, then Bishop of Trenton, 
established the new parish of the Sacred Heart, and placed the Rev. William 
Lynch, who was assistant rector at Gloucester, in charge as the first pastor. 
The new rector immediately proceeded to organize the parish, and on October 
13, 1885, it was incorporated under the title of "The Church of the Sacred 
Heart." The first board of trustees consisted of Rt. Rev. Michael J. O'Far- 
rell, Very Rev. Anthony Smith, V. G., Rev. William Lynch, Hugh Greenan, 
Richard Boyle. 

When Father Byrne located the chapel on Vanhook Street, everything 
pointed to the certain and rapid growth of the city in that direction, but the 
new pastor found the little church very far away from his people, and so 
on November 13, 1885, the present site was purchased and preparations at 
once made to build the now permanent parish buildings. The corner-stone of 
the Sacred Heart Church was laid by the Rt. Rev. Bishop O'Farrell, on Sunday, 
July, 1886, in the presence of more than 7,000 people. The new completed 
church was dedicated with most impressive ceremonies on March 7, 1887, by 
Bishop O'Farrell, who the previous year had laid the foundation stone. The 
Rt. Rev. Bishop was assisted on this occasion by Dean Fitzsimmons and 
Father Maurice, O. M. C. 

On Sunday, February 28, 1887, the solemn mysteries of the Mass were 
celebrated for the last time in the little old church on the hill. 

The present handsome church properties occupying one of the most 
desirable spots in South Camden were erected at a cost of nearly $45,000. It 
was to assume this burden which seemed more than the young congregation 
could stand, that the present rector, Rev. Maurice E. Brie, was appointed in 
December, 1888. During the more than thirteen years of hard and anxious 
toiling, many needed improvements have been made and paid for by Father 
Brie and the debt greatly reduced. Right nobly have the members of this 
congregation responded time and again to the urgent demands made upon 
their slender resources. 

And yet without the helping hand and the guiding head of Father Brie 
the Sacred Heart Church would have had 'a desperate struggle, for he 
it was who gathered his scattered and broken-spirited little flock and urged 
them on by word and example to overcome the difficulties in their path. Not 
only did he finish the church building and rectory, but he improved the 
grounds and made them beautiful to look upon ; all the while gradually re- 
ducing the debt. 

The building of a church or school is a good work, but the mere erection 
of material building is an easy matter compared to the harder task of paying 
off debt. And this has been Father Bric's lot, and to it the best years of his 
life have been successfully devoted. 

South Plainfield, N. J. 
The Catholics of South Plainfield attended Mass at St. Mary's, Plainfield, 
until 1888, when Father McCormick from Metuchen celebrated the first Mass 



i66 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



in South Plainfield in the home of Richard Geary, and continued to come 
twice a month. Under the succeeding pastors of Metuchen this arrangement 
was continued. 

South Plainfield had the folowing pastors: Revs. McCormick, 1888, 
Cantwell, Joseph Smith, Freeman, O'Reilly (bought lot), Lawrence, Graham. 
In 1904 South Plainfield was attached to Dunellen. It is attended by Father 
E. T. Dunphy every Sunday in Washington Hall, where Mass has been said 
since 1899, and where services are still held. Pioneers: John and Ellen' 
Geary, Morris and Johanna Geary, John and Ellen Hogan. 

Belmar, N. J. — Church of St. Rose. 

This church was built as a Mission chapel, and attended from the mother 
church at Asbury Park. At that time Belmar was called "Ocean Beach" and 
the whole coast district from St. Michael's, West End, to Point Pleasant was 
under the care of the Rev. M. L. Glennon, pastor of Asbury Park, N. J. 
Services were first held in a small frame building which he erected on Second 
Street, and which for many years was used only in the Summer seasons. This 
chapel was opened in 1888, but the number of Summer visitors increased so 




ST. ROSE S CHURCH, BELMAR, N. J. 

rapidly that in 1890 the Rt. Rev. Bishop O'Farrell laid the corner stone of a 
much larger building. According to Father Glennon's custom the building 
was first enclosed and then finished, as funds were in hand, and as a conse- 
quence it required several Summers to finish it. 

The writer remembers his first Sunday at this Mission in 1889. There 
were about 40 people present at the early Mass. The building was neither 
lathed nor plastered. On the altar stood two small candle-sticks, and a little 
Crucifix. The altar itself was only a large sized box. About one hundred 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 167 

small chairs were the only other articles of furniture, and after making, what 
he thought, was an eloquent appeal, for help to finish the building, and for the 
necessary furnishings for the altar, he was waited upon, after Mass, by a 
gentleman visitor who presented a 75-cent candle lighter. Of course these 
appeals had to be made frequently by the pastor, and assistants till all neces- 
sary articles were procured. During these years Father Glennon whilst super- 
vising all the Missions, usually left the care of the Sunday services to his as- 
sistants, notably among whom were the Rev. J. J. O'Connor and Dr. Synnott 
of Seton Hall College, and the Rev. Benedictine Fathers of Newark, N. J. 
In 1895 the Rev. John W. Norris was placed in charge of Spring Lake as 
resident pastor, with the Church of Belmar as a Mission. In 1896 Father 
McLaughlin succeeded Father Norris at Spring Lake and retained charge of 
Belmar till 1902, when the Rev. Thomas B. Nolan was appointed its first resi- 
dent pastor. Father Nolan worked hard to make this newly erected parish 
a success, and a credit to his people, but just as all prospects seemed brightest, 
he was summoned to his reward and died September 23, 1905. 

Rev. William J. McConnell was then transferred from Oxford to suc- 
ceed Father Nolan and continues the good work began by his predecessor. 

West End (Long Branch, N. J.) — St. Michael's Church. 

For many years St. Mary's Star of the Sea Church afforded sufficient 
accommodation for the Catholics of Long Branch. Sometimes it was neces- 
sary to have four and five Masses on Sundays, but in time even the multipli- 
cation of the Masses did not suffice, for the people living at the West End, 
and Elberon were too far away from the church. To accommodate this con- 
stantly growing contingent St. Michael's Church was erected. This church 
was opened for services and dedicated on August 9, 1891. It is a beautiful 
brick structure, situated near Takawannasee Lake, West End. The church 
was erected at a cost of $30,000, under the supervision of Rt. Rev. James A. 
McFaul, Bishop of Trenton, when he was rector of St. Mary's, Long Branch. 

When Father McFaul left Long Branch this parish received as rector the 
Rev. Richard J. Crean, who still ministers to the wants of this place and the 
Mission of Norwood. The Mission of Deal and Allenhurst was also attended 
from St. Machael's till it became a separae parish in 1904. 

Highlands — Highland Beach — Navesink. — Our Lady of Perpetual Help. 

Mass was first said in private houses by Rev. Thomas Killeen, Fathers 
Kelly and Kane, when pastors of Red Bank. 

The first resident pastor was Rev. John Joseph O'Connor, assistant at St. 
Patrick's Catholic Cathedral, Newark. He remained four years and moved 
to New Monmouth. Father Fox succeeded to Highlands and Sea Bright, but 
deeming Sea Bright the better place for residence went to live there and held 
Highlands as a Mission from May 1, 1883, to October, 1891. He built this 
church at Highlands at a cost of $10,000. 



168 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Father Roche succeeded in 1891 to Atlantic Highlands, took charge of 
Highlands as a Mission, and attended it faithfully till Rev. John T. Sweeney 
was appointed second resident pastor. Father Sweeney did much to beautify 
the grounds, and built a new rectory. In May, 1906, he was transferred to 
Ocean City and succeeded by the present pastor, Rev. Joseph A. Rigney. 

Atlantic Highlands, N. J. — St. Agnes' Church. 

The natural beauties of this spot drew many Summer tourists here as 
early as 1880, but the Mission was not open for Catholics till about 1885, 
when the Rev. Father J. J. O'Connor, then residing at Middletown (now New 
Monmouth), began to attend this place on Sundays during the Summer 
seasons. Later on, when the Rev. John H. Fox became pastor of Sea Bright, 
this Mission was given in his charge. At this time there was considerable 
opposition to a Catholic chapel in the village, so that when it became neces- 
sary to build great secrecy was necessary to purchase land. The cost of the 
lot was $850.00. 

Finally, October 25, 1889, Father Fox purchased the present site, 
and began at once preparations for a church, the corner stone of which was 
laid November 30, 1890. The dedication took place May 31, 1891, and on Oc- 
tober 8, of this same year, Rev. Father Thomas J. Roche was appointed 
first resident pastor. Father Roche built the present rectory, and did much 
to improve the church and its surroundings. He remained in charge 
till November 11, 1900, when he was promoted to the parish of the Holy 
Spirit, Asbury Park, N. J., succeeding the Rev. M. L. Glennon. Father 
Roche also attended Oceanic from the Highlands. 

In November 11, 1900, Rev. William J. O'Farrell was transferred from 
Bridgeton to succeed Father Roche, and he continues the good work in this 
lovely spot. 

Belvidere, N. J. — St. Patrick's Church. 

The first Mass celebrated in Belvidere, N. J., was in the house of Michael 
O'Neill, in the year 1851. Some few Catholics were located at this town in 
consequence of the building of the Belvidere and Deleware railroad, in which 
they were engaged. Father Reardon, of Easton, said the first Mass, and from 
time to time administered to this little band of pioneers. Father Jego, of 
Lambertville, followed, making the long journey of forty-nine miles fre- 
quently, to enable this little flock to have the comforts of their religion. His 
good work was furthered by the visitations of Father McManus, of Plainfield, 
and Father McHale, of Newton. Father McHale took a lively interest in this 
section — building the church in Oxford in 1858, and holding services regularly 
in the Belvidere Academy. Owing to difficulties in the Academy, Mass was 
celebrated for some time thereafter in the home of John Carroll — the Revs. 
James Smith and Cornelius O'Reilly being the pastors up to 1870. Rev. P. E. 
Smith, of Washington, attended Belvidere about twice a month. About this 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 



169 



time Mr. William Mcllhaney erected a fairly large frame structure that 
served as a church for twenty-two years, and it was in this building that 
Bishop Corrigan of Newark, administered the Sacrament of Confirmation. 
The pastors during this period were Revs. Treacy, Donovan, Lawrence and 
Hanley. Father Hanley was succeeded by Fathers Burke, McLaughlin, Russi, 
Kelly and McConnell. 










ST. PATRICK S CHURCH,, BELVIDERE, N. J. 

The one great event in the history of the parish was the building of the 
church, which was named St. Patrick's, by the Rev. P. Hanley. For years 
effort in this direction was without success, but eventually a couple of acres, 
beautifully located on one of the finest avenues, was secured, and work on the 
church was begun. It is a Gothic structure, 60x40 feet, and boasting of the 
tower 90 feet in height. The church is praised by every visitor, much of the 
charm being due to the rich adornment within. To mention the friends who 
made this possible would be to name all the Catholics of the parish, but it 
seems only proper to record that, of all the benefactors, Col. R. C. Fellows, a 



i 7 o THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

non-Catholic, was the most generous. The corner-stone was laid in August, 
1891, but, owing to the illness of Father Hanley, the church was not dedi- 
cated till October 22, 1893, Father Burke then being pastor. Rt. Rev. M. J. 
O'Farrell officiated on both occasions, and at the ceremonies, there were 
present of the pioneers who had assisted at the first Mass the following: 
William Barry, Maurice Mildrick, Martin Shaw, Michael O'Neill, Andrew 
Kimenour, Andrew Lohman, Patrick Brophy, Hugh Summers and John Dris- 
coll. 

The Catholics belonging to St. Patrick's parish are few, but of the num- 
ber many are indeed a credit to their church. Their sturdy faith and untiring 
zeal are worthy of especial praise when the difficulties they had to overcome 
are considered. To begin with, they were few in number, they were poor, and 
they were foreigners. The natives not understanding them, not sympathizing 
with them, showed no little narrow opposition — descending indeed to such 
petty persecution as to insult their pastor, Father McHale. The Academy 
which they rented was denied them, and later the Baptist church, which 
was for sale, would not be sold to the Catholics. The greatest drawback of all 
though is that here has never been a resident priest. The good influence of 
an hour's work on Sunday is not sufficient to counteract the world's influence 
exercised all the rest of the week. As a result some fell away from the 
faith. 

Even in her weakness, however, the Church of St. Patrick has extended 
a helping hand to other places less favored. During the pastorate of Father 
McConnell this church established stations at Harker's Hollow and Delaware 
Water Gap, N. J. In the former were twenty-seven Catholics living miles 
away from the church, and the priest celebrated Mass there for them once a 
month on a week day. Even this small attention was the means of having 
a class of children prepared for Confession, Communion and Confirmation, 
all within the first year. For the seasons of 1902, 1903 and 1904, Belvidere 
maintained a priest at Delaware Water Gap, N. J. The Catholic visitors to 
that resort were accustomed to drive the fourteen miles to Mass in Belvidere, 
but during the years mentioned an extra priest was engaged, and on Sundays 
two Masses were celebrated at the Water Gap. This was continued until the 
Bishop of Scranton directed the pastor of Stroudsburg to have Mass at the 
Gap on the Pennsylvania side. 

But times are changed in Belvidere. Railroad traffic has begun to make 
this a centre for the trainmen, and, best of all, the excellent water power of the 
Delaware river there is at last to be utilized. Under the blessing of Heaven 
this will bring work, and work will bring Catholics, and Catholics will bring 
regeneration to this, the most beautiful town in New Jersey. 

Pavonia, (East Camden, N. J.) — St. Joseph's Church. 

This parish was started by the Franciscan Fathers from St. Peter and 
Paul's, Camden, in 1893. The Rev. Father Alphonse, being .then pastor, find- 
ing that very many German families were living in that section, secured land 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 



7i 



and built the present church structure at a cost of $15,000.00. In the follow- 
ing year, 1894, a school was opened in the basement of the church and placed 
in charge of the Sisters of St. Francis. In that same year, 1894, the Fran- 
ciscan priests were withdrawn, and Bishop McFaul placed the parish in charge 
of Rev. Father Hirschmeyer, who remained at St. Joseph's till 1896, when he 
was replaced by Rev. James Hendricks from the curacy of St. Mary's, Cam- 
den. Father Hendricks, stayed only a week, on account of his inability to 
speak German. Both English and German are used in the church services. 

1899 Rev. Joseph Rathner, D.D., a curate of Long Branch, was ap- 
pointed to succeed Father Hendricks. Dr. Rathner by his zeal and kindness 
greatly endeared himself to the people of St. Joseph's, and was doing much to 
improve the parish, when, on account of the death of Father Thurnes at St. 







st. Joseph's church, camden, n. j. 

Francis', Trenton, he was promoted to that important parish. Rev. Anthony 
Shuvelin is the present pastor, 1901. Father Shuvelin came from St. Mary's 
Bordentown, where he had been curate, and since his appointment to East 
Camden, his unselfish devotion to duty has won for him the love and esteem 
of his people. 

St. Joseph's now boasts of an excellent parish school, but owing to lack 
of funds there is as yet no separate school building. The classes are taught 
in the basement of the church, but the good pastor feels that it will only be a 
short time till the generosity of his good people will enable him to provide 
a separate school building. In 1905 he began to fill in the basin which sur- 
rounded the church, and which caused so much trouble to himself and prede- 
cessors. 




BISHOP M FAUL. 



CHAPTER IV. 

PART II.— DIOCESE OF TRENTON. 

BISHOP M'FAUL. 

There are few men who are properly appreciated by their contemporaries, 
because, as a general rule, their motives are not fully understood, and often 
their actions are misinterpreted by less worthy people. There are fewer still, 
who can stand the constant strain of American public life, and always appear 
at their best. Especially is this the case with an American Bishop, for he has 
a varied part to play. Not only must he be a pious, painstaking priest, but 
he must be a good financier, else the material interests of his Diocese will 
suffer loss and depreciation. Furthermore he must be able to rule men who 
enjoy the possession of personal liberty in a country where that liberty often 
degenerates into license. Then, in his capacity of citizen, he must be able to 
meet his fellow-citizens in press or on platform, and to defend his faith 
against all who attack it. 

To occupy such a position creditably is no easy task, but to hold it honor- 
ably for over twelve years, means the possession of good judgment as well as 
excellent ability. Such a Bishop is the Rt. Rev. James A. McFaul, D.D., 
LL.D., second Bishop of Trenton. From his first induction into office he has 
been constantly before the American public in press and pulpit, in the legis- 
lative halls, and on the lecture platform, exhorting, refuting, pleading and re- 
proving, battling for right and justice for Catholics, until to-day his name 
is revered from Maine to California. A prolific writer for the press, he loses 
no opportunity of doing good by his pen ; a ready and forceful speaker, his 
public utterances always command respectful attention; a careful and progres- 
sive administrator, the Diocese of Trenton has attained a remarkable growth 
under his guiding hand. A glance at his twenty-nine years of church work 
will show what a busy life he has led. 

Bishop James Augustine McFaul was born near the village of Larne, 
County Antrim, Ireland, June 6, 1850. His parents immigrated to America 
when he was but six months old and settled in New York City, where they re- 
mained for about four years. At the end of that time, they went to Bound 
Brook, N. J., where they lived out their happy, peaceful lives until God called 
them, a few years since, to enjoy their reward in Heaven. In this pleasant 
country home the early years of our good Bishop were passed. He attended the 
neighboring schools of Weston and Millstone, and early attracted the marked 
attention of his teachers for persevering industry in the pursuit of knowledge. 



173 



i 7 4 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

When his parents settled at Bound Brook, Catholics were few in that part of 
the State. There was no church at Bound Brook, and so to hear Holy Mass 
the journey to New Brunswick or Raritan had to be made. How faithful his 
parents were in performing this duty is a tradition throughout the whole neigh- 
borhood. Never, when circumstances did not render it impossible, were they ab- 
sent from the Holy Sacrifice. On stormy days the mother and father would gath- 
er the children around them, and as they could not reach the distant churches, 
they would kneel (at least during the time of the Mass), and devoutly reciting 
the beads, endeavor to be present in spirit at the divine Mysteries. Under 
such training it was impossible that the future Bishop should not acquire that 
spirit of strong, enduring faith which is characteristic of him. At the early 
age of nine years, he was prepared by a good Benedictine Father, afterwards 
Rt. Rev. Bishop Seidenbush, for his first Holy Communion, and was con- 
firmed in St. Peter's Church, New Brunswick, by the lamented Archbishop 
Bayley. The Benedictines continued their labors at Bound Brook and gath- 
ered the few Catholics of the neighborhood together. The house is still 
standing where the first Mass was said. It was used for a church for many 
years, and in it young James received his first Holy Communion. Here the 
subject of our sketch also served Mass, and was so prudent and docile in his 
bearing as to attract the attention of Father William Walter, O. S. B., who ad- 
vised him to devote the talents God had given him, to the service of the church. 
Acting on his advice, the young man entered St. Vincent's College, at Beatty, 
Westmoreland County, Penn., where he remained for four years. He then 
entered St. Francis Xavier's College, New York City, where he completed his 
classical course, and fitted himself for the Seminary. His theological studies 
were made at Seton Hall College, South Orange, N. J., where he was or- 
dained to the Holy Priesthood on May 26, 1877. His first assignments were 
to Paterson, then to Orange (taking the place of sick priests), until he was 
permanently appointed to St. Patrick's Church, Jersey City. Afterwards he 
was stationed in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Newark, and later at St. Peter's, New 
Brunswick. Finally, he was sent to be assistant to the late lamented Vicar 
General Anthony Smith, at St. Mary's, in Trenton, shortly before the division 
of the State into two Dioceses. The See of Trenton was erected in 1881, and 
Michael J. O'Farrell was appointed its first Bishop. He chose St. Mary's 
Church as his Cathedral, and was thus early brought into contact with its 
young, able and vigorous assistant. It did not take long for him to know 
what manner of man Father McFaul was, and in the first days of his work as 
a Bishop was laid the foundation of an affectionate confidence between these 
two which grew the stronger with the passing years. In 1884 Father McFaul 
was made pastor of St. Mary's, Star of the Sea, Long Branch. Here he la- 
bored for seven years. During this period he paid off the very heavy in- 
debtedness of the church and built also the beautiful Church of St. Michael, 
at Elberon. In 1890, after Vicar General Smith's death, he was called back 
to Trenton to be rector of the Cathedral, October, 1890, during which time he 
built St. Joseph's school, East Trenton, in the hall of which Mass was said 
till the new St. Joseph's Church was built. 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 175 

On November 1, 1892, Bishop O'Farrell selected Father McFaul as his 
Vicar General, after he had been Chancellor of the Diocese for several years. 

When Bishop O'Farrell died in April, 1894, Vicar-General McFaul was 
appointed administrator, and on July 20, the same year, succeeded to the See 
of Trenton as its second Bishop. Being familiar with the work of the Diocese, 
and having the confidence of his priests, he began at once to infuse his own 
spirit of energy into clergy and people. His first large undertaking was to 
carry out the wish of his predecessor, Bishop O'Farrell, by the erection of St. 
Michael's Home at Hopewell. 

On July 1, 1897, he opened and completed the Second Synod of Trenton. 
Besides his regular canonical parish visitations, confirmations, dedications and 
blessing of corner stones, he also found time to lend himself to a vast amount 
of other work, inside and outside his Diocese. Nothing seemed to escape his 
zeal and activity; the school question, marriage and divorce, the saloon evil, 
and all public questions. His pastorals have also been a source of edifica- 
tion and instruction to Catholics and Protestants alike. 

The following churches and institutions were erected and dedicated dur- 
ing his administration : 

Trenton — St. Hedwig's Polish Church (new). 

Trenton — St. Joseph's (new). 

Trenton — Sts. Peter and Paul's (Slavish) (new). 

Trenton — St. Stephen's (Hungarian) (new). 

Alpha — St. Mary's (Hungarian) (new). 

Asbury Park — Mt. Carmel (Italian) (new). 

Atlantic City — St. Mary's (new). 

Atlantic City — St. Nicholas' (new). 

Atlantic City— St. Michael's (Italian). 

Pleasantville — St. Peter's Church. 

Bernardsville — Our Lady of Perpetual Help. 

Florence — St. Clare's Church.. 

Camden — Mt. Carmel (Italian). 

Deal — St. Mary's Church. 

Mullica Hill — Holy Name of Jesus. 

Swedesboro — St. Joseph's (rebuilt). 

Woodstown — St. Joseph's (rebuilt). 

Laurel Springs — St. Lawrence's Church. 

Metuchen — St. Francis' Church. 

Minatola — St. Michael's Church. 

Haddon Heights — St. Rose's Church. 

Long Beach — St. Thomas' Church (Summer only). 

Landisville. 

Milmay — St. Mary's Church. 

Dorothy — St. Bernard's Church (new). 

Risley — St. George's Church. 

Perth Amboy — St. Mary's Church (new). 

Perth Amboy — Holy Cross (Hungarian). 



i 7 6 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Perth Amboy — St. Mary's (Greek). 

Point Pleasant — Rebuilt. 

Post Reading — (Italian) (new). 

Spring Lake — St. Catherine's Church (new). 

Raritan — St. Ann's Church (Italian). 

Monmouth Beach — Church of the Precious Blood. 

South River — St. Mary's Church (Polish). 

Tom's River — St. Joseph's Church. 

Pennsgrove — St. James' Church (new). 

Ocean City — St. Augustine's Church (new). 

Hopewell — St. Michael's Home (new). 

Lawrenceville — Morris Hall for the Aged (new). 

Lakewood — St. Mary Academy (opened). 

Trenton — St. James' Day Nursery (opened). 

Trenton — St. Francis' Hospital (wing and chapel built). 

Pennington — St. James' Church. 

North Plainfield, N. J.— Mt. St. Mary's Academy (begun). 

North Plainfield, N. J. — Home for Working Girls (opened). 

Besides attending to various cases of his growing and heterogeneous 
Diocese, Bishop McFaul has always been ready and willing to lend a helping 
hand to his brother Bishops, especially in the matter of the Federation of the 
Catholic Societies of America. With a zeal and activity seldom found in pre- 
lates of his age, he has addressed immense gatherings in most of the large 
cities of the Union, and has never shirked an opportunity to do good. In 
fact, the success of the " Federation " is entirely due to his foresight in gather- 
ing, and his courage in welding these single societies into one solid mass that 
will be able to stand up for the rights of Catholics whenever and wherever 
circumstances may demand. 

It was also Bishop McFaul, who, upon the suggestion of Rev. D. J. Dug- 
gan, of Bordentown, N. J., was chosen as arbiter to unite the factions of the 
A. O. H. Not only is he loved and honored in his own Diocese, but over the 
whole country his name and fame is known, and revered as one of the cham- 
pions of Catholic interests in every movement of good. 

The following address was delivered by Bishop McFaul, at Cincinnati, 
September 17, 1905 : 

The American Federation of Catholic Societies. 

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

Let me begin by assuring you that I am profoundly grateful for this 
opportunity of addressing the people of this great city; and that I highly 
appreciate the magnificent welcome you have given Federation this evening. 
It is inspiring to be greeted like this at the inauguration of any movement; in 
this instance force is derived from the fact that Catholics are beginning to 
realize the importance of their message to the entire people of America, and 
are anxious for some suitable instrument whereby it may be delivered. 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 177 

THE BIRTH OF FEDERATION. 

When the Catholic societies of the United States began an agitation in 
favor of Federation, I took the liberty to commend the movement, and sought 
the advice of Archbishop Corrigan of New York, and Archbishop Ryan of 
Philadelphia. Both favored such an organization. Archbishop Ryan was the 
more enthusiastic. I had long been acquainted with him, and, knowing that 
he was an eminent, prudent and conservative ecclesiastic, I was rejoiced when 
he said : "It's a step in the right direction. Go ahead." I received more 
courage when my old professor, Archbishop Messmer, became an advocate 
and promoter of the movement. Then, our national conventions, which have 
become great Catholic Congresses, patronized by men of different nationalities, 
attended by audiences of thousands, listening to essays and addresses by lead- 
ing ecclesiastics and laymen on the great topics of our times, made me feel 
that the work embraced an educational campaign, the benefits of which can 
hardly be appreciated at their full value, until the seed has taken root and 
grown up to be a mighty tree, sheltering under its spreading branches all the 
Catholics of the United States. 

ITS GROWTH. 

We are making progress slowly, but surely. It is something to have en- 
rolled over a million and a half of Catholics in about five years. All great 
bodies need time for completion. Rome wasn't built in a day. One thing 
which has retarded our growth is the want of some immediate, visible, per- 
sonal interest gained by joining the Federation. The subordinate societies 
have certain beneficial features that are attractive. Federation cannot trespass 
on the work of these societies. Hence, it has looked about for something to 
enlist the interest of the individual member. 

A very interesting subject has been lately brought before Federation. It 
relates to the best manner of caring for the religions and social interests of the 
immigrants daily flocking to our shores. It has been proposed to establish, in 
connection with this organization, a bureau devoted to Church Extension. In 
this way there could be erected in every hamlet a small church where Mass 
could be occasionally offered and Catechism taught. The money would be 
loaned at a small percentage, and the fund continued for the spread of the 
work. Surely there are enough wealthy Catholics in this country to establish 
such a bureau and supply it with ample means to preserve the faith and trans- 
mit it to posterity. This scheme will enable us to reach every Catholic in the 
United States, and to disseminate our doctrines among non-Catholics. Be as- 
sured that those outside the Church are anxious to hear us, and, once knowing 
the truth, will embrace it and enter the true fold of Christ. 

COMMENDATION OF THE HIERARCHY. 

We have received endorsement from very many members of the hierarchy. 
I need not, however, tell you that Federation cannot exist or grow on mere 
recommendations ; it needs active co-operation and promotion. In view of the 



178 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

encouragement given by His Excellency, the Most Rev. Apostolic Delegate, 
and so many prominent Bishops, it seems strange, to say the least, that there 
should be strong opposition to the movement in some quarters. These people 
are wiser than their shepherds, and hold up their hands in awe lest the Feder- 
ation should commit some blunder, and the Church suffer. Those who are 
timid regarding Federation, and hesitate to join it may transgress the legiti- 
mate field in which alone safety can be found, and inopportunely precipitate 
the practical solution of problems which are still immature, should reflect that 
Federaton includes on its Advisory Board some of the most eminent, the most 
prudent and conservative members of the Hierarchy, and no important step 
can be taken without their consent. In due time the organization hopes to 
have the whole Hierarchy acting in the capacity of Advisers. In questions 
affecting an arch-diocese, or a diocese, the Archbishop and Bishop, respective- 
ly, will be the principal members of the Advisory Board ; and in national ques- 
tions the Board of Archbishops. Laymen will thus be guided in the proper 
channels, and there will be no danger of injury to our interests arising from 
misdirection and misapplied zeal. 

Before proceeding further, let me at once lay down certain propositions 
to guide me in the elucidation of my subject: 

First, I will tell you what Federation is not; second, What it is; third, 
What it has already accomplished; fourth, What it intends, with God's bless- 
ing, to attain in the future. 

FALSE IDEA OF FEDERATION. 

At the mention of Federation some people say : Oh ! it is a sort of 
Grievance Committee, whose members are going around feeling over the body 
social and politic to find sore spots. They have manufactured a Federation 
salve which they intend to rub into all those bad places. In short, they think 
they have discovered a panacea for all our civil, religious and social ills. The 
result will be that friction will be created between Catholics and non-Catholics ; 
it will breed enmity. We are now living in harmony and peace ; why, then, 
form this Federation to create trouble? It is better "to bear those ills we 
have, than fly to others we know of." Well, I have been connected with this 
organization since its inception. I am pretty well acquainted with its aims, 
and I have yet to learn that it contemplates the engendering of enmity between 
us and our non-Catholic fellow citizens. I have always maintained that the 
very contrary was its aim — the bringing of ourselves and our religion before 
the public, so that our non-Catholic friends may know who we are, and what 
we represent, in the hope that when any great question is to be solved, or any 
great evil cured, the Federation of Catholic Societies could extend the hand of 
fellowship to non-Catholics, and say, for instance, on the question of Divorce 
or Socialism : " We will work hand in hand with you for the education and 
the uplifting of humanity above these evils." 

Let me say that, if Catholics and non-Catholics were united for the 
banishment of crime, for the prevention and cure Of any evil in this city of 
Cincinnati, or elsewhere, success, beyond doubt, would crown our efforts. 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 179 

We Catholics have some grievances, it is true; but why do we have them? 
It is because of weak-kneed, jelly-fish Catholics, who are afraid to call their 
souls their own. Walk abroad in this land of ours, from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific, from the lakes to the gulf! What sort of a man is the average non- 
Catholic American whom we will meet? Generally a broad-minded man, a 
large-hearted man, a lover of justice and right, and a strong hater of injustice, 
wherever found. You prate to him of grievances. What will he say? "Your 
fathers and mine mingled their blood to found this glorious Republic; shed 
it like water to maintain this Union, and you have no business to have griev- 
ances. If you have them, it is your own fault. You are too cowardly to make 
them known, fight against them, and have them redressed." And wouldn't he 
be right? Is it not the truth? 

GRIEVANCES. 

When we speak of grievances, there is always some person unconscious 
of our position in relation to the State and Nation, who cries out: " You have 
no grievances." For the benefit of all who are thus disposed, I shall ask a 
few questions : Is the Bible read, are Protestant prayers recited, and sectarian 
hymns sung in the public schools of your district? Is the priest allowed free 
access to all public institutions, whether penal or charitable, for the purpose 
of administering to the religious needs of the inmates? Is the Mass or any 
Catholic religious service allowed in your public institutions? Do the inmates 
all gather together to attend 'Protestant worship? If Catholics are obliged to 
attend sectarian worship, what becomes of the freedom of conscience guaran- 
teed by both State and National Constitutions? Has the Army and Navy 
sufficient Catholic chaplains? Why not? 

NOT A POLITICAL PARTY. 

Some say, "Federation is a political organization." Now, I defy any one 
to read the literature of the movement and maintain that proposition. It is 
only the selfish, scheming politician who thus tries to give the movement a bad 
name, and to retard its progress. The statesman, like Grant, will tell you : 
" Get your people together, send in petitions, and you will succeed." Often 
our representative in the State Legislature, or in Congress, cannot give us the 
justice he desires, precisely because we do not encourage him. On the one 
side, he has the petitions of all the bigots, and none from us. If we mani- 
fested our strength, not as Catholics, but as American citizens, he could say to 
our opponents : " Gentlemen, here are your petitions, and over there, do you 
see the thousands? How can I afford to ignore the claims of those Catholics? 

There are oothers who say: "If there are no politics in it, what's the use 
of it?" There are two kinds of politics. In one we are engaged; in the 
other we are not. Federation cannot engage in partisan politics. It has 
within its ranks Democrats, Republicans, etc., and to engage in that kind of 
politics, it is evident, would simply be suicidal and destructive of the organi- 
zation. 



180 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

What kind of politics is there in it? Let me illustrate by example. A 
few years ago a bill was introduced into the New Jersey Legislature, the 
wording of which was ambiguous, and might have subjected our parochial 
schools to taxation. I requested some influential Catholics to suggest the 
propriety of changing the phraseology of the measure. The reply was : " We 
don't want to tax your schools, that bill was drawn up by a learned constitu- 
tional lawyer of Newark, and it will have to stand." Immediately I sum- 
moned the Executive Board of the State Branch of Federation. A committee 
was appointed of Irish-Americans, some Democrats, others Republicans. They 
called upon the majority leader of the House, and said to him: "We repre- 
sent the Federated Catholic Societies of the State. We are opposed to the 
phraseology of that tax bill ; we ask that it be changed, otherwise we will go 
back and report to our societies." What was the reply? "Gentlemen, for 
Heaven's sake don't stir up a hornet's nest on this question. What changes 
do you want? We will be very glad to make them." That's the kind of pol- 
itics there is in Federation. And it is certainly high time that we began to 
know how to employ the prerogative of American citizenship. 

WHAT FEDERATION IS. 

Federation is an organization formed of subordinate societies for the ad- 
vancement of the civil, religious and social interests of Catholics in the United 
States and its dependencies. It will not interfere with the aims, objects or 
autonomy of existent organizations. Such a union is desirable for the forma- 
tion of an instrument always in readiness to voice Catholic sentiment in the 
State and Nation. We may seldom need it, but when we do, we need it badly, 
and it must, therefore, be in such shape that we can at once put our hand 
upon it. 

WHAT HAS FEDERATION ACCOMPLISHED UP TO THIS TIME? 

As practical results, may be mentioned the concessions made in the 
Philippine difficulties, the present amicable relations existing in Porto Rico, 
the changed aspect of the Indian schools, the clear light thrown on the vexed 
public school question. Other agencies assisted, it is true, but Federation was 
always in the very fore-front on all these matters. 

WHAT DOES FEDERATION, WITH GOD'S HELP, PROPOSE FOR THE FUTURE.? 

First, The unification of the Catholic nationalities of the United States; 
second, The banishment of divorce and socialism ; third, The creation of public 
opinion on all the great problems of the day, and the dessemination of their 
Catholic solution. 

If we look into the statistics of the Catholic Church in this country, we 
will find that, within the last hundred years, we have had great losses. We 
are now about holding our own, although there is still some leakage. The 
multiplication of our churches, religious and educational institutions, the num- 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 181 

ber of priests, are all stemming the tide. Indeed, we are making encroach- 
ments on the non-Catholic body by our Missions to them. 

The time was when it was different ; when the Irishman and the German, 
with his descendants, scattered out over the broad face of this country, lost 
the faith, joined some of the sects, or the great crowd, which some call the 
" big church," what Christ called the world, always without doctrine, and gen- 
erally without morality. Some tell us that, if the descendants of Catholics in- 
habiting the land now covered by the nation had been steadfast in the faith ; 
we would number at present about half the population of the United States, 
or about forty millions, whereas we are between twelve and fifteen millions. 
We certainly don't want this leakage repeated, and we are large enough and 
strong enough to prevent it, if we stand together. It will recur unless we take 
up the cause of the foreign nationalities coming to our shores. That is the 
reason I so warmly advocate the Church Extension plan. 

WORK FOR FEDERATION. 

Here is a work for Federation. The nationalities are all alive to the 
importance and the benefits of organization. Let us take them among us by 
their societies. In this way they will be kept in constant touch with us, and 
we with them, learning our national and religious life, and preventing them 
from becoming the prey of proselytizers. In a word, we will give them the 
benefit of over a hundred years' experience on this continent. 

By battling against divorce we are building up the American home. 
Another great work for Federation ; to create public opinion on this question ; 
to proclaim the doctrine, that when a man stands before the altar of God with 
his bride, and they plight their troth for life, no hand shall ever dare to drag 
her down from that throne to which he exalted her on the day of her youth 
and her beauty. Time may write wrinkles on her brow, change her locks 
to snow, pluck the roses from her cheek, but she shall remain the queen of 
his heart and his household, so long as the blood of life pulsates in her 
bosom. 

We want to keep up agitation, enlightenment on the School Question, to 
educate our fellow-citizens to see the injustice of taxing us for the education 
of our children, and selecting a system which we cannot patronize. They 
tell us that in a country like this, with so many denominations, there can be no 
system. There is another system in England, Germany, and Australia. Why 
not here? They say that we are the enemies of the public school; that we 
want to destroy them. We answer, that is a mistake. Since you are satisfied 
with these schools, we will not interfere with them, but be generous and just 
enough to make a compromise with us. You went away by yourselves, and 
concocted this system, without consulting us, and having finished your work 
you said to us : "You may either take this system or leave it alone." Is that 
just? Is it American? Are we not only citizens of this country, as well as 
you? Haven't we the same rights? Because a man is a Catholic, must he be 
born two or three times in this country before he is an American, and entitled 



1 82 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

to the rights of a freeman? Do you really believe that, in every case, the 
majority can lawfully trample upon the rights of the minority? If our fathers 
had held that principle, would the revolution have been successful? Would 
the United States exist to-day? We want to have this matter settled as it 
should be. Don't say to us, "Go away and settle it among yourselves." 

What is the compromise we propose? I. Let our schools remain as they 
are. 2. Let no compensation be made for religious instruction. We don't 
want it. We have seen what has happened in countries where the clergy are 
the hirelings of the State. Our principle is, let the pastor take care of the 
flock, and live by the flock. 3. Let our children be examined by a State or 
Municipal board, and if our schools furnish the secular education required, if 
we furnish the goods, you should put down the cash. Mind you, we do not 
ask anybody else's money. All we want is our own money, for the education 
of our own children. Is not that fair? Yes, and Americans are being gradu- 
ally educated up to the justice of our position. Suppose that in some city like 
New York or Chicago, or here, this system could be initiated, so that non- 
Catholics might see that it is not inimical to the existence of the present public 
school system, it would not be long until we would have our rights. But 
they say, "if we go that far, then all the denominations will want their share 
of the school fund." But why should they? Are they so unwise as to destroy 
a system with which they are now so enamored simply because Catholics 
would receive justice? I cannot believe that our non-Catholic fellow-citizens 
are so selfish and narrow. Let me say here that before Federation took up 
the school question and proposed a solution, the laity, many priests, and even 
some Bishops, were groping in the dark, not knowing what to say upon the 
subject. Federation has put the whole question in a nut-shell, so any one can 
understand it. Such is the value of public opinion, of threshing out a ques- 
tion in the light of day. 

There are other problems to be discussed. A venerable Episcopalian 
gentleman occasionally calls upon me. I take him up into my study, and we 
have long chats together. Not long ago he called and said : "Bishop, the great 
problem of the future is the friction between the blacks and the whites." I 
thought a while and said : "My dear sir, I wouldn't worry over that. You 
and your descendants will not be in that battle." "Why not?" said he? "For 
the simple reason that you all will be under the ground, like the potatoes. The 
old American family has more deaths than births." Do you realize who will 
be here settling that problem, fighting that battle? The Irish, the Germans, 
the Poles, the Italians and the other Catholic nationalities, and the Church of 
the ages will settle that problem as she has settled every other problem which 
has arisen in her history, by that divine authority and instinct which was given 
to her when the Saviour said : "As my Father hath sent me, so do I send you." 

The brainy men of America are conscious of the power of the Church, of 
her magnificent organization, of her marvellous and beneficial influence on 
every condition of life. The late Mark Hanna is related to have said to a 
Catholic Bishop: "Bishop, I have studied the ways of the Catholic Church, 
and want to say to you that I speak not as a politician, but from profound con- 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 



183 



viction : If ever the liberties, the free institutions of America are in danger, 
the great Catholic Church will be their salvation." 

PROBLEM SEEKING SOLUTION. 

Consider the problem which confronts us in the saving of the different 
races to the faith. See them in our large cities, thousands upon thousands 
all collected together. Poles, Slavs, Italians, Hungarians, have come across 
the Atlantic, like great, immense flocks of migrating birds, and have sat down 
in the midst of our cities. When I visited Chicago, I was taken to a colony — 
a small one compared with other nationalities — of 40,000 Bohemians. It was a 
portion of Bohemia rooted up, as it were, and transplanted in America. They 
have all their race characteristics, customs, etc., their language, their churches 
and their newspapers. There was very little intercourse with their fellow- 
citizens. Now, temporary segregation, of course, has its advantages at the be- 
ginning of the colony, for the preservation of the race, and of religion, until 
the people realize their surroundings. But this state cannot last. America 
must and will remain American and its people will be Americans. That is 
nature's law. You cannot have Ireland, or Germany, or Italy or Poland, 
dwelling here forever. Thus it has been with other nations — the Irish, the 
Italians, etc. It required generations to form and fashion the typical man of 
each nation. Thus was formed the typical Englishman, etc. You know him 
the world over. You recognize him wherever you meet him. 

In the course of time the same will come to pass here, and thus will be 
formed of all the nationalities the American of the future, physically, intel- 
lectually, morally and socially the noblest citizen of the grandest nation on 
earth. It is during this formative process that there will be danger. When 
the colony begins to disintegrate, when its families and individuals begin to 
intermingle with the rest of the population, there will come loss of faith, un- 
less we are prepared to prevent it. 




ST. PAUL S SCHOOL, PRINCETON, N. J. 



184 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Pleasantville, N. J. — St. Peter's Church. 

When Father Petri took charge of old St. Monica's Church, Atlantic City, 
Pleasantville formed part of his new parish. Previous to this the Catholics of 
that district went to St. Nicholas'. About the year 1894, Father Petri began 
to hold monthly services at the home of Doctor Wallace, but this was only 




ST. PETER S CHURCH, PLEASANTVILLE, N. J. 

during the bathing seasons, for the convenience of Summer boarders. These 
arrangements were continued till 1898, during which time the Wallace family 
gave not only the use of their home, but also worked assiduously, soliciting 
subscriptions and holding festivals in Philadelphia in order to increase the 
building fund for a new church. Finally, on August 6, 1898, Bishop McFaul 
placed the corner stone of the much-desired chapel, and Father Petri succeeded 
in having the building ready for the following Summer of 1899, when it was 
dedicated and opened for public worship under the name of St. Peter's. The 
cost of the building was about $4,000. Regular Sunday services are held by 
Father Petri or his assistants. 



Elmer, Salem County, N. J. — St. Ann's Church. 

Some laymen have far more zeal for the spread of the church than have 
many priests. This is particularly the case in the establishment of the parish 
of Elmer; for to Anthony Kenzinger and his zealous sister, is due much, if 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 185 

not all, of the credit of this church. Almost alone, in a town where bigotry 
was prevalent and intolerant, he took up the task of erecting a church and 
has lived to see it completed. The Mission of Elmer was formerly attached to 
the parish of Salem, and it was Rev. Dennis J. Duggan who purchased the 
first church site. The first Mass at Elmer was celebrated in 1892 by Rev. 
Father Duggan, in a large room of the old farm-house of Anthony Kenzinger, 
which stood near the Deerfield Road, close to the present railroad station, 
called " Harding." Later Elmer was placed in charge of the Franciscans of 
Camden, and it was whilst Father Leonard Reich, O. M. C, was in charge 
that the present little church was built. The corner stone was put in place by 
Vicar-General McFaul on July 21, 1894, and the same year it was opened 
for service. 

Later on Rev. Father Dolan, of Woodbury, was given charge of this 
Mission, but as his duties prevented him from giving them Sunday services, 
and the people could not attend a week day service, in 1900 it was attached 
to St. Joseph's Church, Woodstown, where the Rev. John J. O'Farrell was 
pastor. This arrangement continued till March, 1903, when, for greater con- 
venience of the pastor, it was put in charge of the newly established parish of 
Glassboro, and at present is attended by Rev. Richard O'Farrell of that 
place. 

Ocean City, N. J. — St. Augustine's Church. 

In looking back ten years ago, we can fancy we see a handful of fervent 
Catholics assisting at the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, in a humble little cottage 
on West Avenue and Fourteenth Street, Ocean City. How remote was the 
anticipation that ten years hence they would look upon the very creditable 
church and rectory of which they are now the proud owners. It was therefore 
during the Summer of 1893 that the purchase of a permanent place to erect a 
church upon was considered and decided. 

Before proceeding further, a word of praise should be given to the Jesuit 
Fathers, from Philadelphia, who celebrated Mass for the pioneers during the 
Summer of 1893 and 1894. Rev. Father Galligan, S. J., was celebrant of the 
first Mass in Ocean City. With the church only partially completed, the Rt. 
Rev. James McFaul, Bishop of the Diocese, appointed one of the Diocesan 
clergy, the Rev. Stephen M. Lyons, on June 5, 1895, to complete the good 
work already begun, and to administer to their spiritual wants. The church 
having been completed, it was dedicated on Sunday, July 28, 1895, by the Rt. 
Rev. Bishop McFaul, who gave it the name of his illustrious patron, the great 
Doctor and Father of the Church, St. Augustine. 

The ground on which the church and rectory stand was purchased from 
Henry Gerlach for the sum of $125.00. It can be truly said that St. August- 
ine's Church owes its beginning and continued success to the generous Catho- 
lics of Philadelphia, who have been willing at all times to give it their best 
support. The handsome stained glass windows, altar, organ, altar fixtures, 
etc., were nearly all donated in the beginning by Philadelphians, through the 



1 86 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

irresistible appeals of Father Lyons. During his short administration success 
crowned his efforts. He was succeeded by the Rev. Henry Russi who, al- 
though pastor of Oxford Furnace, was appointed by the Bishop of the Diocese 
to take charge of St. Augustine's during the season 1896, 1897 and 1898. Dur- 
ing Father Russi's pastorate the congregation continued to increase in size 
and the debt on the church was gradually paid. Father Russi was succeeded 
in turn by the Rev. John McCullough, who was rector of Sea Isle City, but 
attended St. Augustine's during the Summer of 1899. He was assisted in his 
administration by the Rev. William McLaughlin, of Philadelphia. In the 
early part of June, 1900, the Rt. Rev. Bishop appointed the Rev. Peter J. Hart 
as pastor of St. Augustine's. His pastorate was very successful. He paid off 
a portion of the debt on the church and infused the spirit of confidence once 
more in the members of St. Augustine's congregation. 

The following June, 1901, Rev. J. J. McCloskey was appointed the first 
permanent rector. On Sunday, July 2, a collection was taken up to pay 
the balance of debt on the church. More than sufficient was realized. Father 
McCloskey began immediately to prepare plans for a rectory. By September 8 
of the same year, $1,150 had been subscribed and the work begun. It was 
completed on April 15 of the following year. 

The little church in Ocean City, which was erected only temporarily in 
the beginning, had become too small to accommodate the number of Philadel- 
phians who have summered here during the past three seasons, and on the 
advice of the Rt. Rev. Bishop and the trustees, it was decided to erect a more 
commodious one. Ground was broken for the new church on October 12, 
1903, and the corner stone was laid by the rector on Sunday, November 8. 
The sermon on that occasion was delivered by the Rev. P. J. Petri, of Atlantic 
City. 

The new church was completed by June 12, and was dedicated on Sun- 
day, June 19, by the Rt. Rev. James A. McFaul, Bishop of the Diocese. The 
sermon on that occasion was delivered by the Most Rev. P. J. Ryan, Arch- 
bishop of Philadelphia. The altars, altar-railing, windows, confessional, 
sanctuary-lamp, candle-sticks, carpet, etc., were all donated by members of the 
parish. 

Pennington, N. J. — Church of St. James. 

The few Catholics that settled around this place prior to 1895 attended 
Mass either at the Cathedral, Trenton, or at Hopewell. In 1895 Very Rev. 
James A. McFaul, then administrator of the Diocese, appointed Rev. Joseph 
Keuper to look after this Mission. Father Keuper came once a month from 
the Cathedral and held services at the home of Patrick Tynan. Later on, 
services were held in a house rented from Rev. Dr. O'Hanlon, at that time 
president of Pennington Seminary, and although this action was condemned 
by some of his small-minded fellow citizens, yet Dr. O'Hanlon always proved 
brave enough to withstand their criticism. 

For some years this Mission was attended from Hopewell by Fathers 
Keuper and Murphy. Next it was placed in charge of Rev. Thomas O'Hanlon, 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 



187 



who resided at St. Francis' Hospital, Trenton, but when in September, 1898, 
Father Ward became pastor of St. Joseph's, East Trenton, Pennington was 
added to his care, where it remained about a month only, when it was trans- 
ferred to the care of Rev. Joseph Thurnes, pastor of St. Francis' Church, 
Trenton. Under instruction of Bishop McFaul, Father Thurnes began at once 
to collect for a new church. Father Thurnes continued to say Mass in the 
rented house, and on June II, 1899, he laid the corner stone of the present 
neat little church on Eglantine Avenue. The lot cost $350.00 and the church 
structure $2,500.00, all of which Father Thurnes collected. 

The dedication by Bishop McFaul took place October 1, 1899. Father 
Thurnes was ably assisted in his work by James Lewis, Patrick Ryan and 
Martin Bregenzer. On September 2, 1900, Father Thurnes resigned the charge 
of this church, entirely free of debt, and it reverted to the Cathedral and was 
attended by Fathers Callahan, Powers and Hasset. On October 1, 1905, Pen- 
nington was united to Lawrenceville and placed in charge of Rev. John M. 
Gammell. 

Haddon Heights, N. J. — Church of St. Rose. 
The corner stone of St. Rose's was laid by Rev. B. J. Mulligan, under 
Father O'Leary, in June, 1897, and was completed and dedicated. 




ST. ROSE S CHURCH, HADDON HEIGHTS, N. J. 

Father O'Leary attended Haddon Heights every Sunday and holy day, 
coming from Laurel Springs, where he resided. Mr. James M. Carroll and 



1 88 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Thomas J. Breslin's families were the chief movers and loyal helpers of Father 
O'Leary, who remained in charge till January, 1902, when the Rev. Joseph A 
Egan came January 8, 1902, and now resides at the place. In July of 1903, 
Father Egan purchased the present rectory and a lot 200 x 200 feet for $9,500. 
Owing to difficulties experienced, the lot had to be purchased through Mr. 
Frederick Thompson of New York. 

The present value of Haddon Heights property is $18,500.00, with only 
$6,000.00 debt, and an attendance of 337 souls, all happy and prosperous under 
Father Egan. 

Gibbsboro, N. J. — St. Edmund's Church. 

It was chiefly through the efforts of Edmund F. O'Connor, Daniel Sheerin 
and a few others that this parish was established for the benefit of the 
Catholics engaged at the Lucas Paint works, as well as for some others living 
nearby. This was about 1895, when Mr. O'Connor, then bookkeeper for the 







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ST. EDMUND S CHURCH, GIBBSB0R0, N. J. 

Lucas firm, began to agitate for a church in the town. Prior to that time the 
few scattered Catholics went to Mass at Snow Hill, which was attended oc- 
casionally from Woodbury. 

In April, 1896, Rev. M. J. O'Leary, curate at St. Mary's, Camden, was 
appointed to organize this parish. Sufficient ground was generously donated 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 



i89 



by the late John Lucas, of the Lucas Paint Company, and on October 25, 1896, 
the corner-stone of the present neat chapel was placed by Bishop McFaul, 
who also dedicated the new building on July 4, 1897. The Lucas family were 
also very generous helpers in the erection of the church. 

Father O'Leary remained in charge till January, 1902, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Father Egan, who, after two years of hard work, was re- 
lieved of this Mission, which was given to Rev. Samuel Mitchell, pastor of 
Laurel Springs. Father Mitchell worked hard to maintain and improve the 
property, from September, 1904, to April, 1905; but in the midst of his work 
he was called away by death. Father Mitchell was succeeded by Rev. Gregory 
Moran, -former curate of St. Mary's, Atlantic City. Father Moran became 
pastor in April, 1905, and being young and full of zeal, much good is expected 
from his ministry. 

Laurel Springs, N. J. — Church of St. Lawrence. 

It was in April, 1896, that this parish was established, and placed in charge 
of Rev. John M. O'Leary, then a curate at St. Mary's Church, Camden, N. J., 









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ST. LAWRENCE S CHURCH, LAUREL SPRINGS, N. J. 

as it first rector. Up to this time the Catholics of this district attended ser- 
vices at Snow Hill, where the little church was supplied from Woodbury sev- 
eral times a year. 'Later on this Snow Hill Mission was attached to the Sac- 



190 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

reel Heart Church, Camden, then in charge of Father Lynch, who visited it a 
few times, when it was returned to Woodbury as a Mission. After Father 
O'Leary's appointment, services were held in the engine house until the erec- 
tion of a church structure. The site for a new church was donated by the 
Laurel Springs Land Company. Upon this site, early in 1897, Father O'Leary 
began the erection of a neat frame church, at a cost of $2,700.00. The corner- 
stone was laid May 3, 1897, by the Very Rev. Dean Mulligan. The church was 
dedicated and in use till July 5, 1899, when it was completely destroyed by a 
fire. This was a great setback to this struggling Mission, but not disheartened 
they prepared for another church. 

On January 8, 1902, Father O'Leary was succeeded by Rev. Joseph A. 
Egan of Tom's River. 

With Father Egan's pious zeal and youthful energy prospects for a new 
church became brighter, so that in less than two years' time a new St. Law- 
rence's Church graced the White Horse Pike road. Its cost was about 
$5,500.00. 

In September, 1904, Father Egan resigned the charge of Laurel Springs 
and Gibbsboro, and this district was formed into a separate parish and placed 
in charge of Rev. Samuel Mitchell, then a curate at St. Mary's, Perth Amboy, 
but the following Spring, on April 11, 1905, Father Mitchell died of typhoid 
fever. Rev. Gregory Moran, curate of St. Mary's, Atlantic City, succeeded to 
this charge on April 14, 1905, since which time he has done admirable work 
and is much loved and respected by the people. 

Bernardsville, N. J. — Church of -Our Lady of Perpetual Help. 

The Somerset hills of New Jersey are noted for their woodland beauty. 
These charms have attracted many wealthy New Yorkers to this section, 
where they have built stately country homes for themselves. In former times 
the Catholics of this section were attended by the priests from Mendham, N. 
J., but about 1898, the increasing number of Catholics seemed to warrant the 
erection of a separate Mission in the hills. Rev. Joseph A. Ryan, curate at 
St. Mary's, Perth Amboy, was appointed for this work. Father Ryan pro- 
ceeded to Bernardsville, and on June 26, 1898, said Mass at the Somerset Inn 
for about fifteen persons. 

This was not a flattering beginning, but matters changed a little later, 
when Father Ryan met Col. Frederick P. Olcott and explained to him the na- 
ture of his work. Mr. Olcott not only offered him cheering wishes of sym- 
pathy and success, but did more, he offered to give him a dollar for every 
one he would collect. This promise produced good results, and with a will- 
ing heart the people gave freely in order to see their wishes realized. In the 
short space of eighteen months the present beautiful Gothic church was dedi- 
cated and consecrated on the same day, May 2, 1900. The church is built from 
the timber and stone from the neighboring hills, and the interior reminds one 
of some old feudal chapel. The church was opened and dedicated by Rt. 
Rev. James A. McFaul, who also preached on the occasion to an imposing 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 



9i 






congregation, about seventy-five priests being present. On this occasion the 
guests partook of a banquet, the gift of Evander H. Schley, who also did much 
to help and encourage. 




BERNARDSV1LLE CHURCH, BERNARDSVILLE, N. J. 

The new rectory was built and opened in 1901, free of debt. 
Ryan also visits Basking Ridge and Far Hills. 



Father 



Holly Beach, N. J. — St. Ann's. 

This church was dedicated and first used in the Summer of 1899, Father 
Cunningham being pastor. The first Mass was said in Mrs. Henry's cottage, 
she being the moving spirit in the agitation for a church. In the Summer of 
1897 Mass was celebrated in the public school house. 

The rectory was built b}^ Father Tighe in 1904. It is a large and suit- 
able dwelling. Father James A. Moroney took the place of Father Tighe in 
February, 1905. 

This place is becoming quite a favorite with Philadelphia Catholics, and 
bids fair towards being the largest cottage resort on the coast. 

Cape May Point, N. J. — St. Agnes'. 

St. Agnes' was opened in the Summer of 1885 by the Rev. Theophilus 
Degan, pastor of St. Mary's, Cape May. It was intended as a convenience 
for those living at Cape May Point, or, as it was formerly called, Sea Grove. 

At Father Degan's death the care of the Point passed to Rev. James Kelly, 
who came from Oxford to take charge of Cape May. 



1 92 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Pennsgrove, N. J. — Church of St. James. 

For a long time the few Catholics around Pennsgrove could attend 
their own service only by going to Salem or Swedesboro, whilst the sects 
held out every inducement for them to attend services in town. Some weak- 
minded, indifferent Catholics did attend the Protestant churches, and, as a 
consequence, to-day their children and grandchildren are numbered among the 
enemies of Holy Church. But on the other hand most of the Catholics clung 
to their church and are honored to-day as the Catholic pioneers of that dis- 
trict. Conspicuous among these is the family of. Jeremiah Crean, who for 
twenty years represented the Catholic Church in Pennsgrove. But with the 
coming of the powder works came others : Thomas Durr and family, the 
Rowes, the Burkes, the Roaches, and the gallant Thomas Deegan. 

In early times Pennsgrove was considered a Mission of the Salem 
parish, but in 1901 this station was transferred to the Swedesboro church, 
and Rev. Walter T. Leahy at once made arrangements to have services 
monthly. The first Mass was said in the home of Thomas Durr, with about 
twenty-five persons present, including some soldiers from the recently-estab- 
lished camp on the river front. This arrangement lasted for a few months, 
and finally a hall was obtained and Mass was said on Sunday instead of Sat- 
urday. 

At this time there were about one hundred Catholic soldiers in camp, but, 
like most soldiers, they were careless and indifferent to religion. The Spanish 
and American war had brought these here ostensibly to protect the powder 
works. 

Father Leahy while in charge of Pennsgrove sought the purchase 
of a site for a church. At this time the bigotry of the Protestants in and 
around the town was intense, and was only surpassed by their dense ignor- 
ance, as they made all kinds of threats against the Catholics, forgetting that 
Catholic citizens had the same rights as they had. In Father Leahy 
they met one who did not fear them in the least, but went on with his work 
as if they did not exist. A Catholic soldier died in camp. The sects arranged 
to bury him with military honors when, at 6 A. M., the day of the funeral, 
Father Leahy drove into camp and upset all their arrangements, by demand- 
ing Catholic burial for the man. When the lines of soldiers drew up in front 
of the coffin he read the burial service and preached a sermon for the assembled 
crowd. 

In November, 1899, the Mission of Pennsgrove was attached to the newly 
erected parish of Woodstown, under the Rev. John T. O'Farrell. With 
youthful energy Father O'Farrell took up the work at Pennsgrove and soon 
purchased a lot on Broad Street. He next erected a neat frame church, 1901, 
under the patronage of St. James, and gathered a zealous little congregation 
around him. In March, 1903, Father O'Farrell was succeeded at Woodstown 
by Rev. Father Morrison, who continues to attend Pennsgrove. 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 193 

Deal, Mon mouth County, N. J. — St. Mary's Church. 

Less than a decade of years ago, the strip of land running southward 
from Elberon to Asburk Park and between the ocean and the railroad was one 
continuous field, glistening and waving under the Summer sun. One day, as 
if by magic, the stately stacks of the harvest time disappeaerd, and in the 
Spring the once fertile garden was changed into hamlets of rest and recreation 
for hundreds who yearly leave their city homes to seek the refreshing breezes 
of seaside resorts. Allenhurst and Deal grew out of the fields which had so 
long been given over to tillage. The former made huge strides in progress, 
until to-day there is scarcely a vacant lot within its borders, or a more popular 
Summer home for many miles beyond. 

Early in the growth of these two places it was discovered that the numer- 
ous Catholics residing there required more convenient means of assisting at 
Mass, and Father Crean, alive to the situation, said Mass for the first time 
June 9, 1901, in the Hathaway Casino, Deal. On the following Sunday ser- 
vices were held in a tent, and for the balance of the season the "canvas 
church " was used. 

Father Crean ministered to the Deal congregation during the season of 
1902, and his zealous devotion and unquestioned success will ever remain the 
lasting foundation of St. Mary's parish. 

In February, 1903, the Rt. Rev. James A. McFaul, Bishop of Trenton, 
owing to the increasing number of Catholics, deemed it advisable to form 
Deal and Allenhurst into one parish, and to assign a priest to its charge. The 
present rector was named by the Rt. Rev. Bishop, and he began his duties in 
May, 1903. The tent, so cool, so novel, and so attractive, was again raised 
for service. 

The new rector's first announcement told the people that Daniel O'Day, 
Esq., of New York, proposed to subscribe ten thousand dollars towards a 
new church, provided a like amount be given by the congregation. This was 
already known to the people, who had evidently grown tired of tents, for they 
at once set about raising seven thousand five hundred dollars, which, together 
with the balance given by Father Crean during his administration as rector 
of St. Mary's Church, Deal, N. J., made up the requisite ten thousand dol- 
lars. Mr. O'Day promptly fulfilled his promise, and the work of building a 
new church began. The present site of the church had already been secured, 
so that it was time for an architect and contractors to meet. The meeting 
took place in the Bishop's house, Trenton, December 17, 1903, and before its 
close the plans previously examined were adopted, the contract signed, and 
the construction was to commence immediately. It was a most severe winter; 
stone could not be quarried and, consequently, the work was long delayed. 
About the Easter season it was undertaken and pushed on as hurriedly as 
circumstances would permit. The corner stone was laid June 22, 1904, and, 
during the season of this year, services were conducted in the large basement 
of the new church. The parishioner's generosity had evidently not been worn 
out by the previous year's efforts. They continued to labor and co-operate, 



1 94 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

and, when the Summer closed, their work was shown by an income of nearly 
nine thousand dollars. 

The church was completed in October, long after most of its supporters 
had gone to their city homes. It awaited their return, and to-day they assem- 
ble to give it to the living God, as a tribute of their love and as a lasting pledge 
of their steadfast faith. 

If ever a church could speak of generosity, surely St. Mary's should be 
eloquent. It would tell of Mr. O'Day's princely donation, given with so much 
good will and with so much real interest. The Altar Society, under whose 
auspices so many successful entertainments were given, would be lauded, and 
finally the gentlemen of the parish who, with so many non-Catholic friends, 
arranged the famous circus, would know the worth of their deeds and the 
measure of their success. 

The people, then, are to be congratulated today — not, indeed, that any- 
thing marvelous has been accomplished, but because the tents have been folded 
and their enduring church has been erected. In all probability, that church 
will outlive the present generation, and it is to be hoped that those who come 
after will bless all who interested themselves in the erection of St. Mary's 
Church, Deal, N. J. 

Mullica Hill, N. J. — Church of the Holy Name of Jesus. 

The present Catholic Mission of Mullica Hill is an offshoot of the Swedes- 
boro parish. For nearly fifty years the few scattered Catholics in and about 
Mullica Hill attended Mass and the Sacraments at Swedesboro. A few 
sometimes went to Woodstown or Glassboro. In the early times Mass was 
occasionally said at the home of Robert Irwin, and those early Catholics often 
spoke in later years of the princely hospitality they received from Robert and 
his good wife Catherine. These meetings were like the " Stations " in Ire- 
land when relatives and friends came together for a holy purpose, to worship 
God and even when it took them several days from their work it mattered not 
for this was a duty that must be done. Some of the descendants of these 
brave pioneer Catholics are not so exact in attendance at divine service and 
Sacraments, and the effect upon their careless and indifferent lives is apparent 
to all. As early as i860, when Father Cannon began to collect funds for a 
new church, it was a question whether the church should be located at 
Swedesboro or at Mullica Hill, but the good priest could look far enough 
ahead to see that the proper place was at Swedesboro, and decided the matter 
by building St. Joseph's Church in the latter place. The necessity for a 
church at Mullica Hill did not come till fifty years afterwards, when in the 
Fall of 1902 Father Leahy erected the present church. Mullica Hill remained 
a Mission of Swedesboro till July 5, 1903, when it was transferred to Glass- 
boro. The church at Mullica Hill was built on a plot of ground donated by 
Mrs. Warren Atkinson, and the first donation was one hundred dollars, given 
by Mr. John S. Farren. Subscriptions were then taken up, and soon nearly 
nine hundred dollars were collected. Among those who worked hardest to 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 



195 



assist the little congregation were Mr. and Mrs. James Dougherty, Thomas 
R. Costello, Thomas R. Simons and John Crawford. All did their best, but 
these deserve particular praise. Neither should the Catholics of Mullica 
Hill forget that many of the non-Catholics assisted generously in the erection 
of their little church. 





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HOLY NAME CHURCH, MULLICA HILL, N. J. 

The church was incorporated with James F. Dougherty and Maurice 
Simons as lay trustees. The new building was dedicated on November 10, 
1901, by Rt. Rev. Bishop McFaul, assisted by Dean Mulligan of Camden. 
Father Geise of Gloucester, and the pastor, Father Leahy. This little Mission 
started with about twenty-five families, and a Sunday school of sixty-two 
children. On July 5, 1893, this Mission was transferred to Father Richard 
O'Farrell of Glassboro, whose characteristic zeal and energy is doing much to 
improve the church and people. 



New Egypt. — Church of the Assumption. 

This town, situated about sixteen miles southeast of Trenton, is very old. 
The fertility of the soil is expressed in the name, as is also the religious 
blindness of some of the early settlers, who were Mormons, and strove to 



196 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

spread their pernicious errors in the surrounding country, but, thank God, 
they and their teachings have well nigh disappeared from our State. But 
New Egypt was not the real Mormon headquarters, their chief settlement and 
meeting house was at Hornerstown, about two miles away, and strange as 
it may seem, this meeting house was afterwards converted into a Catholic 
Chapel and still serves that purpose, although much enlarged. 

The first services, about 1853, for the people in the neighborhood of New 
Egypt, were held once a month in the house of Patrick Quinn, near Horners- 
town, by the Rev. Joseph Biggio, who attended the people until 1866, when the 
Rev. John P. Mackin took charge, bought a lot and had the Mormon church, 
which he had purchased, moved on the same. In 1869 Rev. P. Leonard took 
charge and attended the people until 1872, when the Franciscan Fathers of 
Trenton came. 

In 1874 the Church was moved to New Egypt, when the Rev. P. De- 
laney was appointed rector. During his time the Church was enlarged at 
the cost of $3,000. It was dedicated on December 8, 1874. Li 1877 New 
Egypt was attached to Allentown as a Mission, and attended by the priest 
of Allentown up to the present day, with the exception of a short period in 
1886, when the Rev. Thaddeus Hogan, of the Sacred Heart Church of Tren- 
ton, was in charge. 

The pioneers were : Daniel Campbell, David Barry, Dennis Tracy, Ed- 
ward O'Connor, Edward Burke, Edward Barry, James Hiland, John Trainor, 
John Murphy, John Meany, John Dillon, Michael Hogan, John Larkins, 
Michael Nash, Michael Crosson, Owen Carroll, Patrick Quinn, Patrick Car- 
roll, Patrick Nash, Richard Hogan, Thomas Finnegan, William Murphy and 
Richard Meany. 

During the past year, the Church has been repaired and improved at the 
cost of $800. During Father Hendrick's time the Church was freed of all 
debt. He paid off $500 during the short time he was in charge. 

St. John's Church — Allentown, N. J. 

Mass was celebrated for the first time in the house of Patrick Rehill, for 
the Catholics in the neighborhood of Allentown, by Father Biggio. He visited the 
place every three months for the space of one year, after which the work was 
taken up by Father Mackin of Bordentown, who read Mass in Roger's Hall 
(no longer in existence). Father Mackin made two visits when Father 
Murphy took up the work. He had charge of the people for six months. 
Then Father Leonard took hold of the place as a Mission to the parish of 
Bordentown, and in 1868 purchased an old Episcopalian Church, at the cost 
of $2,000.00. He enlarged the Church in 1870 at an expenditure of $1,000.00. 
It remained a Mission until July 1, 1873, when Bishop Bayley made it a parish 
and placed Father Borghesi in charge. During his pastorate, the rectory was 
bought for $2,900.00. 

On July 1, 1879, Rev. S. Danielou became pastor, and remained until 
May 1, 1885. During his time a cemetery was bought. Father T. J. McCor- 
tnack succeec ; .2d, and Allentown seemed to thrive. During his time many im- 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 197 

provements were made. He was succeeded by the Rev. M. J. O'Donnell, who 
remained until August 11, 1889, when the Rev. William H. Lynch was made 
pastor of Allentown and New Egypt. He remained until May 14, 1895, and 
was succeeded by the Rev. Thomas J. McLaughlin. Father McLaughlin 
spent about two years as pastor, and was succeeded by the Rev. James Hen- 
dricks, on January 11, 1898. During his pastorate the Church was moved 
from Church Street to Main Street, and now adjoins the rectory. On Sep- 
tember 27, 1899, Father Hendricks was sent to Vineland and the Rev. John A. 
Lawrence was made pastor. Father Lawrence had charge until June 27, 
1904, when he was succeeded by Rev. Peter J. Kelly. Father Kelly was suc- 
ceeded in 1905 by Rev. William Blake, the present rector. 

The pioneers were : Michael Daly, Michael Hart, Patrick Rehill, Patrick 
Horan, Hugh McGee, John Finnegan, Adam O'Hagan, John Tracy, Thomas 
Tracy, Anthony Schneideler, Joseph Huley, Daniel McAuley, Jeremiah Han- 
heen, James Hanheen, Daniel McNamora, Michael Larkins, Lawrence 
Murphy, John Murphy, Michael Murphy, Patrick Murphy, John Spence, 
Francis Reilly, Michael Feltman and Andrew Feltman, all of whom have 
passed away with the exception of Michael Hart, Patrick Horan, Hugh Mc- 
Gee, Michael Murphy and John Spence. 

During the past year the church and rectory have been improved at the 
expenditure of $1,100.00. 

Collingswood, N, J. — St. John's Church. 

Mass was said for the first time, October 18, 1903, in a vacant store on 
the ground floor of Collingswood Hall. Three months later Tatem's Hall 
was rented, and used as a place of worship until the new church was ready 
for occupancy. Ground was broken for a church the latter part of July, 1904. 
The ground was donated by Mrs. Spoughler of Camden, (nee Schnitzius) of 
Collingswood. The corner stone of the new church was laid by Very Rev. 
Dean Mulligan, Sunday, August 14, 1904. The first service was conducted 
in the new edifice December 4, 1904. The church is not yet dedicated. It 
seats' about three hundred, and cost about $7,000. It is built of stone and 
shingle. There are about seventy souls in the Mission. 

The pioneer families were the Schnitzius, Murphys, Miners, Crawfords, 
and Carlins. The Schnitzius family is a very faithful Catholic family. Rev. 
Peter Clune is the present pastor. 

! 

Milmay, N. J.— St. Mary's. 

Whilst Father Pozzi was busy attending to his Italian Catholics scattered 
through South Jersey, yet he did not refuse a helping hand to other races, 
for in February, 1898, we find him opening a Mission for some Poles and 
Hungarians, who had settled in and about Milmay. Through the kindness 
and influence of Mr. Kupetz he was enabled to attend at first monthly, and 
later twice per month, coming from East Vineland. Mass was said in pri- 



198 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

vate houses till 1901, when the Mission was attached to the newly erected 
parish of Ocean City, then in charge of Rev. J. J. McCloskey, who built a 
small chapel, which was opened for service June 5, 1902. 

As these people were very poor it was the kindness of the lumber mer- 
chants of Ocean City, who furnished the material, and the generous people 
of the Sacred Heart Church, Trenton, and St. Philip's Church, Philipsburg, 
who supplied the needed cash for its erection. Services were held the first 
Sunday of November. After Father McCloskey came Father John A. Cau- 
field, who in 1905 was the pastor of Ocean City. The present pastor is Rev. 
John H. Sweeney of Highlands. 



Merchantville, N. J. — St. Peter's Church. 

St. Peter's parish, Merchantville, N. J., was organized the latter part 
of September, 1903. The first Mass was offered, Sunday, October 4, 1903, in 
Merchantville Hall. Divine service is still conducted in the same Hall, which 
is fitted up into a temporary chapel. The Catholics of Merchantville have the 
free use of this hall through the generosity of John J. Burleigh. The town- 
ships of Pensauken and Delair are included in Merchantville parish. There 
are about two hundred practical Catholics in St. Peter's parish at present. 
We should have at least about four hundred. The zeal and activity of the 
sects have played havoc with our people in these towns. A Mission estab- 
lished here about ten years ago would have saved many souls to the Church. 
We expect to erect a church in the near future. The pioneer Catholic 
families of these towns were the Cunninghams, Burleighs and Micks. The 
Catholics of this parish are deeply indebted to Messrs Frank A. Cunningham 
and John J. Burleigh for the kind assistance and active interest that they have 
taken in the organizing of this parish. 

Risley, Atlantic County, N. J. — St. George's Church. 

The first Mass was said at Risley by Rev. Aloysius Pozzi of East Vineland. 
This was on March 17, 1898, and the people gathered in the public school 
house. Father Pozzi came regularly once a month at first, but later he at- 
tended twice a month. Mr. Hagerty, Mr. Devitt, George Jeffreys, George 
Greller and Miss Lott, were the leaders in the work of the establishment of 
this .Mission. Mr. Risley generously donated a site for the church, and in 
1903, Rev. John J. McCloskey, of Ocean City, opened a little chapel, which 
proves a great convenience to these Catholics. 

When, in January, 1905, Father McCloskey left Ocean City this Mission 
was supplied by Rev. John A. Caulfield, his successor, till September, 1905. 
Father McCormick of Milmay is at present in charge. The church was 
opened on April 26, 1903, and blessed by the pastor, Rev. J. B. McCloskey, 
and placed under the patronage of St. George. Mass is said on the third 
Sunday of each month, at 8.30 A. M. 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 199 

Sandy Hook, N. J. — St. Mary's. 

It was the Rev. Thomas M. Killeen (then pastor of Red Bank, N. J.), 
who in 1861 established the first Catholic Mission at this place. He came 
monthly to hold services for the Catholic soldiers, quartered at that gar- 
rison. 

These visits were continued by his successors at Red Bank, Rev. T. Sal- 
aun, but in 1874 Rev. Stanilaus Danielou became pastor of Manchester, and 
he took charge of the "Fort," till 1879, when it was transferred to Rev. John 
F. O'Connor of Atlantic Highlands and New Monmouth. He attended the 
Fort till his death in 1894, when it was attached to Sea Bright under Rev. 
Father Fox and his successor, Rev. Edward J. Egan, but as Sea Bright began 
to increase in numbers and the pastor's labors to become more heavy, Rt. Rev. 
Bishop O'Farrell appointed Rev. Father Lerche first resident pastor of Sandy 
Hook, 1894. 

In 1894 Rev. R. E. Burke, of Bordentown, took charge of the "Fort" 
where he remained till 1900, when he was succeeded by Rev. Thomas Allen 
from Camden. Following Father Allen came Father Moroney. 

At present writing there are about five hundred Catholic soldiers, with 
several families, and some government employees. The services are held in 
a large room in one of the government buildings and the priest lives near the 
fort. 

Jobstowx, N. J. — St. Andrew's Church. 

This little flock has never known the happiness of having a resident pas- 
tor. Founded by Rev. Hugh McManus when pastor of Mt. Holly, it passed 
on to his successor as a Mission till 1879, when it became a Mission of 
Bordentown and remained as such till 1897, when it was again returned to 
Mount Holly, where it still remains under the vigilant zeal of Father Hart. 

The early Catholic settlers were farmers who found occupation on the 
farms of this section, and such they have remained, faithful, loyal and gener- 
ous, they have loved their church and consoled their pastor. 

CllATSWOKTII, X. J. 

This Mission was opened through the kindness of Princess Ruspoli, of 
New York. The first services were held in her mansion by Rev. Father 
Pozzi. The Rev. Pasquale Mozzocca then took charge till 1904, when it was 
attended from the Bishop's residence by Rev. James Powers. In 1906 Rev. 
William A. Gilfillian, pastor of Beach Haven, took charge of this Mission. 

Eatontown, N J. — St. Dorothea's Church. 

This parish was formed October 1, 1905, and includes Colt's Neck and 
Farmingdale. Mass had been said at various times in private houses for the 
few Catholics in this neighborhood. For many years the nearest church was 



200 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

at Red Bank, but now (1906) Catholics of Eatontown and vicinity have their 
own pastor in the person of Rev. Aloysius Qinnlan. Father Qinnlan left the 
curacy of St. Mary's Church, Gloucester City, to take the charge of this dis- 
trict. He arrived on October 8, 1905, and took up his residence at the Metro- 
politan Hotel for awhile. Later he boarded with John Pollard, till February 
1, 1906, when he rented a house to be used as a parish rectory. Since Father 
Qinnland's arrival Mass has been said regularly each Sunday at the home of 
John Pollard. But these were not the first services celebrated here, for when 
Rev. Michael Dolan was pastor of Manchester and Tom's River, he held ser- 
vices occasionally at Eatontown. 

Among Father Qinnlan's chief helpers in organizing St. Dorothea's 
Church, were Mrs. P. F. Collier, who furnished the vestments; Mr. and Mrs. 
Robert J. Collier donated chalice, ciborium, missal, candle-sticks, etc. Mr. 
John Lively, of Long Branch, also did much to assist and furnished a tem- 
porary altar. Michael Finnerty, Mary Ellen Conroy, Mrs. Collins, Mr. and 
Mrs. John Gaul, and John Pollard spared no efforts to help the new pastor.. 
The whole Collins family have taken the greatest interest in this work and 
promise further assistance in its completion. . Plans for a new buff-brick 
church are under way, size 38 x 70 feet, and this will supply a needed want in 
that section of Monmouth County. 

Waterford, Camden County, N. J. — Church of the Holy Family. 

Around the name of this place there are several traditions connected with 
early Catholicity. There is the story of the Waas brothers, Sebastian,. 
Ignatius, and Hovier, who are said to have erected " Shane's Castle," a rough 
log house, which for many years served as a place of meeting for the Catho- 
lics of that district. This was one of Father Farmer's Missions, . and his 
records show that he baptized five children born to Sebastian Waas. From 
court records it may be seen that these brothers took out a deed in 1760, and 
here to this woodland cabin came the hardy sons of toil, who worked at the 
old bog-iron mills at Batsto, Atsion, and Weymouth. Many of these workers 
were Catholics, and flocked in from all sides when it was known that the 
priest was coming, and to reach these places the priest had to make long and 
tedious journeys, on foot or on horse back, over sandy roads and through 
silent pine forests. This Mission is one of the oldest in New Jersey. A de- 
scendant of Sebastian married Harmon Myrose, who later became one of the' 
pioneers of Pleasant Mills, as is shown from records. 

At present there is a small church at Waterford, and a still smaller con- 
gregation of Catholics. About the organization of the Mission or the erec- 
tion of the church little /is known, save that as far back as 1878 it was a Mis- 
sion of Camden. Like all the other iron towns of South Jersey, Waterford 
decayed, and Catholics sought employment in other places until the place be- 
came one of the abandoned 'villages of South Jersey At present Waterford 
is attended from the Hammonton Church. Waterford was one of the places 
visited and cared for by the Redemptorists from 1847-51, up to which time it- 
had been attended from St. Michael's. St. Augustine's or St. Mary's. 



CHURCHES AND MISSIONS FOR THE ITALIANS. 

About twenty years ago the Italians began to come to South Jersey in 
great numbers. For a time they worshipped in the English-speaking churches 
and were welcomed, by the pastors who served them in every way. Compara- 
tively few, however, cared to attend any church except for the baptism of chil- 
dren. Not discouraged, however, by their indifference to the practice of their 
religion, Bishop O'Farrell and Bishop McFaul made arrangements to provide 
Italian priests for them and to build churches where they might see their 
own national customs carried out. Even this does not seem to win them, for 
out of the thousands who are scattered through the Diocese those who attend 
to their religious duties can be counted by the hundreds. Yet let us hope that 
the splendid example set by the American Catholics may in time have a mov- 
ing influence upon these people. The Bishop's motto is, If we cannot get the 
adults, let us try to get the children. 

East Vineland, N. J. — St. Mary's. 

The Franciscan Father, Peter Jachetti, began to attend this Mission from 
Trenton in 1885. On a lot donated by Augustine Cresci, he succeeded in 
erecting a little chapel, but as soon as it was finished and before it was used, it 
was demolished by a furious cyclone which passed over that district. The site 
was then abandoned and a new one donated by Mr. Landis, who gave five 
acres for church use. The old site was on Chestnut Avenue ; the new one was 
on Union Road, and it was on this site that Rev. Edward H. Porcile, of Vine- 
land, erected the present church in 1887. 

When the Fathers of Mercy left Vineland, Rev. Father Dittrich suc- 
ceeded to Vineland and Missions till November, 1897, when the Rev. Aloysius 
Pozzi was placed in charge of East Vineland, which now became a missionary 
centre for the Italians of this district. Father Pozzi became the first resident 
pastor and soon completed the unfinished church. In 1898 he built the rectory. 
Father Pozzi left East Vineland August, 1901, when he was given charge of 
the Italians of Trenton and other places. 

The congregation numbers about eight hundred souls, all Italians, and 
most of them, good and true Catholics, as is proven by the work they' are doing 
for their church. Prominent among those who distinguished themselves for 
their generosity and activity in keeping the church are : Giacomi Scrivanni, 
Fabio Andreatti, Augustine Cresci, Louis Lera, Giacomo Corsiglia, Andrea 
Badaracco, Dominico and Fuirnio Ballioni, Marco Smanniatt, De Lago. 

The parish since 1901 is in charge of Rev. Nicolas Coscia, who also at- 
tends Newfield, Port Norris and Rosenhavn. 



201 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Cedar Brook, N. J. 



Father Transerici, of Hammonton, opened this Mission in 1904 chiefly- 
through the work of the Keller and the Rabb families. The church was 





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SACRED HEART CHURCH, CEDAR BROOK, N. J. 

opened in 1905, and was dedicated by the Rev. Dr. Wall, of the Church of 
the Most Holy Rosary, New York. The church is attended twice a month 
from Hammonton. 



Trenton,. N. J. — St. Joachim's Church. 

At the request of Bishop McFaul, Father Pozzi resigned the parish of 
East Vineland in order to take charge of the Italian Catholics of Trenton. 
Previous to this time most of these people had been attending the Church of 
the Immaculate Conception on Chestnut Avenue. 

Father Pozzi began his mission on August 15, 1901, when he gathered 
the Italians in a hall at the corner of Genesee and Jennie Streets, where for 
two years, 1901-1903, he held services for them, but in June, 1903, he began 
preparation for a new church. A lot was purchased on Butler Street, near 
Clinton Avenue, and ground was broken for a new church June 15, 1903. 
Most of the excavating was done by the men of the parish, who worked at 
night and on holidays. 

The corner stone was laid on August 15, 1903, by Vicar General Fox; 
attended by the Italian societies of the city. Finally the church was dedicated 
July 4, 1904, and is a substantial brick structure, trimmed with stone, 100 x 50 
feet, accommodating one thousand persons. 



DIOCESE OF NEWARK 203 

At present there are about four thousand Catholic Italians in Trenton, 
all of whom Father Pozzi attends to in spiritual matters. He has lately es- 
tablished a kindergarten under the care of the Mission Helpers, and intends, 
as soon as possible, to open a parish school, a task that will merit for him 
the gratitude of all the people. 



Camden, N. J. — Mt. Carmel (Italian). 

Under the direction of the Rev. Father Pozzi this Mission was opened 
July 18, 1903, by Rev. Michael Di Ielsi for the Italians of Camden. Although 
beset with many difficulties, like all beginnings, yet a church is planned for the 
near future. At present services are held in a large room of a house, corner 
Fourth and Cherry, which was recently purchased for that purpose. Alto- 
gether there are over one thousand Italian people in Camden. 

West Berlin, N. J. — Our Lady of Mt. Carmel. 

In the Spring of 1905, Rt. Rev. Bishop McFaul sent Rev. Michael Di 
Ielsi, of Camden, to open a Mission for the Catholic Italians at this place. 
Father Di Ielsi said his first Mass on Palm Sunday, April 16, 1905, in a new 
chapel which he had erected and placed under the patronage of Our Lady of 
Mt. Carmel, and he continued his attendance till July, 1905, when the Rev. 
Father Nota was sent to take charge. 

In March, 1906, Father Nota was replaced by Rev. Nicholas Rosapape. 

In June, 1906, the Rt. Rev. Bishop attached Our Lady of Mt. Carmel as a 
Mission to the parish of Laurel Springs, under the charge of the Rev. Gregory 
Moran. 

This parish is composed of about two hundred Italians and a few Ameri- 
can families. Prominent among those who helped to establish this Mission 
were : Mr. Gavetti and his good wife, who did all in their power to help and 
encourage the priest. 

Asbury Park, N. J. — Our Lady of Mt. Carmel. 

This parish was opened for the Italians in the Summer of 1905 by Rev. 
Father Pozzi, of Trenton. In that year a lot was bought in West Park, on 
Spring Wood Street, at a cost of $400.00 and later in the same year an old 
Baptist church was purchased at a cost of $700.00 and removed to this lot 
and adapted to service. These changes cost about $700.00, making a total of 
$1,900.00 Rev. Isidore Cortesi was sent as the first resident pastor of this 
church. He was succeeded by the Rev. Francis Santagata, who remained till 
August, 1905, when he was succeeded by the Rev. Nicholas Leone. 

There are about eight hundred Italians living in or near this place, for 
whose benefit this church was erected. Air. Pietro Cardillo and Mr. G. Marche- 
sanno being the best friends and helpers of the church and priest. 



2o 4 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Landisville, Atlantic County, N. J. — Church of Our Lady of Victories. 

This Mission was opened by Rev. Father Pozzi whilst pastor of St. 
Joachim's Church, Trenton. Finding many Italian settlers working on the 
farms, he planned a little chapel where they might have their own services. 
In 1904 Mr. Landis kindly donated several acres of land for church purposes, 
and upon part of this Father Pozzi erected a chapel at a cost of $1,400.00. 

Giovanni Gofredi and Dominic Martinelli were his chief helpers and 
pioneers. 

This Mission is now attended from Minatola by the Rev. Gerald Chris- 
tiano, who also opened an Italian Mission at Williamstown, December 25, 
1905. 

Minatola, N. J. — St. Michael's Church." 

By order of Bishop McFaul, the Rev. Michael Di Ielsi opened this Mission 
in 1902. He remained till 1905, when he was succeeded by the Rev. Gerald 
Christiano, who resides at this place and attends the neighboring Italians. 

Raritan, N. J. — St. Ann's Church (Italian). 

Up to the year 1903 St. Bernard's was the only Catholic Church in Raritan, 
although for some time previously there were a great many Italians and Slavs, 
most of whom attended services at St. Bernard's. Later on in 1896, an 
Italian priest was sent to Raritan as assistant to Father Zimmer. Father 
Lapono was succeeded in 1899 by Rev. M. Coscia till June, 1900, when he 
was succeeded by Rev. Thomas Rudden, a Genoese student, who remained 
till December, 1902, when he was made pastor of the Flemington Mission, and 
Rev. T. Triolo succeeded him at Raritan till 1903. In this year the Italians 
petitioned the Rt. Rev. Bishop McFaul for a separate church, which was 
started, and is now (1906) being built under the supervision of Rev. A. Pozzi. 

Atlantic City, N. J. — St. Michael's Church. 

About 1904 the Italians began to locate in Atlantic City in such large 
numbers that it became necessary to provide a separate parish for them. By 
direction of the Rt. Rev. Bishop McFaul, Father Pozzi introduced the Rev. 
John Quaremba to this missionary field. Father Quaremba soon purchased a 
house and converted it. into a combined dwelling and church, and is doing 
good work among the Italians. He also enlisted the services of the Mission 
Helpers to take charge of the children. This new property is located at No. 6 
North Mississippi Avenue, and cost $4,700.00. 

Newfield, N. J. 

This was one of the old Redemptorist Missions of 1848, 1849 and 1850. 
Here they found a few Catholics who worked in nearby glass-houses. In 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 205 

time, however, these drifted away to other places, or lost their faith. At 
present there are only a few Catholics living here. This Mission is attended 
by the priest from Minatola. Recently a lot has been secured, and the founda- 
tion of a little church is in place. 

New Brunswick, N. J. 

This is another Mission which was opened under the supervision of Father 
Pozzi, by the Bishop's direction. Rev. Francis Vodola was sent to take 
charge. Through the kindness of Rev. James Devine, pastor of the Sacred 
Heart Church, the Italian people were enabled to have their own services in 
the beautiful basement of his church. This arrangement was to be only tem- 
porary, consequently a lot was purchased for $400, but Father Vodola be- 
came discouraged by a combination of unfortunate circumstances and in 
August, 1905, he resigned. Rev. Francis Papa, of Metuchen then took charge 
and he was succeeded by Rev. Nicholas Bocira last May. 

Perth Amboy. N. J. 

Father Pozzi opened this Italian Mission in February, 1906, and placed 
Father Rossi in charge. Through the courtesy and kindness of the Rev. 
Julian Zielinski, and his good people, services are regularly held in the base- 
ment of St. Stephen's Catholic Polish Church. Later on it is expected the 
Italians will be able to have their church and school. 

Long Branch, N. J. 

(Church Now Building.) 

When the Italian imigrants began to settle in and around this resort, 
Italian priests were invited at stated intervals to minister to these people in 
their own language. Later on Italian-speaking priests were placed as assist- 
ants, such as Rev. John M. O'Connor and Rev. Dr. Rathner. Services were 
held in the Catholic Lyceum Hall by Rev. Father Cort'esi till February, 1906, 
when he was succeeded by Giovanni Prosseda, who at present is engaged in 
erecting a church for the Italians. 

Port Reading-Carteret, N. J. 

The one chapel does service for the Italians of these two places and the 
Rev. Clemente Cardella erected this in 1906. The congregation comprises 
about two thousand Italians, who work along the coal docks, but here, as in 
other places, the great sin is non-church attendance. 



POLISH, HUNGARIAN AND GREEK CATHOLICS. 

About 1890 a strong tide of Polish and Hungarian emigration set in to- 
wards South Jersey. Most of these people were Catholics, and for awhile it 
was a difficult problem for the Rt. Rev. Bishop to provide for their spiritual 
welfare. In time, however, he procured priests of their own 
nationality, and, by constant encouragement, he succeeded in having churches 
and schools built for them where they might attend their religious duties. A 
perusal of the following will show what has been done, and when the turbulent 
spirit sometimes manifested by these people in the matter of church manage- 
ment is remembered, it will be seen what an amazing amount of patience 
a bishop must have to accomplish so much. 

Besides these regular Polish Churches, the Holy Ghost Fathers from 
Cornwells, Pa., attend the following places to look after the Polish Catholics : 

Bound Brook, Somerset County. 

Carteret, Middlesex County 

Egg Harbor, Atlantic County. 

Jamesburg, Middlesex County. 

Junction, Hunterdon County. 

May's Landing, Atlantic County. 

Milmay, Atlantic County. 

Swedesboro, Gloucester County. 

Woodbine, Cape May County. 

Mt. Holly, Burlington County. 

Trenton, N. J. — St. Stanislaus' Church. 

In 1892 the Rev. Stanislaus Czclusniak came to Trenton, and with the 
approval of Bishop O'Farrel, formed another Polish parish. A lot was pur- 
chased on Randall Avenue at the point where South Broad Street and Chest- 
nut Avenue join. The corner-stone of the new church was laid b}' Bishop 
O'Farrell on September 11, 1892, and the dedication took place on August 
29 of the following year. The church is built of pressed brick, has two 
large towers in front and can seat over seven hundred. It is called St. Stanis- 
laus', after Poland's patron saint. Father Czclusniak was succeeded in De- 
cember, 1893 by the Rev. Felix Baran, who remained till the end of the year, 
1896. Up to this time the pastors of St. Stanislaus' were priests of the Fran- 
ciscan Order. On February 20, 1897, the Bishop sent a secular priest, Rev. 
Julian Zielinski. For two years this 3-oung pastor labored with untiring zeal, 
and was succeeded in January, 1899, by the present pastor. Rev. Augustus 
Bloc. Father Bloc is an earnest and successful worker. The parochial 
school, which for financial reasons was closed for a time, has just been 
reopened. It has now about fifty pupils. The population of the parish is 
about one thousand. 

206 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 



207 



Perth Amboy, N. J. — St. Stephen's Church. 

On April 26, 1892, the Rev. Stephen Szymanowski came to Perth Amboy, 
at the request of the Rt. Rev. Bishop O'Farrell, to look after the spiritual 
wants of the Polish and Slavonic Catholics settled in the town. For a short 
time this reverend gentleman used St. Mary's Church, but ere long opened a 
chapel on New Brunswick Avenue, where his little congregation gathered to 
worship. In the fall of the same year Father Szymanowski purchased a site 
for his new church, on State Street, from the Alfred Hall estate and at once 
began the erection of a new church. The corner stone was laid on October 
16, 1892, by the Rt. Rev. Bishop O'Farrell assisted by the Rev. Valentine 
Swinarski and Rev. Walter T. Leahy. A procession escorted the Rt. Rev. 
Bishop and the Hon. Mayor Pierce through the town. The Bishop preached 
an eloquent discourse in English, and Father Swinarski addressed the vast 
crowd in Polish. Thus was laid the foundation of a good Polish parish 
in Perth Amboy, N. ]., and the good priest is rapidly pushing his church to 
completion. Before another winter conies around the Polish Catholics will 
have one of the most complete and beautiful structures in town. Considering 
their condition, and the rapidity of the work, the good Father Syzmanow- 
ski deserves a great credit for his energy and perseverance, for he has been 
obliged to labor amidst much opposition and unexpected difficulties. Yet he 
may well be proud of his efforts, for God has blest his work. The present 
church property consists of three lots on State Street, 150x139 feet, pur- 
chased at a cost of $3,400.00. Later on Father Szymanowski purchased the 
old Perth Amboy hospital property, to be used as a rectory. The present rec- 
tor is the Rev. Julian Zielinski, who works hard for his people. 

Trenton, N. J. — St. Hedwig's Church (Polish). 

St. Hedwig's is the twelfth Catholic Church of Trenton. This parish* was 
organized by the Rev. John Supinski, under whose guiding influence the 
church was also built in 1905. The church was dedicated on July 4, 1905, by 
Rt. Rev. James A. McFaul, D.D., with great solemnity. The structure is sit- 
uated on Brunswick Avenue, near Mulberry Street, and cost about $9,000.00. 
It is entirely of wood. 

All the men's societies of the parish, headed by a band of music, went 
in procession to the Bishop's residence and escorted him to the church. Near 
the church a double file of girls met the procession and formed a guard of 
honor about the Bishop's coach. Bishop McFaul preached in English and the 
pastor, Father Tarnowski of Camden, addressed the people in Polish. 

The present building is so designed that it can be used for a school, as it 
is intended to build a stone structure as soon as means will allow. 

Perth Amboy, N. J. — St. John's Greek Catholic Church. 

This parish is composed of Poles, Hungarians and Slavs, who foirow the 
cermonial of the Greek rite in their services. These people began to gather 



208 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

in Perth Amboy about 1894, an d under the care of the Rev. Acacius Kamin- 
ski, Mass was first celebrated in the basement of St. Stephen's Polish Church 
on State Street. 

Later on, about 1897, Father Kaminski rented a small Danish Lutheran 
chapel, corner State and Broad Streets, and it was used for services, and 
finally it was purchased and blessed under the title of St. Gabriel's. Father 
Kaminski was succeeded by Father Stercovics in 1898, and he remained but a 
short time when he also was replaced by the Rev. Nestor Walanski, 1899. 
Then came the Rev. Antonius Hadobay, who was rector from August 1, 1900, 
to November 1, 1901. He was succeeded by Rev. Antonius Keskes, who re- 
mained till March 31, 1903, when the Rev. Alexis 'Novak took charge. He 
erected the present beautiful church structure at a cost of $23,700. 

When ready for dedication, the structure was blessed by Rev. Alexis 
Novak, on May 30, 1905, with the Rt. Rev. Bishop's permission. This was 
the second church of the Greek Rite in the Diocese of Trenton. 

A peculiarity of this section of the church is that the priests are permitted 
to marry — a permission which the western priests would not accept. 

Perth Amboy, N. J. — Holy Trinity Church. 

About 1899 a number of Slovak Catholics began to locate in this city. 
To provide for the religious wants of these emigrants, Bishop McFaul sent 
them the Rev. Francis Januschek, who organized them into a parish, and in 
1901 built the present church. The first Mass was said on December 15, 1901, 
but the Rt. Rev. Bishop did not dedicate the church till November 27, 1902. 

Camden, N. J. — St. Joseph's Church (Polish). 

The first Polish Catholics of Camden were attended by Polish priests 
from Philadelphia. In January, 1891, they began to collect money for a new 
church, and in the following June property was bought at the corners of 
Kaighn's and Mt. Ephraim Avenues. In 1892 Rev. Stephen Szymanowski was 
appointed pastor of this Polish Mission, but he remained only one month, 
when he was transferred to Perth Amboy, and the congregation was without a 
priest till the end of 1893, when Rev. Felix Szulbooski, of Baltimore, was ap- 
pointed. He died in the following year and was succeeded by Rev. Michael 
Baranski. Up to that time services had been held in a rented hall on Broad- 
way, near Kaighn's Avenue. Father Baranski finding the purchased lots un- 
suitable, sold them and purchased twenty-three lots from Mr. Wood. This 
was a private speculation, but he sold the congregation eleven lots for $1,600.00, 
on part of which he built the present combination school and church, 80 x 45 
feet. On the other lots he colonized the Polish families. In 1901 he resigned 
and was succeeded by Rev. Michael Tarnowski, who bought nine more lots to 
complete the square, for $2,600.00 and built the present rectory. The congre- 
gation numbers about 2,000 persons, and has a good parish school, with 250 
children in attendance. 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON ' 209 

South Amboy, N. J. — Church of the Sacred Heart. 

As early as 1890 some Polish Catholics came to South Amboy and vicinity 
to work on the coal clocks and in the clay-beds around Sayreville. In time, 
their number increased and their spiritual wants were cared for by Father 
Brady, the zealous pastor of St. Mary's Church. About 1895 they numbered 
one hundred families and although priests of their own nationality and lan- 
guage visited them at stated intervals, yet they had no separate church, or 
resident priest till the Rev. Felix Orzechowski settled among them. Father 
Orzechowski was one of the first Polish priests to come to America and labor 
among his fellow-countrymen, and he spent several years on the Mission in 
Texas, before coming to South Amboy. In November, 1895, he purchased 
several lots on Main Street, and began the erection of the present substantial 
brick church. For several weeks he made his home with Father Brady until 
he made arrangements for his own household, during which time he gathered 
his people and held services in a hall, corner Broadway and Second Streets. 

Father Orzechowski was a pious and zealous pastor and the new parish 
prospered under his fatherly care. The grounds and buildings cost him 
about $6,000.00 and the good pastor also opened a parish school in the base- 
ment of the church and employed a lay teacher to govern it. 

In June, 1899, Rev. Julian Zielinski succeeded to this parish and he pur- 
chased the present rectory and grounds, also the Sister's house. Then he 
brought the Felician Sisters to take charge of the school, and did all that was 
possible under the circumstances to improve the condition of the parish, for 
being a young man, and used to the custom of the country, he could guide and 
control these people. In December, 1902, Father Zielinski was transferred to 
St. Stanislaus' Church, Trenton, much to the sorrow of his people. 

The Rev. Francis Czernecki now succeeded to this charge, and he took 
up the work with equal zeal. He at once took up the debt question and paid 
off considerable debt since his coming in December, 1902. Father Czernecki 
als® painted and frescoed the interior of the church, and made other neces- 
sary improvements. At present, 1906, the congregation numbers about twelve 
hundred souls with about two hundred children in school, and too much 
praise cannot be given these good people for all they have accomplished in this 
town for religion and their adopted land. The Catholic Poles have always 
been a good people — honest, industrious and moral and their example is badly 
needed in these virtues in our times. The parish now has an assistant in the 
person of the Rev. Arthur Strinski. 

Trenton, N. J. — St. Mary's (Greek) Church. 

Among the immigrants that have come to Trenton in recent years are 
many Catholics of the Greek race. In 1891 they considered that they were 
numerous enough to have a church and pastor of their own, and at their re- 
quest, Bishop O'Farrell appointed the Rev. John Szabo to be their first pastor. 
He bought ground on the corner of Grand and Malone Streets, and began at 
once to collect funds for the building of a church. The corner stone was laid 



2IO 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



on April 16, 1893, by Bishop O'Farrell, and the church was dedicated in Sep- 
tember of the same year. It is a brick building and will accommodate about 
four hundred people. Before the erection of this church, which they called 




St. Mary's, they held services in a building on the corner of South Broad and 
Coleman Streets. Father Szabo left in December, 1893, and was succeeded by 
the Rev. Theodore Damjanovics, who remained till January, 1898. The next 
pastor was the Rev. John Csurgovich, who is still in charge of the parish. He 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 



211 



has a school in the basement of the church with fifty scholars, and is at present 
building a neat rectory beside the church. The parish numbers about four 
hundred and fifty. 

Trenton, N. J. — Holy Cross Church. 




About 1890 the Polish Catholics of Trenton began to agitate for a church 
for their own nationality where they might hear their own language spoken 
and carry out their own customs. Ground was purchased at the corner of 



212 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Cass and Adeline Streets, and in 1891 a two-story brick building was erected,, 
and opened for divine services in the Fall of the same year. The first pastor 
was the Rev. Valentine Swinarski, who organized the parish and supervised 
all building operations. Father Swinarski remained in charge of Holy Cross 
Church till December, 1895, when he was succeeded by the Rev. Francis 
Czernecki, the present pastor, who is working successfully among his people, 
by whom he is much beloved. This parish has a membership of over one 
thousand with nearly two hundred children in the parish school, the sessions 
of which are held on the first floor, while the second story is used for church 
services. 

South River, N. J. — St. Mary's of Ostrobrama Church. 

About 1885 some Polish people came to Sayreville to work in the brick- 
yards of South River. For several years they attended the church at Sayre- 
ville, but in time they wished to have a church of their own. This permission 
was granted them in January, 1903, by the Rt. Rev. Bishop McFaul, who sent 
the Rev. Joseph Regorovich to organize the parish. Father Regorovich gath- 
ered his people for divine service in a rented factory, and shared with them 
the poverty and trials of a strange people in a strange land. In May, 1904,, 
he began the erection of a church, but for want of funds could get no further 
ahead than the basement. In this basement he has been holding services for 
many months. He expects, however, to be able to complete the structure next 
year. The parish numbers about four hundred Polish families which with 
the addition of single men during the Summer increases to about three 
thousand. They are mostly employed in working in the brick yards and 
mills and are an honest, industrious people. 

Sayreville, N. J. — Our Lady of Victory Church. 

When Father Kelly, of South Amboy, was the missionary of this portion 
of South Jersey, his zeal led him to open a station at Sayreville for the poor 
Catholics then scattered in the neighborhood. This was about 1874 and he 
went every third Sunday of the month to the home of Mr. Hart, a sterling 
German Catholic, where he said Mass. This is the present convent. The 
number of Catholics gradually increasing, he purchased the present church 
property, and in May, 1884, Bishop O'Farrel sent the Rev. Stanislaus Danielou 
to care for this Mission. Father Danielou soon formed the people into a 
regularly organized parish, and built the present church, rectory and convent. 
The church was dedicated with appropriate ceremonies in 1889. In time he 
also opened a school, which he placed in charge of Franciscan Sisters. In 
1894 Father Danielou went to St. Michael's Hospital, where he died in the 
Spring of 1897. His remains rest in the cemetery among his faithful people. 
During Father Danielou's stay in the hospital, Father McMenamin took 
charge, as acting rector, till the appointment of Rev. Michael Brennan, of 
Mount Holly. Father Brennan made many improvements in church and 



DIOCESE OF TRENTON 213 

school. In 1895 the Sisters of Mercy of Bordentown replaced the Franciscans, 
who returned to Philadelphia. The present rector is the Rev. James Far- 
rington, who succeeded Father Brennan. Father Farrington did much to im- 
prove the parish buildings, and by his constant attention to his school has suc- 
ceeded in securing a much larger attendance. 

Atsion, N. J. 

Mass was first said in Raleight's house by Father Esser in 1880; continued 
by Father Van Riel in 1885 and 1886, then by Father Dolan of Woodbury. 

This place was attended as a Mission of Camden, 1875, and near here was 
the Jackson glass works, visited in 1848,1852 by C. S. S. R. The old glass 
works are a few miles distant. 

Mass was said here in 1865 by Father Byrne of Camden, also in 1860- 
1864 by Father Moran. 



CHAPTER V. 
RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES. 

Hopewell, N. J. — St. Michael's Orphan Asylum and Industrial School. 

This institution was planned by Rt. Rev. Bishop O'Farrell and for this 
purpose he bought the fertile Van Dyke farm near Hopewell, but death car- 
ried him away before he had a chance to begin the building. In his death, 
however, his friend and successor found the means to fulfill his wish, for in 
his will was a bequest of $60,000.00 as the nucleus of a fund for the orphans' 
home. To this later on Col. Daniel Morris added $50,000.00 more. 

Bishop McFaul began the erection of St. Michael's Home for Orphans, 
October 18, 1896, when Rev. Dr. Brann preached the sermon. The structure 
was finished and dedicated by the Rt. Rev. Bishop McFaul on May 30, 1898, 
and was placed in charge of the Sisters of St. Francis. 

The home is a modern building with all necessary improvements and at 
present shelters about two hundred boys and girls, giving them not only a 
safe and comfortable home, but also a good Catholic training, away from the 
vices of large cities. 

To increase the self-supporting capacity of the home, Bishop McFaul has 
also added the Drake farm of 150 acres. The home is under the direct 
supervision of the Bishop, aided by a Board of Managers, consisting of Mon- 
signor J. H. Fox, Vicar General Rev. D. J. Duggan. 

There are at present about two hundred children in the home, ninety of 
whom are boys. Th p older girls attend to much of the housework under the 
supervision of the Sisters, and the larger boys help on the farm. All attend 
school daily, and St. Michael's is doing a great work for the destitute children 
of the Diocese. The institution is supported by voluntary contributions 
solicited by the Sisters throughout the Diocese, also by offerings made through 
St. Michael's Union, a society organized under the auspices of the Bishop of 
the Diocese, and numbers amongst its benefactors, Miss Sarah Gallagher, 
$3,000.00 ; Charles Gallagher, $500.00 ; John P. Dobbins, $500.00 ; Lawrence P. 
Farrell, $500.00; Martin I. Maloney, $500.00; A. O. H. Society, $250.00, and 
many others who have done much to help on the good work. 

2 14 



2i6 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Lawrenceville,, N. J. — Morris Hall. 

Although called Morris Hall in honor of Col. Daniel Morris, this home 
for the aged poor is really a monument to the zeal and charity of Bishop 
McFaul for he it was who interested this generous layman in Diocesan works 
of charity. The buildings are situated in the midst of a fertile farm, con- 
veniently located near the beautiful village of Lawrenceville, and is about five 
miles from Trenton, and over $100,000 has been spent upon its erection and 
equipments. Every modern improvement and sanitary precaution has been 
taken to make the home comfortable for the helpless inmates. The corner 
stone was placed by Bishop McFaul, on Sunday, October 2, 1904, and the 
institution was' opened in August, 1905, since which time it shelters about 
thirty inmates. To the legacy of $50,000 left by Colonel Morris, the Bishop 
has expended $50,000 more, only a small part of which he has succeeded in 
collecting. From ex-United States Senator James Smith and Bernard F. 
Shanley he has received $1,000.00 each for the liquidation of this debt. There 
are other prominent Catholics in South Jersey who could help materially in 
these great works, for the structure is not only a great blessing to the poor, 
but is also a great credit to the Diocese. 

At Beverly, there is also St. Joseph's Home for Indigent Poor, in charge 
of the Sisters of St. Francis. 

Rev. John Gammell resides at the hall as chaplain. Lawrenceville is an 
old Mission of St. Mary's Cathedral and St. Joseph's. 

The first Mass said in Lawrenceville was by Rev. John M. McCloskey in 
Mrs. Burke's house. This was in 1891 and monthly services were continued 
there by Rev. Fathers Crean and Phelan till 1893, when Mr. Flemming's 
house was used for this purpose. Fathers Keuper, Murphy, O'Harlon also 
attended this Mission. In September, 1898, it became an attachment of St. 
Joseph's parish, East Trenton, till the trolley was extended to this town, the 
people attended St. Joseph's and services were discontinued till October, 1905, 
when they were resumed in the chapel of Morris Hall by Rev. John Gammell, 
who also attends the church at Pennington. 



2l8 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 
St. Francis' Hospital. — Trenton, N. J. 



At the invitation of the Rev. Dr. Gaerber, pastor of St. Francis' Church, 
Front Street, the Sisters of St. Francis came to Trenton to teach in his 




school, all arrangements having been previously made with the Rt. Rev. 
Bishop Bayley. This was on January 9, 1869, that Sisters M. Hyacinth, 
Frances and Stephania, arrived in Trenton. In the following year, with the 



RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES 



219 



permission and blessing of Bishop Bayley land was purchased on Hamilton 
Avenue, and on October 15, 1871, Monsignor Grasselli, O. M. C, placed the 
corner stone and preached in German, and the Rev. Father Mackin, of St. 
John's, preached in English. The Hospital was incorporated in 1873, an d 
was dedicated and opened by Bishop Corrigan, on May 31, 1874, and began 
its successful career of alleviating some of the miseries of human life. In 
1879 another wing was added, and again in 1903 a beautiful chapel was erected, 

St. Francis' Hospital is equipped with every modern improvement. There 
are thirty private rooms ; wards for medical and surgical cases ; also a ward 
founded by the Roeblings. Three resident physicians and twelve nurses help 
the Sisters. 

Among the many benefactors of the Hospital may be mentioned the 
J. A. Roebling and Son, whose princely generosity and benefactions are 
constant and great. Also H. C. Kelsey, who contributed so much for lighting 
the building and also B. C. Kruser, whose kindness supplies the ice to the 
patients all the year around. 

The Sisters of St. Francis, who at present teach in St. Francis' school, 
Trenton, are from the Syracuse province and came here in 1879. The Sisters 
are doing excellent work in the class room and have succeeded in raising the 
standard so high that the graduates enter the High School. 



St. Joseph's Academy. — Bordeniown, N. J. 

In 1872, Father Hennessey, of Jersey City, asked for and received the first 
band of Sisters of Mercy in the State of New Jersey. Sisters M. Gabriel 




I 



S T JOSEPH'S CONVENT OF MERCY 



! 



ST. JOSEPH'S ACADEMY, BORDENTOWN, N. J. 

Austin, Isidore, Regis, the latter Mother Superior, were sent. One year 
later, Rev. Patrick Leonard, of Bordentown, made a similar request and 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Mother Warde again personally conducted to the old rectory on the hill 
top (the pastor having removed to the large and handsome parish house on 
Crosswicks Street, adjacent to the newly erected church), Sisters Clare and 
Martha, Mother Assistant Raymond O'Donohhue and Mother M. Joseph 
O'Donohue, the first Mother Superior of the Sisters of Mercy in what is now 
known as the Diocese of Trenton. The old church on the hill top became the 
school. Built on a bluff of the Delaware, both school and convent were very 
cold in winter. In other ways, also, the Sisters were tried. Their future in 
New Jersey seemed to be darkly clouded. Then with that Christian spirit 




MOTHER M. REGIS. 

that so distinguished Mother Warde, she wrote in her own laconic way, "Re- 
turn to Manchester if you will." It was now that the spirit of Mother Cath- 
erine McAuley and the saintly and judicious training of Mother Warde were 
manifested especially in the persons of Mothers Raymond and Joseph. A 
council was held. The words of Mother Warde, "The Cross of Christ be al- 
ways with us," were ringing beneath the grape-arbored walks of the old con- 
vent garden on the hill top. 

Thus the first community, arrived at Bordentown, September 
24, 1873, the feast of Our Lady of Mercy. Four years later the late 
Vicar General, Very Rev. Monsignor T. R. Moran, applied to Mother Warde 



RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES 



221 



and she again personally conducted to his parish at Princeton, N. J., Sisters 
Gabriel, Austin, Isidore and Agnes and Mother M. Regis Wade as Superior. 
There were now two Convents of Mercy in the State of New Jersey, — Rt. 
Rev. M. A. Corrigan, being their ecclesiastical superior. When the news of 
the arrival of the Sisters at Princeton, reached Bordentown, there were 
peans of joy and thanksgiving to the Almighty, who had answered the prayers 
of the Sisters. The Sisters of the two Convents convened, an election was 
held, and Mother M. Regis Wade was elected Rev. Mother to succeed Mother 
M. Joseph O'Donohue, who had filled the office for two consecutive terms. 




MOTHER M. GABRIEL. 

During the nine following years Mother M. Regis, a valuable and cultured 
Sister, governed the rapidly rising community. In July, 1885, Bishop O'Far- 
rell laid the corner stone of the handsome Convent and Academy on Cross- 
wicks Street, Bordentown He was assisted by the Rev. P. F. Connolly, then 
pastor of Bordentown, now of Phillipsburg, to whose spiritual and safe advice 
and counsels the present nourishing condition of the Sisters of Mercy in the 
Diocese is largely due. 

St. Joseph's Academy, Bordentown, holds conspicuous rank among the 
foremost seats of learning in the State of New Jersey. It has a large and 
prominent Alumnae Association scattered throughout different parts of the 



2 22 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



State, who bear noble witness to the sound and thorough training both re- 
ligious and secular imparted to them by the Sisters. July 10, 1891, Mother 
M. Raymond O'Donohue, was elected Superior of the Order to succeed 
Mother Regis. Again in 1894 she was elected. On August 31, 1897, feast of 
St. Raymond, she opened what is now the flourishing home for working girls 
at Plainfield. While still holding the office of Mistress of Novices, Mother 
M. Raymond, is also Superior of the Academy of St. Mary's of the Lake, at 
Lakewood, N. J., attached to which is the famous "Hospice in the Pines," 
where ladies of wealth and refinement pass many pleasant winter weeks in 




MOTHER M. RAYMOND. 

preference to the fashionable hotels. In July, 1897, Sister M. Scholastica 
Nolan, Superior of Red Bank, was elected to succeed Mother M. Raymond, 
which office she filled for the ordinary period of three years. During Rev. M. 
Scholastica's term of office the Academy of "St. Mary's of the Lake" was 
opened. Mother M. Gabriel Redican, who previously held several offices in 
the community, was elected July 2, 1900, to the important office of Rev. 
Mother Superior, which position she still occupies. 

During her first term of office, a large building and spacious grounds 
were purchased at Plainfield, and a boarding and day academy under the pat- 
ronage of St. Gabriel was opened. This Academy is also in a flourishing 




^ 



224 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

condition. Lately, through the kindness and generosity of Mr. David Kenny, 
forty acres of land on the Watchung Mountains, Plainfield, were donated. 
Work is now in progress towards the erection of a Mother House and Board- 
ing School to be known as "Mount St. Mary's College," the present Mother 
House and Novitiate, at Bordentown, having become too small for the rapidly 
growing community. 

At present the Sisters of Mercy are doing efficient work in the parochial 
schools of Trenton, Camden, South Amboy, Perth Amboy, Phillipsburg, 
Princeton, Bordentown, Burlington, Sayreville, Red Bank, Lambertville, Key- 
port, Woodbridge, Cape May, Raritan and Bound Brook. 

St. Mary's Catholic Orphan Asylum. — New Brunswick, N. J. 

This home was started by Bishop O'Farrell, and was the only orphanage 
in the Diocese for many years when, upon the completion of the new St. 
Michael's Home at Hopewell, all the children over seven years of age were 
transferred there, and St. Mary's was continued as an infant asylum. The 
home now shelters about seventy-five children, all of whom are under seven 
years of age, and is supported by voluntary contributions, solicited by the 
Sisters in charge. 

Sisters of Charity. 

The Sisters of Charity began their work in the present Diocese of Tren- 
ton in 1867, when they came to New Brunswick to teach in St. Peter's School, 
then in charge of Rev. Miles C. Duggan. 

In 1869 Father Smith of St. John's, Trenton brought another band to 
take charge of the Orphan Asylum, which he established on Broad Street, 
and later on they took charge of St. John's School and also St. Mary's 
School. 

About 1885 they settled in Vineland, where they opened an Academy, but 
for the want of patronage they did not succeed. They also taught in the 
school at New Brunswick (German) and at Milville. All of these Sisters 
have been supplied to the Diocese from the Mother House at Madison, N. J., 
through the kindness of their saintly Mother Xavier, but owing to the in- 
creasing number of schools in their home Diocese, the Rt. Rev. Bishop O'Con- 
nor was obliged to recall them to Newark as rapidly as their places can be 
supplied by the Sisters of Mercy of Bordentown, but it is with deep regret 
that priests and people part with the services of these excellent teachers. 

Trenton, N. J. — Mission Helpers. 

At St. James' Convent, 136 North Warren Street, the " Mission Helpers " 
from Baltimore have established a day nursery, where working mothers may 
leave their children to be cared for during their hours of work. These Sisters 
came to Trenton at the request of Bishop McFaul, in June, 1899. They also 
visit the prisons and care for the deaf and dumb. In Atlantic City, they 
have opened up a Summer house and at present are engaged in Italian settle- 
ment work. The superioress of the community is the Rev. Mother Joseph. 



THE REDEMPTORISTS IN NEW JERSE^. 

The Redemptorist Fathers came to assist on the New Jersey Missions 
about 1847, when Father Glaunach made a missionary trip into West Jersey, 
stopping at Pleasant Mills to attend the scattered Catholic Germans of that 
district. These annual visits were continued by him and his successors, 
Father Bayer, Coudenhave and Holzer from 1844- 1848, to Estelle, Haddon- 
field, Hammonton, Jackson, Malaga, May's Landing, Millville, Pleasant Mills, 
Port Elizabeth, Waterford, Winslow and Salem. 

Father Holzer thus describes one of his Mission trips through South 
Jersey : 

"Left Philadelphia, October 3, 1848, and crossed over to Camden, N. J., 
thence to Haddonfield, seven miles; thence to Longaconing (now Berlin), 
seventeen miles ; thence to Waterford and Hammonton, thirty miles ; thence 
to Pleasant Mills, thirty-six miles ; thence to Winslow, eleven miles ; thence 
to Malaga, fifteen miles ; thence to Milville, ten miles ; thence to Port Eliza- 
beth, six miles; thence to Estelle, thirteen miles; thence to Weymouth, seven 
miles ; to Centreville, back to Winslow and Long-a-coning, forty-two miles ; 
thence to Philadelphia. The only Catholic churches found on this trip were 
at Pleasant Mills, Port Elizabeth and Millville.." 

In June of 1849 Father Bayer visited Jackson, Pleasant Mills and Malaga, 
and in December of that same year he went to Jackson and Pleasant Mills, 
where the Catholics were employed in the glass works and found them care- 
less about receiving the Sacraments, not being willing to sacrifice the time 
to attend to their duty. 

In 1850 Jackson, Winslow, New Germany, Millville and Malaga were 
visited. In 185 1 Trenton and Pleasant Mills, and again the good missionary 
bewails the fact that many of the men in these places had joined the Odd 
Fellows. In 1852 the Fathers, owing to the scarcity of priests and the in- 
crease of the city work, gave up the care of these country Missions, which 
up to this they had regularly attended. Among them were Malaga, Pleasant 
Mills, Jackson, Winslow and Waterford ; at long intervals Father Tichen- 
haus visited them. This was to be regretted, especially when we consider that 
it was precisely for this work that the great St. Alphonse had established his 
congregation and not for city work. 

The Bishop not being able to furnish other priests, many fell away and 
in some of these places the faith died out completely. 



225 



226 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH. 

THE HERMITS OF ST. AUGUSTINE IN SOUTH JERSEY. 

After the Jesuits, the Augustinian Monks are the oldest religious com- 
munity in our diocese. They came here from St. Mary's and St. Augustine's 
Churches in Philadelphia as early as 1795, and for nearly thirty years they 
attended to the spiritual wants of the West Jersey Catholics. At Trenton, 
Lambertville, Cape Island and other places we find records of noble work 
done for God by the great missionary priests, Fathers Matthew Carr and 
Michael Hurley, O. S. A. Following upon the Jesuit missionaries these 
Augustinian Monks kept alive the spirit of faith in the hearts of the people, 
and ministered to them in poverty and misfortune at a time when it was con- 
sidered unfortunate to be known as a priest or a Catholic. Yet actuated by 
the spirit of the great St. Augustine they spent themselves and their means 
in planting the Catholic Faith in this section. When the increased number of 
secular priests made their services no longer necessary, they withdrew to 
Philadelphia, and at present retain only the charge of St. Nicholas' Church, 
Atlantic City. 

THE FRANCISCANS IN SOUTH JERSEY. 

In 1870 Bishop Bayley transferred the charge of St. Francis' German 
Church, Front Street, from the secular clergy to the Rev. Franciscan Fathers, 
and Father Jachetti was made pastor. 

In 1874 Father Jachetti resigned in order to start a new church in Cham- 
bersburg, and Rev. Avellius Szabo succeeded to this post. He remained 
pastor about eight years, during which time he built the present parochial 
school (St. Francis). He in turn was succeeded by the Rev. Conrad Elison, 
who remained till November 1, 1883, when, in accordance with the wish of 
the Right Rev. Bishop O'Farrell, the Fathers resigned St. Francis' in exchange 
for St. Peter's, Camden. 

In 1892 the Rev. Fathers opened a Mission for the Polish people of 
Trenton under the care of the Rev. Stanislaus Czclusniak. They purchased 
a lot, corner of Randal Avenue and Broad Street. The corner-stone was laid 
by Rt. Rev. Bishop O'Farrell. They remained in charge till February 20, 
1897, when they were succeeded by secular priests, Rev. Julien Zielinski, etc. 

The following churches and Missions are in charge of the Franciscans at 
the present time : 

Trenton, Chambersburg — Church of the Immaculate Conception. 

Camden — Sts. Peter and Paul's. 

Point Pleasant— St. Peter's. 

Mantoloking. 

Seaside Park. 

THE BENEDICTINES IN SOUTH JERSEY. 

As early as 1857 the Benedictine Fathers from St. Mary's Church, High 
Street, Newark, N. J., entered the missionary field as helpers to the secular 
clergy of South Jersey. For a time they took charge of old St. Francis' 



RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES 



227 



Church, Trenton, where strife and contention had divided the people into 
two factions, but Father Oswald Moosemiller, O. S. B., by his piety and quiet 
determined manner, smoothed over the difficulties until such a time as Rt. 
Rev. Bishop Bayley could replace these saintly monks by one of his own 
clergy. The good Bishop never forgot the kindness of the Benedictines in 
assisting him out of this tangle. Later on he called upon them to do a sim- 
ilar work at Stony Hill, where, for years, it was difficult to have a priest 
reside on account of the poverty of the people and the loneliness of the place. 

Again, when similar conditions confronted him at Bound Brook, Bishop 
Bayley placed this church under the care of the Sons of St. Benedict till 
matters were adjusted and the parish became self-supporting. 

At present there is no Benedictine house in the Diocese of Trenton, but 
we trust that some future need or occasion may bring these useful and pious 
monks to dwell in our midst and spread the wonderful influence of their noble 
example upon the lives of our priests and people. 

FATHERS OF THE PIOUS MISSIONS, P. S. M. 
Rev. Joseph Transerici, P. S. M., is the present rector of St. Joseph's 
Church, Hammonton, Atlantic County, N. J. Father Joseph is an Italian by 
birth, and is a member of the Society of Pious Missions, whose New Jersey 
headquarters are at Hammonton, under his charge. Associated with Father 
Joseph is Rev. Joseph Riedle. Together they work among the Italians, and 
have charge of the Missions at Waterford, Cedar Brook, Winslow, Atsion, 
and Malaga, and are doing much .good for these scattered Missions and 
stations. With little or no means at their command, and dealing with a 
class of immigrants who are poor and without influence, these good priests are 
doing splendid work, which, as time goes by, will receive its merited recogni- 
tion and reward. It is much to be regretted that we have not more of these 
worthy missionaries scattered throughout our growing diocese, for although 
the Italian harvest is great, yet the Italian laborers might be multiplied and 
the future reaping for Christ would indeed be glorious. 



CHAPTER VI. 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

MONSIGNOR JOHN H. FOX, V. G. 

Rt. Rev. John H. Fox, Vicar General of the Diocese of Trenton, and rec- 
tor of St. Mary's Cathedral, was born in New Brunswick, N. J., July 7, 1858. 
His seminary studies were made at Seton Hall, South Orange, N. J., and he 
was ordained by Bishop Corrigan in the Cathedral of Newark, June 7, 1881. 
He was stationed at St. Joseph's Church, Jersey City, as assistant to Mon- 
signor Seton, the present titular Archbishop of Heliopolis, when the Diocese 
of Newark was divided, but at the request of Bishop O'Farrell, he freely left 
the more populous and prosperous Diocese to labor in the poorer and more 
sparsely settled portion that had been set aside for the new See of Trenton. 
After assisting Father Fitzsimmons at the church of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion, Camden, for about a year, he was appointed rector of St. Joseph Church, 
Bound Brook. He labored here with so much success, that when in the fol- 
lowing year Bishop O'Farrell wished to establish a parish at Seabright, he 
selected him for this difficult mission. As soon as he arrived in Seabright, 
he rented from the Knights of Pythias the only hall the place could boast of, 
and here Mass was offered for the first time in Seabright, June 7, 1883. The 
prospects for securing a suitable site for a new church at this fashionable 
Summer resort were far from encouraging, as the non-Catholic population was 
opposed to having a Catholic church in any select portion of the town. Father 
Fox, however, studied the situation well and, after three years patient waiting, 
he succeeded in securing the desirable site, on which he erected the present 
beautiful church and rectory. He also bought land and built the churches at 
Highlands and at Atlantic Highlands and looked after the spiritual welfare of 
the Catholics at Sandy Hook. When St. Joseph's Church, East Trenton, was 
made an independent parish, Bishop O'Farrell recognizing the arduous and 
successful work of Father Fox along the sea shore, selected him for this im- 
portant place, and appointed him pastor, April 23, 1893. The unfortunate 
panic of 1893 and 1894, due to political disturbances throughout the country, 
was the means of closing nearly every industry in that part of the city, and the 
people deprived of their means of sustenance were not only unable to con- 
tribute to the support of religion, but many had to be assisted in their extreme 
need. When prosperous times returned, and he was contemplating the erec- 
tion of a new church, Bishop McFaul, who had been recently consecrated, 
called him to the Cathedral. Here he has zealously labored for the spiritual 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



229 



upbuilding of the parish and made extensive improvements to the sacred 
edifice. Bishop McFaul, in recognition of his zeal and ability, made him his 




Vicar General, in November, 1900, and in July, 1904, Pope Pius X, honored 
him with the title of Domestic Prelate. 



REV. THOMAS A. ALLEN. 

Rev. T. A. Allen was born in Bordentown, N. J., September 10, 1871, and 
studied at St. Charles' College, Seton Hall, and St. Mary's Seminary, Balti- 
more. Since his ordination at Baltimore, December 19, 1896, he has been a 
curate at Atlantic City and Camden, and a pastor at Sandy Hook and 
Hampton Junction. 



230 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



REV. ROBERT E. BURKE. 

Rev. Robert E. Burke was born in Ireland, June n, 1849, and prepared 
for the priesthood at St. Charles' College, Aid., and Seton Hall, South 
Orange. He was ordained by Bishop Corrigan, June 10, 1876, and served 
as an assistant in St. Mary's Church, Jersey City, and the Church of Our Lady 





of Grace, Hoboken. He was pastor of the Church of the Sacred Heart, 
Mount Holly, the Church of Sts. Philip and James, Phillipsburg, St. Mary's, 
Bordentown, St. Paul's, Princeton, and during the Spanish-American war, 
Chaplain at Fort Hancock, Sandy Hook. 



REV. MAURICE E. BRIC. 

Rev. Maurice E. Brie was born August, 1859, in Waterbury, Conn., of 
Jeremiah and Bedila Brie, whence his parents moved to New Haven, Conn., 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



231 



when he was two months old. In the City of Elms, the subject of our sketch 
received his earlier education in the public schools, and afterward was grad- 
uated from St. Charles' College iti the class of 1881. He entered St. Joseph's 
Seminary, Troy, in September, and was ordained for the Diocese of Trenton, 




N. J., by Archbishop Corrigan on December 19, 1885. Father Brie was ap- 
pointed as assistant to the later Very Rev. P. Fitzsimmons, of Camden, N. J., 
and remained in the Immaculate Conception parish from January 18, 1886, 
to December 16, 1888, when he was appointed pastor of the Church of the 
Sacred Heart, South Camden. 



REV. PATRICK BYRNE. 



The subject of this brief sketch was born in Temple Port, Ireland, in the 
Diocese of Lissmore, January 6, 1837. After receiving a classical education in 
his native Diocese, he emigrated to America, locating in the Diocese of 
Buffalo. He pursued his course of philosophy and theology first at George- 
town, under the Jesuits, where he was a pupil of the famous Father Maldon- 
ado, and afterwards at St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, Md., being associated 



2 3 2 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



as a student with Cardinal Gibbons. He was ordained for the Diocese of 
Newark, by the Rt. Rev. Bishop Bayley, October 4, i860. After very brief 
appointment to Princeton, New Brunswick, and Phillipsburg, he was per- 
manently located for one year with Father Senez, at St. Mary's Jersey City. 
He served next as curate to Father Moran at St. John's, Newark, until ap- 
pointed to Camden, in June, 1863. At Camden he built its present magnificent 



„,;. 




church, established a building and loan association which enabled a great 
number of his people to own their own homes. Father Byrnes 
has written extensively in various fields of literature. His forte is 
said to have been controversial theology, in which he has been recognized as 
an authority. He has always been an eloquent speaker and ranked amongst 
the foremost preachers of his day. Of late years he has labored in Fort Lee, 
at St. Leo's, Irvington, and has been pastor of St. Aloysius' Church, Caldwell, 
in each place winning the respect of the people among whom he lived. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



2 33 



REV. MARTIN A. VAN DEN BOGARD. 

Rev. Martin A. van den Bogard first saw the light of day in the little 
town of Vighal, Holland, on May 21, 1839. After studying in the schools of 
his native town he entered the Seminary of Bruges, Belgium, where he com- 
pleted his philosophical and theological courses and was ordained to the 
priesthood December 24, 187 1. For a short time he remained in the English 
college and then went to the Diocese of Liverpool, England, where he labored 
in missionary work until 1873, when he came to America. Bishop Corrigan 





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: ^ 








lL 1 








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m JlS 




ISStiilflfe'Sr 














1 


. 



formallly received him into the Diocese of Newark in October, 1873, an d sent 
him as assistant to Father Fitzsimmons, of Camden, where he remained until 
1877, when he was appointed pastor of Bound Brook, and also given charge of 
Millstone as a Mission. During his pastorate at Bound Brook, he erected the 
present parochial residence, and made many improvements about the church 
and grounds. In 1882 Bishop O'Farrell desired to erect a church in Somer- 
ville and knowing that Father Bogard had the requisite qualifications to under- 



234 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

take the work of establishing a parish and erecting the necessary buildings, 
appointed him pastor of the new parish December, 1882. Notwithstanding 
the small number of Catholics and their poverty, Father Bogard, nothing 
daunted, purchased property and began the present handsome church and 
rectory and had them completed. He has also bought land for a school and 
secured a magnificent site which he has turned into a cemetery and his present 
ambition is to clear the church of debt and shortly consecrate it forever to the 
service of God. 

REV. JOHN F. BRADY. 

Father Brady, the zealous pastor of St. Mary's Church, South Amboy, 
was born April 14, 1850, in County Cavan, Ireland. His preliminary studies 
were made in the national schools of his native town and in the Diocesan 
gymnasium until the year 1871, when he set sail for America. Shortly after 
his arrival he entered St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, where he remained 
until September, 1872, when he became affiliated with the Diocese of Newark, 
and began his theological course in the Seminary of Seton Hall. Ordained 
to the priesthood by Bishop Corrigan, June 10, 1876, he was sent shortly after- 
wards, as curate, to St. James' Church, Newark, and he labored faithfully in 
this parish, with the exception of a few months that he spent at St. Michael's 
Church, Jersey City, until July, 1879, when he was sent as acting rector to 
St. Joseph's Church, Paterson. After spending a year at Paterson, Bishop 
Corrigan appointed him pastor of High Bridge, with charge of Missions at 
Clinton and Flemington. In this mountainous and sparsely settled portion of 
the State, Father Brady succeeded in arousing the faith in many Catholics 
who had become cold and indifferent, and he left the churches in good condi- 
tion, spiritually and financially, when he was sent to Lambertville, March 28. 
1884. During his pastorate, at this place, the debt that encumbered the 
property was cleared, and he was about to erect a new church when Bishop 
O'Farrell appointed him to the irrempvable rectorship of St. Mary's Church, 
South Amboy, May 30, 1891. Since going to South Amboy, Father Brady has 
renovated the church interiorly and exteriorly, so that to-day it is one of the 
most beautiful places of worship in the Diocese ; erected a magnificent school, 
which has accommodations for nearly a thousand children; enlarged the con- 
vent and beautified the grounds surrounding these buildings and although the 
congregation is composed mostly of poor people, yet all these improvements 
have been paid for. 

REV. THOMAS FRANCIS BLAKE. 

Rev. Thomas Francis Blake was born in Bordentown, N. J., July 12, 1873, 
and after a course of studies at St. Charles' College, Md., and St. Mary's 
Seminary, Baltimore, was elevated to the priesthood, June 1, 1901, at Tren- 
ton. He was a curate at St. Mary's Church, Perth Amboy from the time 
of his ordination until his appointment to the pastorate of St. John's Church, 
Allentown. . . 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



2 35 



REV. ANTHONY CASSESSE. 

Rev. Anthony Cassesse was born at Palma, Naples, Italy, and came to 
America about 1867. He was a curate at Pawtucket, R. I., and during Sep- 





9M 



tember, 1872, became pastor of St. Joseph's Church, Swedesboro, where he 
remained until his death, November 26, 



REV. MICHAEL H. CALLAHAN. 

Rev. Michael H. Callahan, pastor at Jamesburg since September 25, 1902, 
was born in Wallingford, Conn., and studied at Niagara University. He was 
ordained at Buffalo, N. Y., March 18, 1899, and was assistant at the Cathedral, 
Trenton, until his appointment to Jamesburg. 

REV. WILLIAM P. CANTWELL. 

Rev. William P. Cantwell, the well known pastor of Long Branch, was 
born in the capital city of New Jersey, January 24, 1859. After studying at 



236 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



St. John's Parochial School, Trenton, he entered St. Charles' College, Md., 
and then went to Seton Hall College, where he was graduated with the class 
of 1879. Completing his theology at the Seminary of Seton Hall, he was 
ordained to the priesthood by Bishop O'Farrel at St. Mary's Cathedral, Tren- 
ton, July 2, 1882, and was sent to assist Father O'Grady at New Brunswick. 
Upon the removal of Father McCormack from Metuchen, he was appointed 
pastor of that parish and the Missions attached to it, and labored zealously 
for the people until he was called upon to take charge of the Church of Our 
Lady Star of the Sea at Long Branch, October 1890, in succession to Father 
James McFaul. During his pastorate at Metuchen he built a handsome rec- 




tory. After completing a church at Monmouth Beach, he began the erection 
of the massive stone parochial school, which is situated in the central section 
of Long Branch, and which contains besides the class rooms a large hall and 
up to date lyceum. For two years he was editor and publisher of a magazine 
devoted to the interests of religion, under the title " Good Tidings," and the 
many forceful articles he had written and couched in the purest English were 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 237 

a credit to Catholic journalism. Much to the regret of priests and people 
the paper was discontinued for the lack of proper support. 



REV. BARTHOLOMEW CAREY. 

Rev. Bartholomew Carey was born in Burlington, Vermont, June 25, 1849, 
and two years later his parents went to Jersey City, N. J., to reside. Entering 
the Passionate Fathers he was ordained a priest, September 21, 1879. A few 
years after ordination his health became impaired by the austerities the 
members of this Order are accustomed to practice, and urged to engage in the 
more active work of the Secular Clergy, he entered the Diocese of Trenton, 
March 24, 1884, and was appointed assistant to Father Kars, of Gloucester. 
January 13, 1885, he was given charge of the Catholics at Hightstown, Per- 
rineville, Englishtown, Cranberry, Windsor, and the places adjoining, and 
labored faithfully in these Missions until January 9, 1891, when he was sent 
to Perth Amboy to assist Father P. L. Connolly. After a short stay at Perth 
Amboy he was transferred to the Church of the Sacred Heart, Trenton, and 
on March 18, 1893, he was directed to establish a parish at Carteret. The 
Catholics of this place were few in number at the time, and the congregation 
had nothing to begin with. After hiring a store to celebrate Mass in, he 
rented a house for the rectory, and bare of all furniture, the floor was his bed 
for several nights, and the kind wishes of the poor people his only comforts. 
In a short time he secured land and erected a church and shortly after its com- 
pletion and removal to a site more convenient, for the majority of the par- 
ishioners, he erected a fine parochial residence, which he did not live long to 
enjoy. March 9, 1903, he died mourned alike by Protestants and Catholics, 
and his remains rest in front of the church. 



REV. P. F. CONNOLLY. 

Rev. P. F. Connolly was born in Ireland in 1844 and came to America 
at the age of five or six years. He attended St. Patrick's Cathedral School 
At Newark, under the late Bernard Kearney, known to all the old generation 
of Newark boys, and afterwards St. John's School, Orange. In i860 he en- 
tered old St. Mary's College, Wilmington, Del., and after three years became 
a student of St. Charles', Ellicott City, Md. He was adopted by Bishop Bay- 
ley in 1865, and entered Seton Hall Seminary, under the spiritual guidance 
of Rev. M. A. Corrigan, D.D., a young priest just returned from Rome. 
After six years' study in Seton Hall, Father Connolly was ordained by the 
Rt. Rev. Bishop Bayley, June 3, 1871. In August, 1871, he was sent tem- 
porarily to Father Kerwin, of Burlington, to have Mass at Mount Holly every 
Sunday, and so prepare it for a permanent pastor. During October of the 



2 3 8 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



same year, he was sent to Camden as curate and for two years he served 
under the Very Rev. Fathers Byrnes and Fitzsimmons. October, 1873, he 
was transferred to Bordentown, where he remained twenty-one years; whilst 




there he erected the new St. Joseph's Convent and Academy and the parochial 
school. On September 12, 1897, he was appointed pastor of St. Philip and St. 
James' Church, Philipsburg, and on April 12, 1904, he was made Dean of Hun- 
terdon, Warren and Somerset Counties. 



REV. JAMES CALLAN. 

Rev. James Callan was born in Ireland and educated at All Hallow's 
College. He was pastor of St. Mary's Church, South Amboy, in succession 
to Father M. A. Madden from October 1853, until October, 1854, when he was 
transferred to St. James' Church, Newark. In 1861 he was apointed to St. 
John's Church, Paterson, and at his own request was removed in October, 
1863, and sent to Lambertville. Dissatisfied with the change he left the State 
in 1864 and went to California, where he was burned to death while journey- 
ing on a steamer from San Francisco to Santa Barbara, August 25, 1864. A 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



2 39 



letter written to Father John Schandel describing his death, says: "When 
it was seen that the boat could not be saved, Father Callan told all the people 
to kneel and he would give them absolution. After exhorting them to be 




courageous and resigned to the will of God, he added, "You are prepared, but 
there is no one here to absolve me." * 



REV. JOHN A. CAULFIELD. 



Rev. John A. Caulfield was born in Lambertville, N. J., January 21, 1874, 
and after attending St. John's Academy, Trenton, N. J., he entered the Col- 
lege of the Sacred Heart, Vineland, and was graduated with the class of 1893. 
After he had finished, upon the completion of his theology in St. Vincent's 
Seminary, Latrobe, Penn., he matriculated at the Catholic University, Wash- 
ington, September, 1896, and was ordained at Trenton by Bishop McFaul, 
June 12, 1897. After serving as curate at the Church of the Immaculate Con- 
ception, Camden, for five years he was appointed pastor of Tom's River, 
June 20, IQ02, and on February 21, 1905, he was transferred to Ocean City. 



240 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



REV. CORNELIUS CANNON. 

Rev. Cornelius Cannon was born in Ireland, and after studying at Ford- 
ham Seminary was ordained by Archbishop Hughes, August 18, 1854. He 




was pastor of St. Mary's Church, Salem, and the Missions attached to it from 
1855, till January, 1870, when he was transferred to Tenafly. He remained in 
charge of this parish until 1878. 



REV. PETER L. CONNOLLY. 

Rev. Peter L. Connolly was born in Ireland, June 29, 1840. He studied 
for the priesthood at the Franciscan College and Seminary of St. Bonaventure, 
Allegany, N. Y., and was ordained June 12, 1869. He was a curate at the 
Church of the Immaculate Conception, Camden, and St. Peter's Church, 
Jersey City, and in December, 1871, Bishop Bayley appointed him rector of 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



241 



St. Mary's Church, Perth Amboy. During his pastorate in this city, he en- 
larged the old church, and also the church at Woodbridge, which he attended 
as a Mission until 1878, built the parochial school and introduced the Sisters 




of Mercy in September, 1883, to replace the lay teachers, and purchased the 
ground upon which the new church is built. September 1, 1898, he was trans- 
ferred to Gloucester and died after a lingering illness, September 29, 1901. 



REV. THEOPHILUS J. DEGAN. 

Rev. Theophilus J. Degan was born in Neymegan, Holland, August 19, 
1830. He received an elementary education in his native town, studied philos- 
ophy at Antwerp and theology at Brussels in the Capuchin Monastery, where 
he was ordained June 7, 1857. After five or six years missionary work in 
Holland and Belgium, he was sent to England for six years and then to Aden, 
a town on the Red Sea, to attend the spiritual wants of the English-speaking 
people, but as the climate did not agree with his health, he returned to Bel- 



242 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

gium and having received permission to leave order, was assigned to parish 
duties in the city of Liverpool, England. He was affiliated with the Diocese of 
Newark, December, 1871, and appointed an assistant at John's Church, Orange, 
and after six months he was transferred to Fort Lee. When Father Gessner 
went to Elizabethport, Father Degan became his successor, February 9, 1873, 
at Bridgeton. Two years later he went to Cape May, which up to that time 
was a Mission of Bridgeton, and after twenty-eight years of faithful service at 
this famous resort, died at Bridgeton, October 31, 1900. 

REV. STANILAUS DANIELOU. 

Rev. Stanilaus Danielou was born in France, February 23, 1832, and was 
ordained October 18, 1855. His first mission in America was at St. Johns- 
burg, Vt, where he introduced the Sisters of Mercy into that state as teachers 
in the parochial schools. In July, 1874, he came to the Diocese of Newark 
and was appointed to assist Father Salaun at Red Bank and the neighboring 
Missions. After a pastorate of several years at Allentown, he was sent to 
Sayreville in May, 1884, to found a parish, and he built the present Church 
of Our Lady of Victories, the pastoral residence and established a parochial 
school. He died at St. Michael's Hospital, Newark, April 2, 1897. 



REV. PETER DERNIS. 

Rev. Peter Dernis was born at Delft, Holland, November, 1842, and pre- 
pared for the priesthood at Venray, Holland, the University of Louvain, Bel- 
gium, and the Seminary at Seton Hall. June 3, 1871, he was ordained by 
Bishop Bayley and apointed to assist at St. Joseph's Church, Newark. He 
has been a pastor at Hoboken and Macopin, Pompton and Ringwood, Salem, 
Moorestown, Woodstown and Beverly. 



REV. DENNIS J. DUGGAN. 

Rev. Dennis J. Duggan was born in Macroom, County Cork, Ireland, Oc- 
tober, 1848, and studied the classics at St. Vincent's College in that city and 
theology at the renowned Seminary of Maynooth. June 24, 1874, he was or- 
dained and for two years worked in his native diocese, and then coming to 
America was received into the Diocese of Trenton and appointed assistant to 
Father Fitzsimmons of Camden. He had charge of the congregations at 
Mount Holly, Bridgeton, Moorestown and Salem. January, 1898, he suc- 
ceeded Father Burke at Bordentown. Since his appointment to this congre- 
gation he has added many improvements to the property, and has also built 
a fine stone church at Florence, which is a Mission attached to Bordentown. 
Father Duggan is a learned theologian, a great friend of the parochial school 
system, and a singer well versed in the art of music. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



243 



REV. JAMES F. DEVINE. 

One of the most retiring and also successful priests of the State of New 
Jersey is the Rev. James F. Devine, pastor of the Sacred Heart Church, New 
Brunswick. Father Devine was born in Newton Hamilton County, Armagh, 
Ireland, in 1852. He came to America in 1870 and began his studies for the 
priesthood in Villanova College, near Philadelphia, and continued them at St. 
Charles' College, Maryland, and at Seton Hall College and graduated with 




honor from this institution in 1875. His theological studies were made at the 
Diocesan Seminary and he was ordained a priest in St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
Newark, by Archbishop Corrigan, June 12, 1879. His first appointment was 
as assistant to Rev. P. Fitzsimmons, pastor of the Church of the Immaculate 
Conception, Camden, and after two and a half years of faithful labor, he was 
sent to assist Rev. John O'Grady at St. Peter's Church, New Brunswick, 
where he remained until October, 1882, when he assumed charge of St. James' 



244 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Church, Bound Brook, but as the work was comparatively light and he was 
anxious for more active duty, he asked Bishop O'Farrell for a change and was 
sent to Help Father Hogan, at St. John's Church, Trenton, and remained with 
him for eighteen months. The people of Woodbridge, who held Father De- 
vine in the highest esteem were more than delighted when he returned to them 
again as pastor in May, 1885. With characteristic zeal he at once began the 
present beautiful church, purchased a handsome new rectory and shortly 
after the dedication of the new church, renovated the old one and turned it 
into a commodious school and built a handsome convent for the Sisters of 
Mercy, whom he introduced into the parish to teach in the parochial school. 
Whilst a great' outlay was demanded for all this work, so judicious was Father 
Devine in the disposal of the funds placed in his charge that when he was pro- 
moted to the parish of the Sacred Heart at New Brunswick, much to the grief 
of the good people of Woodbridge, scarcely a cent of debt remained on the 
beautiful church property. Since he became rector of the Church of the Sac- 
red Heart, October 4, 1895, he has done much for the financial and spiritual 
advancement of the church, in a quiet and unostentatious manner. 

REV. LOUIS DEKOVACS. 

Rev. Louis De Kovacs, rector of the Holy Cross, Hungarian congregation, 
Perth Amboy, was born in the city of Nagy Kambisa, Hungary, August 31, 
1877. He studied at the University of Budapest and made a special course in 
state and philosophy for four years. He was ordained at Temesvar, Diocese 
of Csanad, Flungary, April 7, 1900. 

REV. M. C. DUGGAN. 

Rev. M ; C. Duggan was born in England, June, 183 1, made his theologi- 
cal studies in St. Bonaventure's College, Allegany, N. Y., and was received 
into the Diocese of Newark, October 23, 1865. Li 1867 he was appointed as- 
sistant to Father Rogers of New Brunswick, with power of administrator and 
during his administration he purchased the property on George Street that 
was used for many years as a school, also the present rectory, built the convent, 
hung the chime of bells in the tower, introduced the Sisters of Charity, estab- 
lished St. Peter's Hospital, now St. Mary's Home and also bought property 
in Metuchen and built St. Francis' Church, since destroyed by fire. Septem- 
ber, 1873, he was transferred to the Church of Our Lady of Grace, Hoboken, 
and commenced the erection of the present church, May, 1874. In November, 
1875, he returned to England and became affiliated to the Diocese of South- 
ward He returned to America and after laboring in the West, died in St. 
Louis, Mo., March 25, 1887. 

REV. EDWARD J. DUNPHY. 

Rev. Edward J. Dunphy was born in St. John's parish, Trenton, N. J., 
August 3, 1874, and studied at the parochial school and Seton Hall College, 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



245 



graduating with the class of 1895. After a course of theology at St. Mary's 
Seminary, Baltimore, he was ordained in the Cathedral of that city by Car- 
dinal Gibbons, June 14, 1898. Shortly after his ordination, he was sent to 
assist Father Petri, and in September of the same year was transferred to St. 
St. Mary's Cathredral, Trenton. From May, 1900, until October, he was act- 
ing rector of the Church of Our Lady, Moorestown, and St. Joseph's Church, 




Keyport, during the absence of the pastors in Europe. He was appointed rec- 
tor of St. Joseph's parish, East Millstone, October, 1900, and in May, 1902, 
Dunellen was added as a Mission, and later on, January, 1903, became an inde- 
pendent parish, with Father Dunphy as pastor. In April, 1904, South Plain- 
was added as a Mission to Dunellen. 



REV. WILLIAM F. DITTRICH. 



Rev. William F. Dittrich was born in the city of Worcester, Mass., March 
9, 1868, and when he was three weeks old his parents removed to Trenton, N. 
J. After attending the parochial school attached to St. John's Church, he 
entered St. John's College, Brooklyn, 1882, and in 1886 went to the newly 
established College of the Sacred Heart, Vineland, N. J., and was graduated 
from this institution, June, 1888. He was sent to the Seminary of Brignole- 
Sale, Genoa, Italy, and after completing his studies in this famous institution 



246 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



was ordained to the priesthood by Archbishop Reggio of Genoa, May 27, 1893. 
Shortly after returning to America he was sent to Long Branch to assist 
Father Cantwell for the Summer season, and on October 1, 1893, he was 
transferred to St. Peter's Church, New Brunswick, as curate to Dean 
O'Grady. October 1, 1895, he succeeded the Fathers of Mercy, in charge of 




the parish church at Vineland, and also looked after the spiritual needs of a 
large colony of Italians in East Vineland, and so successful was he in build- 
ing up these congregations, that Bishop McFaul promoted him to the large 
and important church at Bound Brook, September 22, 1899. 



REV. WILLIAM J. DUNPHY. 

Rev. William J. Dunphy was born in Trenton, N. J., November 18, 1866, 
and after his studies at St. Francis' College, Brooklyn, Seton Hall College, 
and St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, was ordained May 23, 1891, at Trenton, 
by Bishop O'Farrell. He was a curate at Perth Amboy, South Amboy and 
the Cathedral, and while chaplain of St. Michael's Orphan Asylum, Hopewell, 
and pastor of the parish, he was seized with a hemorrhage of the lungs, which 
resulted fatally October 4, 1901. 



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247 



REV. THOMAS J. DEGNAN. 

The several sons of Princeton, who have been honored with the sub- 
lime dignity of the priesthood, and who have honored that exalted calling, 
include in the list the pious and gentle Father Degnan, who was born in the 
College Town, April 9, 1861. He studied at St. Charles' College, Md., and 
Seton Hall, and was ordained at Vineland by Bishop O'Farrell, May 30, 1886. 




He was a curate at Bordentown until 1890, when he was appointed the first 
rector of St. Clare's Church, Florence, and in May, 1891, he was .transferred 
to Beverly. His unexpected death, September 21, 1891, was mourned not only 
by the priests, with whom he was a great favorite, but by all the people with 
whom he came in contact, for his charming personality, childlike simplicity 
and unaffected piety. 

REV. JOSEPH A. EGAN; 

Rev. Joseph A. Egan was born in Trenton, N. J., and studied at St. John's 
parochial school, and the College of the Sacred Heart, Vineland, N. J., re- 
ceiving the degree of A. B. June 16, 1891. After the completion of his studies 
at St. Vincent's Seminary, Penn., he was ordained to the priesthoood by 
Bishop Phelan, of Pittsburg, June 8, 1895. His first appointment was to 
Long Branch, assistant to Father Cantwell, and on October 1, 1895, he was 



2 4 8 



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transferred to St. Peter's Church, New Brunswick, where he remained until 
June 8, 1899, when he was made pastor of Tom's River and Barnegat June 8, 
1902. On January 8, 1903, he was changed to Laurel Springs, and Gibbsboro, 
the latter place being taken from his charge September 24, 1904. 

REV. EDWARD J. EGAN. 

Rev. Edward J. Egan, rector of the Holy Cross Church, Seabright, was 
born in Newton, Conn., December 12, i860. He studied at the public schools 







and Newton Academy, and prepared for the priesthood at St. Charles' College, 
Baltimore, and St. Joseph's Seminary, Troy, N. Y. Since his ordination at 
the Seminary, December 19, 1885, he has been a curate at the Churches of the 
Sacred Heart, Trenton and St. Mary's, Gloucester, and the rector of St. 
Joseph's parish, Sea Isle City, where he was stationed for four years. April 
20, 1893, he was transferred to Seabright in succession to Rev. John H. Fox. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 249 

REV. JOSEPH ESSER. 

Rev. Joseph Esser, a native of Germany, was born at Neuss, near Cologne, 
September 19, 1851, and was educated at the University of Bonn and the 
American College, Minister, and was ordained at Cologne, December 19, 1874. 
After serving faithfully as a curate to Father James P. Smith, at the Church 
of St. Paul of the Cross, Jersey City, he was appointed pastor of St. Nicholas' 
Church, Egg Harbor City, November 1, 1875. After a pastorate of nearly ten 
years, during which time he brought peace and prosperity to the parish, 
his death occurred April 27, 1885, and resulted from his being thrown acci- 
dentally from a carriage. 

REV. NICHOLAS M. FREEMAN. 

Rev. Nicholas M. Freeman was born in Hartford, Conn., August 11, i860. 
He attended St. Peter's parochial school in that city and was prepared for col- 
lege by the well-known Professor Cullen. Entering St. Charles' College, Md., 
September, 1875, he was graduated June, 1881, completed his theology, in St. 
Joseph's Seminary, Troy, N. Y., and was ordained by Archbishop Corrigan, 
December 19, 1885. He was sent to assist Very Reverend Anthony Smith at 
the Cathedral, Trenton, June 16, 1886, and remained until September, 1888, 
when he was appointed pastor of St. Joseph's Church, North Plainfield. After 
two years of successful work in North Plainfield, he was transferred to Mill- 
stone, and later on, he was sent to Junction and on February 1, 1895, he was 
appointed to Bound Brook, and remained there for only a month when he was 
changed to Metuchen, where his untimely death occurred from heart failure, 
September 9, 1895. His devoted friend and classmate, Father Brie, writing of 
him, says : "During his entire course of studies, Father Freeman was distin- 
guished among his classmates for -his excellent standing in all his classes. He 
was a most lovable character, sincere and outspoken against anything mean 
and low, and fearless in his defense of whatever was right and good." 

REV. JOSEPH F. FLANAGAN. 

Rev. Joseph F. Flanagan was born in Trenton, February 1, 1858, and 
received his collegiate education at St. Charles' College, Maryland and St. 
Vincent's College, Pennsylvania. He was ordained from St. Vincent's Semin- 
ary, June 19, 1884, and after a few months at Long Branch, he became assis- 
tant to Dean Fitzsimmons in Camden, December, 1884, remaining there until 
January, 1886, when he was appointed rector of Manchester and Lakewood. 
During the month of September in the same year he was sent to Jamesburg 
and for over twelve years he labored faithfully in this place, and on October 
23, 1895, he was promoted to St. James' parish, Woodbridge, in succession to 
Father Devine. His death, which was rather sudden, occurred on the seventh 
of January, 1899. 



250 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



VERY REV. DEAN P. FITZSIMMONS. 

Very Rev. Peter J. Fitzsimmons was born near the town Virginia, 
County Cavan, Ireland, in 1840. He received his early education in the na- 
tional school, and at the age of sixteen entered upon a classical course in a 
private academy. In 1859 he entered All Hallows' College, Dublin, and after 
three years came to America, entering the Grand Seminary in Quebec, Canada, 
and was ordained to the priesthood in December, 1863. His first mission was at 
Kingston, Ont, where he remained two years. He was then transferred to 
St. Anthony's, Camden, Diocese of Kingston, where he met with success, but 
owing to ill health and the severity of the climate, he was compelled to retire, 




and then entered upon the mission of St. Joseph's Church, Jersey City, and 
two years later to the rectorship of Dover, N. J. Owing to continued ill 
health he was forced to take a trip to Europe, where he remained nearly a 
year. On his return he was appointed to St. John's Church, Trenton. Upon 
the death of Rev. John Mackin, the rector of St. John's, Rev. P. Byrne, was 
appointed to the vacancy, and Rev. Father Fitzsimmons was transferred to the 
Church of the Immaculate Conception, Camden, June, 1873. His career in 
Camden was very successful. He paid off" a debt of $40,000. on the church, 
completed the structure and the school, made improvements to the parochial 
residence and erected a Brothers' house on Seventh Street. The entire debt 
was cancelled in the Spring of 1893, and the church was consecrated May 28 of 
that year by the late Bishop O'Farrell. His last project was a parish hall 
with all the attractions. For over twenty-two years he served the parish, al- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



51 



ways eloquent, genial, big hearted, ever having an eye to the spiritual welfare 
of his flock. He passed to his reward August 31, 1895, in the fifty- 
sixth year of his age, and his body lies in a vault directly in front of the 
church. If a man is judged by his works Dean Fitzsimmons left much behind 
to commend him, and the people who have profited by his labors among them 
owe him a large debt of gratitude. 

REV. WILLIAM J. FITZGERALD, J. C. D. 

Rev. Dr. Fitzgerald was born at Halifax, N. S., Canada, October 3, 1857. 
His preparatory studies were made at the Normal School, Montreal, St. Hya- 
cinth's College, St. Hyacinth ; the Montreal College ; and his theological course 
at the Grand Seminary, Montreal. December 20, 1884, he was ordained by Rt. 
Rev. Charles Fabre, D.D., Bishop of Montreal, and on December 20, 1884, he 
was appointed assistant to Father O'Grady, of St. Peter's Church, New 
Brunswick, where he worked zealously until the opening of the Catholic Uni- 
versity at Washington, D. C, November, 1887, when he was among the first 
students to be enrolled in that famous seat of learning. April 7, 1891, he was 
assigned to the Sacred Heart Church, Mount Holly, temporarily, and on May 
20, of the same year he was appointed pastor of St. John's Church, Lambert- 
ville. During his administration in this parish he erected the present beautiful 
church. But he resigned from the rectorship of the parish, and went to Rome, 
where he received the title of J. C. D., from the Pontificial Roman University, 
after completing the prescribed course of studies. He then journeyed to 
Jerusalem to complete his education in Biblical literature at the " L Ecole 
Biblique " of the city. October 12, 1901, he was appointed pastor of St. Mary 
Magdalen's Church, Millville. 

REV. MARTIN GESSNER. 

Rev. Martin Gessner was born in Sonderhoff, Bavaria, November 10, 
1837, and received his education at Mt. St. Mary's College, Md., and at Mun- 
ich, Germany, and was ordained July 26, 1863. June 16, 1864, he was ap- 
pointed pastor of Milville and his missionary field extended over all South 
Jersey — Bridgeton, Vineland, Egg Harbor, Cape May, Hammonton and Den- 
nisville. He built the church at Milville in 1870, and the old rectory now used 
as a convent, the Church of the Immaculate Conception at Bridgeton in 1856, 
and St. Mary's Church, Cape May. He was transferred to St. Patrick's 
Church, Elizabeth, February 1, 1873, after seven years of zealous missionary 
work. 

REV. CHARLES J. GIESE. 

Rev. Charles J. Giese was born in Germany, September 20, 1849. Early 
in life he felt called upon to enter the priesthood and having decided to devote 
his energies to the church in the United States, he sailed for America and at 
once commenced to prepared for entrance into the Seminary. He was sent 



252 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



to Paris to complete his theology and was ordained in that city, July 15, 1877, 
For several years he labored in the Church of St. Vincent de Paul, New York 
City, and was temporarily in charge of the churches at Lambertville and 
Avondale. May 14, 1881, Bishop Corrigan appointed him pastor of St. Mary's 




Magdalene's Church, Millville, and for over twenty } r ears he labored success- 
fully in this parish, and left many monuments as evidences of his untiring 
zeal for the advancement of Catholicity, when he was transferred to the im- 
portant Church of St. Mary's, Gloucester, October 11, 1891, where he still 
labors with his characteristic zeal and energy. 



REV. WILLIAM A. GILFILLAN. 

Rev. William A. Gilfillan was born in Milford, Mass., November 22, 1869, 
and after he was graduated from the Holy Cross College, Worcester, with the 
class of 1891, he entered the Grand Seminary, Montreal, and was ordained in 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



2 53 



the Cathedral of that city, December 22, 1894. lie was a curate at the Cathed- 
ral, Portland, Me., 1895 and 1896; at Clinton, Mass., 1897 and 1898; at Chico- 
pee, Mass., three and a half years ; at North Adams, and at St. Mary's Cathed- 
ral, Trenton from 1902 until June 1905, when he was appointed pastor at 
Beach Haven, and in November of the same year established a mission at 
Brown's Mills in the Pines. 

REV. DANIEL P. GEOGHEGAN. 

Rev. Daniel P. Geoghegan, a native of Utica, N. Y., was born August 9, 
1856, and shortly afterwards became a resident of New York. Entering St. 
Francis Xavier's College, he completed his education at the College of the 
Holy Cross, Worcester, Mass., and was graduated with the class of 1884. He 
studied theology at Seton Hall, the College of the Sacred Heart, Vineland, 
and St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, and was ordained by Cardinal Gibbons, 
December 17, 1887. He served as curate at Perth Amboy, Phillipsburg and 
South Amboy, and became pastor of St. Mary's Church, New Monmouth, 
November 5, 1894. The sudden death of his mother and only sister, shortly 
after his appointment, so preyed upon his mind, that he became morose and 
resigned his charge, retiring to St. Mary's Hospital, Brooklyn where he died 
January 17, 1895. 

REV. JOHN GAMMELL. 

Rev. John Gammell was born in Philipsburg, N. J. December 28, 1861, and 
was one of the honor men of the class of 1883 at Seton Hall College. Upon 
the completion of the first year of theology at the same institution, he went to 
Collegio Brignole-Sale, Genoa, Italy, and was ordained in that city, June 15, 
1889. He served as curate at St. Peter's Church, New Brunswick, Church 
of the Immaculate Conception, Camden, St. Mary's Church, Bordentown, the 
Cathedral, Trenton, and was pastor of Oxford, East Millstone, Bridgeton, 
Vineland, and is at present pastor of Lawrenceville and chaplain at the Home 
of Aged in the same town. 

REV. JOHN J. GRIFFIN. 

The Rev. John J. Griffin, rector of St. James', Woodbridge, was born in 
" little old New York " on January 1, 1856. After attending the parochial 
school of Transfiguration Church, he passed to St. Francis Xavier's College 
and was graduated in 1876. St. Joseph's Seminary, Troy, N. Y., claimed him 
as a Seminarian for three years and the Grand Seminary, Montreal, for one 
year, when he was ordained by Bishop O'Farrell in St. Mary's Cathedral, Feb- 
ruary 17, 1883. His first pastoral charge was High Bridge in January, 1886, 
together with the Missions of Clinton and Flemington. Purchasing additional 
property, the first rectory at High Bridge was built by him in the Summer of 
1891. After six and a half years spent in the arduous work of the Missions, 



254 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



he was promoted to St. Paul's, Burlington, in July, "1892. A new property for 
future purposes was at once purchased, also a cemetery of eleven acres ad- 
jacent to the city. Notwithstanding the stagnation in business which prevailed 
throughout the United States at this period and was especially noticeable in 




Burlington, the Rev. Rector succeeded in paying four thousand dollars on debt 
and new property in addition to various improvements. Invited to Wood- 
bridge in January, 1899, at the death of the Rev. Joseph Flanagan, Father 
Griffin has doubled the church realty and is now building a ten thousand dol- 
lar school. 



REV. M. L. GLENNON. 

Rev. Michael L. Glennon was born at Crohan, County Cavan, Ireland, 
September 2, 1852. At thirteen he began his classics at Castle Rahan under 
Mr. Travis' where he remained four years. On May 20, 1870, he landed in 
New York, and after a two years intermission during which time he worked 
by day and studied by night, he entered the Seminary of the Holy Angels, Ni- 
agara Falls. Here he completed his philosophy in two years, and in September, 
1873, was admitted to the Seminary at Seton Hall, South Orange, N. J. Hav- 
ing finished his theological course with great honor, he was ordained by 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



255 



Bishop Corrigan on May 27, 1877, and celebrated his first Mass at St. Joseph's 
Church, Newark, N. J. His first appointment was that of curate to Rev. P. E. 
Smythe, of St. Bridget's Church, Jersey City. Whilst here his kindness of 
heart won for him many friends, especially among the children and it was for 
their special benefit he prepared "A Simple, Orderly and Comprehensive 
Catechism of the Christian Religion." Father Glennon remained as curate at 
St. Bridget's till the beginning of 1879, when he was transferred to Morris- 
ville (now Everett), where he was commissioned to form a parish and build a 
church. This he accomplished and whilst doing so made his temporary home 
with Father Kane, of Red Bank. The church he dedicated to St. Catherine of 
Genoa. In the Spring of 1880, Bishop Corrigan appointed him to the parish 
of Asbury Park, with Morrisville as a Mission station. Here he was called upon 




to complete the church left unfinished by Father Walsh. Here he remained 
till his death and his pastorate covered a period of seventeen years during 
which time he occupied himself in laboring for the good of his people and 
by his unfailing kindness of heart and sociability endeared himself to all who 
knew him. For some years he continued to serve the Morrisville church until 
it was transferred to another parish, when he took up the Mission of 
Manchester (now Lakehurst). Later he was relieved of this charge and then 
he opened the two new Missions of Ocean Beach (now Belmar) and Spring 



256 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Lake, at both of which places he formed parishes, and built neat little churches 
and attended Spring Lake as a regular weekly Mission for fifteen years, Sum- 
mer and Winter. In 1896 he built the present beautiful rectory, after having 
lived for many years at the home of Miss B. Smyth, directly opposite the 
church. Father Glennon died at Killarney, October 15, 1900, during a trip he 
was making for his health. His remains were returned to this country, and 
after a solemn service April 19, 1901, were interred in Mt. Calvary cemetery, 
Asbury Park, which he himself had planned and plotted. All the ser- 
vices held in his honor were public manifestations of the esteem and regard he 
had won for himself from the community in which he lived. That his en- 
trance into the Community of the Saints was equally as grand is the wish of 
all who knew him. 

REV. THEODOSIUS J. GOTH. 

Rev. Theodosius J. Goth is a native of Ringsheim, Baden, Germany, and 
was born in 1849. He became a member of the Benedictine Order while 
studying at St. Vincent's College, and was ordained December 21, 1872. 




Previous to his coming to the Diocese of Trenton, he was the director of St. 
Vincent's Scholasticate, Vice President of St. Benedict's College, Atchison, 
Kansas, and professor of the post-graduate course at St. Vincent's College, 
Penn. For ten years he has been pastor of St. Peter's Church, Riverside. 



REV. EDWARD C. GRIFFIN, D.D. 

Rev. Dr. Griffin was born in Philadelphia, February 11, 1881, and studied 
at the College of St. Joseph, in that city and at the Seminary of Brignole-Sale, 
Italy. He received the degree of Doctor of Divinity from the University of 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



257 



Genoa and was ordained there June 17, 1905. He has been stationed at St. 
Mary's Cathedral since his ordination, and besides having charge of the choir, 
is also assistant secretary of Bishop McFaul. 



REV. PETER J. HART. 

Rev. Peter J. Hart was born near Allentown, Monmouth County, New 
Jersey, October 26, 1869. He studied for three years at St. Charles' College, 
Ellicott City, Md., and then entered Seton Hall College, graduating with the 
class of 1891. When he completed his studies in St. Mary's Seminary, Balti- 
more, he was ordained at the Cathedral in Trenton, by Bishop McFaul, June 
29, 1896. His first Mission was at St. Mary's, Gloucester, as assistant to 




Father McCormack, where he remained until May, 1898, when he was trans- 
ferred to South Amboy as assistant to Father John Brady. In November, 
1899, he was appointed administrator of St. Mary's parish, Lambertville, dur- 
ing the absence of Father William Fitzgerald, and in June, 1900, he was sent 
to take charge of St. Augustine's Church, Ocean City, remaining there until 
October of the same year when he became pastor of the Sacred Heart Church,. 
Mount Holly. 



2 5 8 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



REV. THADDEUS HOGAN. 

The Rev. Thaddeus Hogan, pastor of the Sacred Heart Church, Trenton, 
the subject of this brief sketch, belongs to an old and respected family in the 
County of Limerick. He was born May 17, 1843. After a brief classical 
training under Professor Maher, he entered the Cistercian College of Mount 
Melleray. Having finished his classical course at Melleray, the young Levite 
entered in the early sixties All Hallows' College. In 1865 Father Hogan hav- 
ing completed with honor his theological course and having just reached the 




age established, was ordained a priest on the feast of Sts. Peter and Paul, 
June 29, 1865. The following September he set out with several of his 
clerical companions, to raise the standard of Catholicity in the 
very extremes of English possessions, but the severity of the Australian 
climate made sad havoc with his strength and at his own request he was re- 
called, returning to Europe in 1868. He visited Rome, spent some time on the 
continent and was appointed to the Dublin Diocese, but he had hardly begun 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



259 



to feel the benefits of his native clime when he was sent to New York City, 
Here he was appointed assistant to the Rev. Monsignor Quinn, of St. Peter's 
parish, where he labored unceasingly and with happy results in that section of 
the city. His next appointment was to the Immaculate Conception, Camden, 
as curate to Rev. Father Byrnes. He was removed from Camden in 1871 when 
the late Archbishop Corrigan, recognizing and appreciating the worth of this 
zealous young priest, made him pastor of Mount Holly, which was at that time 
a prosperous and desirable place. Father Hogan's work here is well known, 
he built the beautiful church which he had barely completed when he was 
appointed to take charge of St. Pius' Church, East Newark. In November, 
1874, he entered on his pastoral duties amongst the people of East Newark, where 
he labored with energy and success. He renovated the church, built a beautiful 
school, advanced the education of the pupils and trained the youth of the par- 
ish by example as well as by precept and after a lapse of twenty-eight years 
his memory in the hearts of the people of that parish is still fresh and his 
name a household word. In 1878 we find Father Hogan appointed pastor of 
St. John's, Trenton, the oldest Catholic Church in the city. His valuable and 
devoted assistant, the Rev. Thomas Quinn ( for years pastor of St. Paul's 
Church, Jersey City), accompanied him from East Newark to continue his 
assistant-ship in the Capitol, where he remained until the division of 
the Diocese. In 1883 during the Rev. Pastor's absence at the New 
York Provincial Council, the old St. John's was destroyed by fire. The Rev. 
J. Devine, of New Brunswick, was then assistant pastor, and in his own ener- 
getic and quiet way he religiously and courageously succeeded in removing 
the Blessed Sacrament and sacred vessels midst smoke and flame. The pastor 
was immediately summoned and the small hours of the morning bore testi- 
mony of his return to a scene that rent his very soul. He did not however 
dally over the ruins of that which was once a grand and imposing temple, but 
set to work with a will, even begging from door to door, and collecting from 
parish to parish to procure funds to commence the magnificent structure of 
massive grey stone, which rose within a brief space of time upon the ashes of 
the ruined church. Father Hogan changed the name of St. John's to that of 
the Sacred Heart, and to-day this ideal and perfect church expresses a hymn 
of praise and adoration in stone. The rectory and Catholic Club on either 
side of the church are likewise evidences of Father Hogan's good taste in 
architecture and expresses well his solid judgment and refinement. His 
parochial school has a standing second to none in the state, and under 
his own supervision the school duties go on like the works of a clock. There 
are fourteen religious teachers in the parochial school and academy, and the 
pupils pass from the academy into the Normal school without examination. 
During 1905 Father Hogan purchased the attractive and valuable property 
adjoining the church and academy on which he intends to build in the near 
future a grand high school after the same style of architecture as the other 
buildings on the property. 



260 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



REV. MICHAEL J. HAGERTY. 
Rev. Dr. Haggerty was born in Camden, N. J., October i, 1867, and edu- 




cated at the German School of Sts. Peter and Paul's Church, and at St. 
Mary's School, under the Brothers of the Holy Cross, in his native city, and 
at St. Augustine's School, Philadelphia, under the Christian Brothers. In 
1886 he entered the College of the Sacred Heart, Vineland, and after his 
graduation, in 1899, he was sent to Collegio Brignole-Sale, Genoa, and was 
ordained from that institution by Archbishop Reggio, May 19, 1894. Shortly 
afterwards he received the title of D.D., from the College of St. Thomas of 
Aquin. Upon his return to America he was stationed at St. Mary's Cathedral, 
Trenton, until February, 1896, when he was appointed pastor of St. Alphonsus' 
Church, Hopewell, and the Missions of Pennington and Lawrenceville, and on 
February 26, 1897, he was sent to St. Ann's Church, Junction, where he re- 
mained until May 28, 1901, when he became rector of the Immaculate Con- 
ception Church, Bridgeton. 



REV. J. F. HENDRICKS. 

Rev J. F. Hendricks was born in Limerick, Ireland, and received his edu- 
cation at Carlow College and at the English College, Valladolid. At the re- 
quest of the Very Rev. James A. McFaul, Administrator Apostolic of the 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



261 



Diocese of Trenton, he was ordained on the 29th of June, 1894, at St. John's 
University, Collegeville, Minnesota. He was assistant at the Sacred Heart 




Church, Trenton and the Immaculate Conception, Camden, 
appointed rector of the Sacred Heart Church, Riverton. 



In 1901 he was 



REV. THOMAS B. HEALY. 



Rev. Thomas B. Healy was born in Tompkinsville, Staten Island, De- 
cember 27, 1859. He studied at the College of St. Francis Xavier, New York, 
and at Seton Hall, South Orange, graduating from the latter institution 
with the degree of A. B., June 1883. After completing his theological course 
at the Grand Seminary, Montreal, Canada, and the Seminary of the Sacred 
Heart, Vineland, N. J., he was ordained to the priesthool by Bishop O'Farrell 



262 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



March 5, 1887, at the college chapel in Vineland. A curacy of two years and 
eight months, at the Church of the Sacred Heart, Trenton, preceded his ap- 
pointment to the rectorship of Lakewood. The wonderful transformation 




that has taken place in the church property at this resort within the past few 
years is entirely due to the hard labors of Father Healy. 

REV. THOMAS M. KILLEEN. 

Rev. Thomas M. Killeen was born in New York City, November 3, 1834, 
and was the first student who was graduated from St. Francis' Xavier's Col- 
lege. His theological studies were made at the Propaganda, Rome, and he 
was ordained in Newark by Bishop Bayley, December 6, i860. He was an 
assistant at St. James', Newark, St. Mary's, Jersey City and St. John's, Pater- 
son, previous to his appointment as first resident pastor of Red Bank in 1863. 
He was transferred in 1867 to Newark and was pastor of St. John's until 
August, 1876, when he became rector of St. Mary's Church, Bayonne, and in 
July, 1896, he retired from the active duties of the ministry. 

REV. CHARLES F. KANE. 

Rev. Charles F. Kane was born in Newark, N. J., 1862, and made his 
collegiate studies at St. Charles' College, Md., and Seton Hall, graduating 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



263 



from the later institution with the class of 1883. His theological course was 
made at the Grand Seminary, Montreal, and the Seminary of the Sacred 
Heart, Vineland, and he was ordained at Trenton, December 19, 1885. He 
was appointed pastor of Glassboro in 1886, where he died in the early part of 



REV. ENGLEBERT KARS. 

Rev. Englebert Kars was born in Venlo, Holland, about sixty years ago, and 
after completing his studies at the American College, Louvain, was ordained 
at Mechlen, Belgium. His first appointment in America was to the Church of 




St. Boniface, Paterson, as assistant to Father Hens, where he remained for a 
short time, when he was made pastor of St. Mary's Church, Gloucester in 
1873. He died May 3, 1886, mourned by priests and people. 



264 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



REV. JOHN J. KENNEY. 

Rev. John J. Kenney was born in New York, June 17, 1861, and was 
graduated from Manhattan College in that city with the class of 1883. His 
philosophical and theological studies were made at the Seminaries of Troy 
and the Sacred Heart, Vineland respectively, and he was ordained at the 
Cathedral, Brooklyn, by Bishop Loughlin, August 25, 1855. He served at 
churches in Brooklyn and Green Bay, in care of the Fathers of Mercy until 
1891, when he was affiliated with the Diocese of Trenton, and acted as curate 
at Long Branch, New Brunswick, and the Cathedral. November 1, 1895, he 
was sent to Hampton Junction to replace Father Norris, and January 24, he 
died at St. Francis' Hospital, Trenton. 



REV. JOSEPH KEUPER. 

Rev. Joseph Keuper was born in Trenton, N. J., February 13, 1861, and 
attended the parochial school of St. Francis' German Church, that city, in his 
boyhood days. After completing his studies in St. Vincent's Abbey, Latrobe, 




Pa., he was ordained to the priesthood by Bishop O'Farrell, June 26, 1891, at 
St. Mary's Cathedral, Trenton, and immediately sent to assist Father Joseph 
Thurnes, rector of St. Francis' Church, Trenton, with whom he remained 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 265 

until November of the same year when he was transferred to Phillipsburg as 
assistant to Rev. Robert E. Burke. He was appointed pastor of St. Joseph's 
Church, High Bridge, and the Missions of Clinton and Flemington, June, 1892, 
and in September, 1893, he returned to Phillipsburg, to assist at the 
churches of Oxford and Belvedere, which owing to financial difficulties were 
unable to support a resident pastor. In March, 1894, Father Keuper was ap- 
pointed the first resident pastor of Hopewell, with Missions at Pennington and 
Lawrenceville, and in September of the same year he was sent to Mount Holly, 
where he labored successfully until April 20, 1896, when he became rector of 
the German Church of St. John the Baptist, New Brunswick, N. J., where he 
still continues to work with the zeal and energy of an apostle. 

REV. MICHAEL E. KANE. 

Rev. Michael E. Kane was born in Newark, N. J., August 24, 1836, and 
made his studies in Seton Hall, where he was ordained June 24, 1865. His first 
Mission was assistant at St. James' Church, Newark, and in September, 1866, 
he was made pastor of St. Mary's Church, Elizabeth, where he remained for 
five years, when he again returned to St. James' Church as pastor until July 
1, 1876, when he was appointed to the charge of St. James' Church. Red Bank. 
During his pastorate he paid off all the debt of the church, built a parochial 
school and purchased the land upon which the present handsome edifice is 
built. He died April 4, 1891. 

VERY REV. DEAN KIVELITZ. 

Very Rev. Frederick Kivelitz was born June 28, 1844, in the City of Neuss, 
in Rhenish Prussia, Germany. His studies were made in the Frederick Wil- 
liam Gymnasium of his native city, and after passing a severe examination of 
abiturients, he was graduated in 1866, and went to the University of Louvain, 
Belgium, entered the American College of the same institution to study 
theology and was ordained a priest, May 24, 1869 in Mechlin, Belgium. On 
August 25, 1869, he arrived in America and was appointed assistant at St. 
Peter's Church, Jersey City, but after three weeks he was transferred to St. 
John's Church, Newark, and again in February, 1870, he was sent as assistant 
to St. Patrick's Cathedral, Newark. On January 9, 1871, he was sent to Free- 
hold, and enjoys to-day the distinction of being the only priest in the Diocese 
of Trenton, who was appointed pastor of his parish by the illustrious Arch- 
bishop Bayley. No words can portray the character of this saintly and 
learned priest more adequately than those from the pen of Father Cantwell in 
the " Glad Tidings " of December, 1895. It is Dean Kivelitz now : For over 
twenty years Dean Kivelitz has been stationed at Freehold and for many 
years his jurisdiction, as well as his labors, extended over a great section of 
Monmouth County, and even into the neighboring County of Middlesex. He 
built the churches at Freehold, Bradevelt, Jamesburg, Perrineville and Colt's 
Neck. Ever faithful to the scattered flock committed to his care, no journey 



266 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



was too long, no labor too difficult for this good shepherd. His delight was 
the care of his people, his sole thought the ministrations of his sacred calling. 
If there is any priestly virtue that may be singled out from the many that 
shine in his life, it is his attention to the religious instruction of children, his 
love for the lambs of the flock. Almost every day in the week catechism 
classes were appointed for different sections of his extended parish, and. these 
he never allowed anything to interfere with. He travelled to them sometimes 
by carriage, but always with an overflowing joy in the performance of the 




agreeable duty. His thought was to plant the seeds of the faith, to nourish 
the tender shootings : grown strong they could better resist the bitter winds 
and biting frosts. The children have grown up to call him blessed. No child 
ever left his care uninstructed in the truths of the faith. The honor that has 
so fittingly come to him is a tribute from his Bishop ; the crown that awaits 
him in eternity will be God's tribute, to this faithful, pious and zealous 
priest. 



VERY REV. JOHN A. KELLY, V. G. 

The Very Rev. John A. Kelly, second Vicar General of the Diocese of 
Trenton and pastor of St. Mary's Church, South Amboy, was born in Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., March 23, 1830. At the age of fifteen, he entered St. John's Col- 
lege, Fordham, which at that time was under the charge of the secular clergy, 
and graduated from this institution, one of the honor men, in the year 1851. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



267 



In the same year, he entered the Seminary of St. Joseph, Troy, N. Y., and 
was ordained priest for the then new diocese of Newark, by Archbishop 
Hughes on the 17th of August, 1854. Immediately after his ordination he was 
sent to Madison and remained there only two months when he was appointed 
to South Amboy, October 17, 1854. South Amboy at that time was a small 
settlement, and the few Catholics who worked on the freight docks of the old 
Camden and Amboy railroad, were hardly able to procure more than the neces- 
saries of life. Father Kelly set an once to work, to enlarge the church, and 
procure more property, and as he had charge of all Monmouth County, with 
the exception of Freehold, and Ocean County also, he visited different sections 
weekly, to attend the spiritual needs of those under his charge, and purchased 




property or erected church buildings, wherever he could gather together a few 
Catholics. The bigotry of the people was so intense in Monmouth County, 
that the first church erected in Long Branch, had to be constructed in New 
York and carried piece by piece from that city, and a staff of builders brought 
also to put it together, as no one would work for a Catholic priest. He built 
a church at Red Bank and occasionally said Mass at Morrisville, a short dis- 
tance away. Matawan, or as it was called at that time, Middletown Point, 
was known for its hatred of Catholics. The feeling was shown on one occa- 
sion when an attempt was made upon the life of Father Callan. This good 



268 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

priest, being somewhat distant with the people, and dignified in his manner of 
acting with them, was not calculated to win their sympathies, and so, when 
Father Kelly, with a smiling countenance, a hearty handshake and a kindly 
word for every person, whether of his own faith or not, came into their 
midst, a committee of the more enlightened and generous hearted Protestants 
waited upon him and said : "Mr. Kelly, if the Irish had only called a sociable 
dominie like you before this, and if you will continue to notice and speak to 
those who don't go to your church, there will be a better feeling in this 
place." The after results show that Father Kelly's good natured disposition 
did much to destroy the bitter feeling that existed when he first went to Mon- 
mouth County. He erected the brick church, which was used for the Catho- 
lics of Keyport and vicinity until the present St. Joseph's edifice was com- 
pleted in 1880. As the towns begun to grow and the labors of Father Kelly 
to increase with the advance of Catholicity, congregation after congregation 
was established, until to-day we find in the original parish, which extended 
from South Amboy to Tom's River, over twenty churches, and thirty priests 
attending the spiritual demands in the vineyard that Father Kelly labored 
alone in, fifty years ago. In South Amboy he erected a beautiful church 
which has been occupied for thirty years, and with a keen foresight of future 
needs, purchased ground for different purposes, so that without doubt, there 
is to-day no church in the state that has so much ground for the different 
ecclestiastical buildings, as has St. Mary's Church, South Amboy. In 1885 he 
introduced the Sisters of Mercy to teach in the parochial school and at the 
Synod held in Trenton, December 14, 1886, he was appointed Dean of the 
northern part of the Diocese. After the death of Father Smith, Bishop O'Farrell 
selected him for Vicar General of the Diocese, a selection that gave as much 
satisfaction to the priests, as to the good people of his own parish. February 
27, 1891, Father Kelly passed to his eternal reward mourned by all classes as 
a model priest, and his remains rest in the parish cemetery. He often prided 
himself on the fact that in the almost thirty-eight years of his ministry, he had 
never been absent one Sunday or one holy day from his parish, or ever been 
deprived of the blessing of celebrating Mass on those days for the people 
committed to his care. 

REV. DENNIS S. KELLY. 

Rev. Dennis S. Kelly was born in Lambertville, N. J., December 1, 1863, 
and made his preparatory studies at St. Charles' College, Md., and his theo- 
logical course at St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore. He was ordained in St. 
Joseph's Chapel, adjoining the Seminary by Bishop Curtis, May 1, 1895, and 
was appointed assistant to Father McCormack at Gloucester, where he re- 
mained until June, 1896, when he was transferred to the Sacred Heart Church, 
Trenton. June, 1899, he became pastor of the Church of St. Rose, Oxford, 
and on November 15, 1900, he succeeded Father Degan as rector of the Church 
of Our Lady Star of the Sea, Cape May. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES ■ 269 

REV. PETER J. KELLEY. 

Rev. Peter J. Kelley was born in Trenton, N. J., December l, 1863, and 
is a graduate of Mount St. Mary's College, Emmitsburg. He was ordained at 
Trenton by Bishop McFaul September 21, 1895, after having completed his 
theology at St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore. He was a curate at Freehold, 
at the Church of the Sacred Heart, Trenton, Perth Amboy and New Bruns- 
wick and a pastor at East Millstone and Allentown. At the present time he is 
pastor at Oxford Furnace. 

REV. JOHN A. LAWRENCE. 

Father Lawrence was born in New Brunswick, N. J., on June 5, i860. 
After some years in the parochial school, he attended St. Francis Xavier's 
College, New York City, going every day to and from that institution to the 
home of his parents in New Brunswick. Later on he entered Seton Hall 
College, and was graduated from that institution, which has been the fruitful 
nursery of New Jersey's priesthood. He then went to the Grand Seminary, 
Montreal, where he finished his theological studies. He was ordained to the 
priesthood, December 19, 1885, a day that witnessed the ordination of seven 
priests for the Diocese of Trenton. Father Lawrence was sent to South Am- 
boy as assistant to the Very Rev. John A. Kelly. His first pastorate was 
Washington, Warren County. Afterwards he became rector of St. Gabriel's 
Church, Bradevelt, Monmouth County. In both of these parishes, Father 
Lawrence performed hard missionary work. 

REV. HUGH LANE. 

Father Lane was born in Clonmel, County Tipperary, Ireland, August 15, 
1821. As a boy he attended an endowed school of Trinity and afterward 
went to Waterford College. He completed his studies in Philadelphia at the 
Seminary of St. Charles Borromeo and was ordained June 2, 1844, by Bishop 
Kenrick. His first Mission was at Chambersburg, Penn., and his second at 
Pottsville. From 1845 until 1848, he was an assistant at St. Philip Neri's, 
Philadelphia, and from then until 1853 ne was stationed at Burlington, Borden- 
town and other points nearby, the southern portion of New Jersey being then 
included in the Diocese of Philadelphia. Early in 1853 he was assigned by the 
Venerable Bishop Neumann to organize the parish of St. Theresa, and from 
then until" his death, April 5, 1892, the history of that parish is practically the 
biography of Father Lane. 

REV. WALTER T. LEAHY. 

Rev. Walter T. Leahy, the present pastor of St. Paul's Church, 
Princeton, was born in Piermont, Rockland County, N. Y., Oc- 
tober 29, 1858. He commenced the classics at St. Benedict's College, 
Newark, N. J., and completed them in St. Vincent's, Beatty, Penn. June, 
1880, he entered the Benedictine Order and became a professed monk at St. 
Vincent's Abbey. He studied theology at St. Vincent's Seminary and at St. 



270 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Mary's College, Belmont, N. C, where he was ordained by Bishop Northrop, 
of Charleston, S. C, December 19, 1885. For several years he taught at St. 
Vincent's Penn., St. Mary's College, N. C, Richmond, Va., and at St. Bene- 
dict's College, Newark, and also did missionary work in Florida and 
North Carolina. Entering the Diocese of Trenton, May , 1892, he 




served as a curate at Asbury Park until the following October, when he was 
sent to Perth Amboy to assist Father P. L. Connolly. In February, 1893, 
when serious troubles had arisen at Swedesboro between the pastor and con- 
gregation on the one side against the authority of the Bishop, he was sent to 
adjust matters and appointed pastor, and although for a long time his position 
was a most difficult one, yet by patience and prudence, he succceeded in up- 
holding authority, and making the parish one of the most flourishing in the 
southern part of Jersey. During his pastorate he built a rectory, enlarged and 
decorated the church, and made many improvements at Woodstown, where he 
built the present rectory, and the sorrow of the people of the congregation was 
universal when he was transferred to Princeton, May 10, 1904. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



271 



REV. WILLIAM H. LYNCH. 

The Rev. William H. Lynch was born August 5, 1859, m New Brunswick, 
N. J. He entered St. Charles' College, Ellicott City, Md., September, 1875, 
remaining there for four years. In September, 1879, he took up his studies in 
Seton Hall College, South Orange, N. J., and was ordained by the late Rt. 
Rev. Bishop Wigger in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Newark, N. J., On June 7, 




1884. He was an assistant priest in Seabright, Gloucester, and St. Mary's 
Cathedral, Trenton, and served as rector in Camden, N. J., where he built the 
Church of the Sacred Heart, the rectory at Broadway and Ferry Avenue. He 
also was located as pastor in Keyport, Allentown and Salem. His present 
charge is St. John's parish, Lambertville, N. J. 



REV. STEPHEN M. LYONS. 

Rev. Stephen M. Lyons was born at Latrobe, Westmoreland County, Pa., 
November 4, 1850. He was educated at St. Vincent's Benedictine College, 
near that city and was ordained priest by the Rt. Rev. John Tuigg, Bishop of 
Pittsburg,, April 23, 1878, and celebrated his first Mass in St. Vincent's Abbey 
Church, May 5, 1878. For seventeen years he labored with unremitting zeal 
and fidelity with the Benedictine Fathers, as rector of St. Mary's College, Bel- 



272 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



mont, N. C, and St. Bede's College, Peru, 111., and as pastor of St. Benedict's 
Church, Baltimore, Md., and St. Malachy's Church, Creston, Iowa. In 1895 
he came to New Jersey and was appointed administrator of the Church of 
the Immaculate Conception, Camden, after the death of Dean Fitzsimmons ; 



♦ 










, .; 'J 


.• *-' v ' 






' 3K& 















and toward the end of the year he was sent to Mount Holly, where he re- 
mained until October 2, 1900, when he became rector of St. Mary's Church, 
Salem, always a successful financier and a model priest. 

REV. WILLIAM H. MILLER. 

Rev. William H. Miller was born in South Amboy, September 20, 1863. 
He was graduated from Seton Hall with the class of 1884, and studied theo- 
logy at Seton Hall, Vineland, and at St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, and was 
ordained by Cardinal Gibbons, December 17, 1887. His first appointment was 
to his native parish as assistant to Vicar General Kelly. July, 1889, he was 
transferred to the Church of the Immaculate Conception, Camden, and on 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



273 



January 30, 1890, he was sent to New Brunswick to assist Monsignor O'Grady. 
He remained at New Brunswick until April 17, 1893, when Bishop O'Farrell 




appointed him pastor of St. Joseph's Church, North Plainfield. Whilst pastor 
of Plainfield he was placed in temporary charge of Spring Lake and by his 
executive abilities formed it into a separate parish. Father Miller has done 
quiet but most effective work in North Plainfield and has always been a true 
friend to the Sisters of Mercy in their difficult but successful work in that 
section. A zealous and self-sacrificing priest, his good example and many vir- 
tues have made him a model for priests and people. Father Miller is also an 
excellent musician, especially in church music and was formerly a leader of 
the Diocesan Clerical Choir. W. T. L. 



REV. THOMAS J. M'LAUGHLIN. 

Rev. Thomas J. McLaughlin was born in Trenton, N. J., December 2, 
1865, and made his preparatory, studies at the College of the Sacred Heart, 



274 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Vineland, N. J. His theological studies were made at St. Mary's Seminary, 
Baltimore, and at the Collegio, Brignole-Sale, Italy, and he was ordained by 
Bishop O'Farrell in St. Mary's Cathedral, Trenton, December 22, 1893. After 
serving as a curate at the Immaculate Conception Church, Camden, for a 




month, he was given charge of Oxford and Belvidere, and a year and a half 
later he was sent to Allentown, N. J. January, 1897, he was transferred to 
Spring Lake and Belmar, at the former of which places he still carries on his 
successful ministrations. 



REV. WILLIAM J. M'CONNELL. 

On November 12, 1869, Rev. William J. McConnell was born at Lambert- 
ville, N. J. In 1873 he was taken by his parents to North Chatham, N. Y., 
where he began his studies in the village school. After five years they re- 
turned to Lambertville where he continued at school till he was sixteen — the 
last three years being in the newly opened parochial school conducted by the 
Sisters of Mercy. In 1886 he went to Sacred Heart College, Vineland, where 
he remained two years. Thence he went to St. Charles' Collge, Ellicott City, 
for a year, and then to Mt. St. Mary's, Emmitsburg, Md., " The Cradle of 
Bishops," where, after a four years' course he was graduated in 1893. The 
Rt. Rev. Bishop then sent him to the Royal Imperial University, Innsbruck, 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



275 



Austria. Here he was ordained July 26, 1896, and after still another year at 
the University, he returned to America. Father McConnell was curate at 




West End for five months, curate at Bordentown, three years, and pastor for 
five years at Oxford, N. J. At present he is the beloved rector of Belmar. 



REV. PATRICK M'GOVERN. 

Rev. Patrick McGovern, the first resident pastor of St. Joseph's Church, 
Keyport, was born in New York City, and made his ecclestiastical studies in 
St. John's College, Fordham. He was ordained in old St. Patrick's Cathed- 
ral, N. Y., by Archbishop Hughes on January 29, 1853, and was assistant under 
Father Malone, of Brooklyn, N. Y. He was received by Bishop Bayley, tem- 
porarily, December 25, 1853, and was pastor in Morristown, Bergen Point and 
Keyport. He was appointed rector of the latter place July 1, 1876, and re- 
signed June, 1877, to return to New York. He was sent to Croton by Car- 
dinal McCloskey and resided there until his death, March 20, 1902. 

REV. JOHN M'CLOSKEY. 

Rev. John McCloskey was born in Princeton, N. J., November 20, 1865. 
He attended the parochial school and Seton Hall College, and was graduated 



276 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



with the class of 1884 when he immediately left for the Propaganda, Rome, 
where he studied for four years and was ordained March 31, 1888, at the 







Church of St. John. Later on he was a curate at the Cathedral and for 
several months acting rector, also pastor of St. Joseph's Church, Beverly. 
Bishop McFaul appointed him chancellor of the Diocese in 1894, and he held 
this office until his death, October 23, 1898, lamented by those who knew him. 



REV. JAMES M'KERNAN. 

Rev. James McKernan an ex-O. M. I., was born in Ireland, September 
21, 1834, an d ordained May 22, 1869. He was an assistant at St. Mary's 
Church, Jersey City, and the Church of the Holy Cross, Harrison. He was 
rector of the churches at Moorestown, Salem, Beverly, North Plainfield and 
Sea Isle City. Owing to ill health, he is at present an inmate of St. Francis' 
Hospital, Trenton. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



277 



REV. JOHN B. M'CLOSKEY. 

Rev. John B. McCloskey was born in Philadelphia, Pa., but in his early 
life his parents moved to Woodstown, N. J., from which parish he began his 
classical studies, and later went to St. Bonaventure's College, Allegheny, N. Y., 
whence he was admitted to St. Mary's, Baltimore, Md. After ordination he 




was sent to help out at the seashore, and to Phillipsburg, where he remained 
as assistant till he was named pastor at Ocean City. Here he built a rectory 
and remodelled the church. From Ocean City he also attended the Missions 
of Dorothy Risley, and Milmay, where he built small chapels. At present 
Father McCloskey is pastor of St. Anthony's, Hightstown, N. J. 



REV. HUGH J. M'MANUS. 

Father McManus was born in Ballyshannon, Ireland, February 13, 1841. 
He studied in Killbar, Raploe, St. Charles' College, Maryland and Seton Hall, 



278 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



where he was ordained by Bishop Corrigan, June 7, 1873. For two years he 
was assistant at St. Patrick's Church, Jersey City, and then was appointed 
pastor of Mount Holly. He completed the church begun by Father Hogan, 
and while on a visit to his native land, died June 25, 1880. 

REV. THOMAS J. M'CORMACK. 

Rev. Thomas J. McCormack was born in the City of New York, October 
26, 1852. Whilst pursuing his studies at St. John's College, Fordham, he re- 




solved to enter the Redemptorist Fathers, and completed his philosophy and 
theology in their college at Ilchester, Md., where he was ordained to the priest- 
hood by Archbishop Gibbons, September 1, 1877. The mission work which the 
sons of St. Alphonsus are called upon to perform, is of an exacting nature, 
and the ill health of Father McCormack forced him into the secular ministry, 
where he was graciously received. He was adopted by Bishop O'Farrell, Oc- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 279 

tober 6, 1881, and appointed assistant to Father Hogan at St. John's Church, 
Trenton. In July, 1882 he was sent to Metuchen as pastor, and after putting 
new life into the flock, was sent to St. John's Allentown, where he remained 
until May, 1885, when he was sent to Gloucester. The missionary zeal of 
Father McCormack, soon began to display itself in the reorganization of this 
parish. In 1886 he purchased twelve lots upon which he erected a most 
beautiful church and a handsome parochial residence, and paid the last dol- 
lar of debt on them in the Spring of 1893. In the Summer months of the 
same year he began the present handsome parochial school, on the site former- 
ly occupied by the old church, and on July 3, 1893, the corner stone was 
blessed by Bishop O'Farrell, and the completed building was dedicated by 
Bishop McFaul, September 30, 1895. Father McCormack's health, never ro- 
bust, was now completely lost, after his extraordinary spiritual and temporal 
labors, and resigned to the will of his Creator, he died in the midst of the 
flock he loved so well, July 30, 1898. 

REV. M. C. M'CORRISTIN. 

Rev. Michael C. McCorristin was born in Millville, N. J., December 24, 
1871, and ordained to the priesthood at the Royal Imperial University of Inns- 
brook, July 26, 1896. He was appointed assistant at Long Branch, June 12, 
1897, and on October 9, of the same year, he was sent to St. Peter's Church, 
New Brunswick. On May 2"], 1901, he became pastor of St. Ann's Church, 
Junction, and after three years of faithful work in this difficult Mission, he 
was transferred to Swedesboro. 

REV. GREGORY MISDZIOL. 

Rev. Gregory Misdzio was born in Budkowitz, Diocese of Breslau, Si- 
lesia, Poland, and after studying at St. Vincent's College and Seton Hall, was 
ordained, June 22, 1865. Father Misdziol was the first pastor of the German 
congregation of St. John the Baptist, New Brunswick, and drew the plans 
and superintended the construction of the church. He also was rector of 
Stony Hill and established congregations, and built churches at Westfield and 
Cranford, Union County. After serving as curate to Father Lempke in Eliza- 
beth, he was appointed pastor of Basking Ridge and Mendham. The pathetic 
incidents connected with his death are as follows : After draping the church 
at Basking Ridge for a Requiem Mass that was to be celebrated, by command 
of the Bishop on February 22, 1878, for the repose of the soul of Pope Pius 
IX, he visited the church early that morning to add the last touches and while 
returning to his house dropped dead. He was buried in the cemetery at 
Mendham, February 25, 1878. 

MONSIGNOR MORAN, V. G. 

Monsignor Thomas R. Moran, V. G., was born in Dublin, September 24, 
1832. He made a part of his studies at Rome and joined the Benedictine's at 



2«0 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Subiasco, Italy. On May 14, 1861, he was ordained at St. Vincent's College. 
Penn., and on November 26, 1861, he took charge of the church at Hagers- 
town, Md. From Hagerstown he came to Newark and began duty as 
assistant at St. John's Paterson, 1865, whence he was appointed to St. Paul's 




Church, Princeton, July 5, 1867. He built the rectory and school, and pur- 
chased the convent in 1890. Father Moran was made a Monsignor by Pope 
Leo XIII, November 26, 1892, and Bishop McFaul appointed him Vicar 
General, March 23, 1895. He died March 31, 1900, after serving the church 
at Princeton with honor for nearly thirty-three 3-ears. 



REV. HENRY T. MARTENS. 



Rev. Henry T. Martens was born in Holland, September 8, 1825, and was 
educated by the Oblate Fathers, and ordained a priest, June 8, 1856. He was 
received into the Diocese of Newark, February 22, 1872, and had charge of 
the Germans in Hoboken from March until August, 1873, when he became 
pastor of St. John's Church, New Brunswick, and remained until his death, 
June, 1889. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



281 



REV. GREGORY MORAN. 

Rev. Gregory Moran was born in New York City, March 23, 1876, and 
studied at St. Francis Xavier's College, N. Y., and St. Mary's Seminary, Balti- 




more. He was ordained at Trenton, June 1, 1901, and assisted Father Petri 
at Atlantic City until April 14, 1905, when he became pastor of Laurel Springs. 

VERY REV. B. J. MULLIGAN. 



Very Rev. Dean Mulligan, the popular pastor of the Church of the Im- 
maculate Conception, Camden, was born in Ireland, May 14, 1846, and when 
he was three years old his parents, came to America and located at Clinton, 
Hunterdon County, N. J. His early education was received at the school in 
that town conducted by Judge Holt, and his studies for the priesthood were 
made at St. Charles' College, Md., and Seton Hall Seminary. He was or- 
dained June 10, 1876, and appointed assistant to the venerable Father Senis, 
of Hoboken, afterward occupying the same position to Father Patrick Corri- 
gan for two years. From here he was transferred to the rectorship of the 
church at Basking Ridge, but three months later he had to relinquish this 
charge owing to ill health and departed for Europe. He spent a year in 
France and Italy and upon his return was appointed pastor of Bridgeton. 
Four years later he became acting rector of the church at Philipsburg during 



282 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



the illness of Father O'Reilly, and August 15, 1883, he was sent to New- 
Brunswick to establish the parish of the Sacred Heart. After securing 
ground, he built a church, rectory and parochial school and left the congrega- 
tion in a flourishing condition when he was promoted to Camden, October 23, 
1895. During his pastorate in this large parish, he built a lyceum at a cost 
of $40,000, purchased a farm of 93 acres outside the city boundary, which has 




been laid out for a cemetery, improved the rectory and school, and for the 
celebration of the Golden Jubilee of the foundation of the parish, completely 
renovated the church at an outlay of $20,000. Father Mulligan, ever affable 
to his brethren in the clergy, whether it be the young man on whose hands 
the oils of ordination are hardly dried, or the old priest worn and aged with 
years of toil and sacrifice, is alsp th^ considerate, kind father in all his rela- 
tions with the laity. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 283 

REV. MICHAEL A. MADDEN. 

Rev. Michael A. Madden, the first resident pastor at South Amboy, was 
born in New York City, in 1826. He was educated at Chambly, Canada, and 
made his theological studies in St. John's Seminary, Fordham, where he was 
ordained by Archbishop Hughes May 25, 1850. While he was assistant at St. 
Peter's Church, New York, the Archbishop sent him to South Amboy to see 
if there were enough Catholics in that town and along the coast to require 
the services of a priest, and finding the number large, and steadily increasing, 
he was appointed pastor of that section of Jersey (extending from the Raritan 
River and Bay to Tom's River), in 185 1, and establishing his residence at 
South Amboy he went to board with a Air. John Shea, in whose house his 
successors also made their home until the year 1864, when a rectory was 
built. He erected the first church at South Amboy on the spot where the 
large wooden cross in the cemetery now stands, and he also built a church at 
Keyport, or as it was called at the time Middletown Point, and occasionally 
visited Red Bank. His kindly disposition won many friends for him among 
the non-Catholics, and great was the grief of his parishioners when he was 
changed to Madison in October, 1853. He died suddenly at Newark while on 
a visit to that city, May 19, 1868. 



REV. JOHN P. MACKIN. 

Rev. John P. Mackin, pastor of St. John's Church, Trenton, N. J., was 
born in Armagh, Ireland, in 181 7, pursued his studies at Maynooth, and com- 
ing to this country was ordained at Philadelphia by Rt. Rev. Francis Kenrick, 
December 24, 1843. He removed to Trenton in 1845 as pastor of St. Francis' 
Church, succeeding Rev. John Gilligan. He saw at once that the church and 
location were not suited to the needs of the people and he purchased a new 
site on Broad Street, where he erected a large brick church, but so great was 
the increase of Catholics that in 1853 he was obliged to add to its capacity. 
In i860 his health became so much impaired that in search of rest and vigor 
he made a tour of Europe and the Holy Land, and during his absence Fathers 
J. J. O'Donnell and Alfred Young took charge for awhile ; and in 1861 Rev. 
Anthony Smith was made pastor. When Father Mackin returned he found 
no vacancy at St. John's and went to Philadelphia, where he was given a 
place until matters could be arranged. In the meantime Father Mackin ap- 
pealed his case to Rome, and it was decided that he was attached to the 
Diocese of Newark. In 1866 he was appointed pastor of St. Mary's, Borden- 
dentown, where he remained until 1869. He was also instrumental in the erec- 
tion of churches at Bristol, Burlington, Lambertville and Princeton. In 1871 
we again find him in charge of St. John's, Trenton, where he continued to do 
good work, and in the summer of 1872 while on a visit to Philadelphia, he 
was prostrated by the intense heat, from the effects of which he never seemed 



284 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



to rally. His death, which was caused by heart failure, occurred March 27, 
1873. Father Mackin was greatly loved by his people, was a powerful apostle 




in the cause of temperance and a great friend of the child 



ren. 



REV. JAMES F. MORRISON. 

Rev. James F. Morrison was born and reared at Carbondale, Pa. He was 
educated at and ordained from Niagara University and served as curate at 
Spring Lake, Trenton and New Brunswick, respectively. He was given 
charge of Woodstown, his present appointment, the last of March, 190,1 

REV. JAMES MORAN. 

Rev. James Moran, the first priest ordained in the state of New Jerse~ 
was born in County Roscommon, Ireland, in 1824. He was related on his 
mother's side to Daniel O'Connell, the Irish patriot. After completing his 
education at Fordham he was ordained at Newark by Bishop Bayley, February 
26, 1844. November 11, 1855, he was appointed pastor of the newly erected 
parish of Camden, and remained there until September, 1863. He then went 
to St. John's Church, Newark, and in 1864 he went to Brooklyn and became 
an assistant at the Church of the Assumption. For two years he was pastor 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



285 



of Holy Cross Church in Flatbush and in 1869 was delegated to found St. 
Stephen's parish. In 1873 he resigned and until his death, July 25, 1904, had 
no regular charge. 

REV. JOHN E. MURRAY. 

Rev. John E. Murray was born in Philipsburg, N. J., December 20, 1886, 
and attended St. Catherine's Academy in his native town. At the age of 
thirteen he was sent to St. Charles' College, Maryland, where he remained 
for three years and then entered Seton Hall College, South Orange. After a 
course of theology at the College of Brignole-Sale, Genoa, Italy, he was or- 
dained by Bishop McFaul in St. Mary's Cathedral, Trenton, October 24, 1899, 
and went immediately to St. Agnes' Church, Atlantic Highlands, having 




charge of the parish during the absence of Father Roach in Europe. For a 
short time he was stationed at Gloucester as an assistant to Father P. L. Con- 
nolly and on October 6, 1901, he was appointed a curate to Dean Mulligan, 
Camden, and remained until April 6, 1905, when he became rector of the 
church at Flemington and the Missions at Clinton and Stockton. 



286 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



REV. JOHN W. MURPHY. 

Rev. John W. Murphy was born in Mitchelstown, County Cork, Ireland, 
February 2, 1858. His early education was received in the Christian 
Brothers' Schools of his native town and his classical studies were made at 
the Trappist College of Mount Melleray, County Waterford. In September, 
1878, he entered St. Patrick's Ecclesiastical College, Carlow, where after a 
course of six years he was ordained a priest, October 18, 1884. Having been 
received into the Diocese of Trenton, his first appointment was to Seabright, 




N. J., where he assisted Rev. Father Fox. The next field of his labors, was 
Gloucester City, N. J., where he remained three years. He was then trans- 
ferred to the Church of the Sacred Heart, Trenton, N. J. On September 29, 
1890, Right Rev. M. J. O'Farrell, D.D., Bishop of Trenton, gave him charge 
of the Church of Our Lady of Good Counsel, Moorestown, N. J. In a short 
time he paid the debts that encumbered the property and built the beautiful 
new church, which is the pride of Moorestown. At present Father Murphy is 
moderator of the Diocesan Conferences. 



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287 



REV. JAMES A. MORONEY. 

Rev. James A. Moroney was born in Philipsburg, N. J., November 27, 
1875, and studied at St. Charles' College, Maryland, Seton Hall, N. J., and 
St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore. Since his ordination at Trenton, May 26, 
1900, he has been a curate at the Cathedral, and a pastor at Sandy Hook and 
Holly Beach. 

REV. DANIEL M'GORIAN. 

Rev. Daniel McGorian was the second pastor of old St. John's Chapel, on 
Lamberton Street, Trenton. He succeeded Father Geoghan and preceded 
Father Gilligan. He was an Irishman by birth, but little else is known of 




him, except that about 1840 he left the West Jersey Mission and became pas- 
tor of Port Carbon, Pa., where he remained till his death on June 20, 1887, at 
the age of 90 years. Father McGorian also labored at Bordentown, White 
Hill and Lambertville. 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



REV. LUCIUS MATT. 



Rev. Lucius Matt, O. M. C, the present pastor of Sts. Peter and Paul's 
German Catholic Church, Camden, N. J., was born in Germany, and in early 




life became a Franciscan monk. Since coming to Camden Father Lucius 
has done much hard work in upbuilding church and school, and is greatly 
loved and honored by the good people to whom he ministers. 



REV. THOMAS B. NOLAN. 

Rev. Thomas B. Nolan was born in Trenton, N. J., February 26, 1868, 
and after his graduation from the College of the Sacred Heart, Vineland, he 
entered St. Vincent's Seminary, Penn., and was ordained by Bishop Phelan 
of Pittsburg, June 8, 1895. He was a curate at West End, South Amboy and 
Gloucester, and in 1898, he became pastor of St. James' Church, Jamesburg, 
and in 1902 was transferred to Belmar, where he died September 21, 1905. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



289 



REV. JOHN W. NORRIS, J. C. D. 

Doctor Norris was born in New Brunswick, N. J., September 16, 1867, 
and attended St. Peter's Parochial School, that city. Entering St. Charles' 
College, Md., at the age of sixteen he remained there live years, and then 
went to Seton Hall College and was graduated with the class of 1890. In the 
month of September of the same year, he began his theological course at St. 
Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, and was ordained at St. John's Church, Lam- 
bertville, N. J., by Rt. Rev. Michael J. O'Farrell, June 23, 1903. His first 




appointments were in his native city as curate at the Churches of the Sacred 
Heart and St. Peter's, and in the month of November he was sent to assist 
Father Hogan at the Church of the Sacred Heart, Trenton. February 1, 1895, 
he was appointed pastor of St. Ann's Church, Junction, and on the following 
November 16, he sailed for Rome to take up the study of Canon Law at the 
College of St. Appolinaris. After a thorough course of two years, he received 
the title of Doctor of Canon Law, and upon his return to America he .was. 



290 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

given charge of St. Michael's Union for the support of Homeless Children. 
Upon the death of Father McCloskey he was appointed Chancellor of the 
Diocese, and his courteous treatment of the clergy upon all occasions won for 
him their universal admiration and respect. After the erection of the church 
in Deal in 1903, he became the first permanent rector. 

REV. PETER F. NIEDERHAUSER. 

Rev. Father Niederhauser, pastor, Church of St. John the Baptist, New 
Brunswick, N. J., was born in old Bavaria in 1824. He came to this country 
in 1855, and since 1861 had been attached to the Diocese of Newark. He 
first officiated at St. Peter's, Newark; then at St. Peter's, New Brunswick; 
afterwards in St. Paul's Church, Greenville, and finally, in St. John's German 
Church, New Brunswick. He died August 16, 1873. 

REV. J. J. F. O'CONNOR. 

Rev. John J. O'Connor was born in Newport, R. I., February 26, 1843. 
He attended St. Charles' College, Md., and then entered St. Mary's Seminary, 
Baltimore, and completed his theological studies at Seton Hall Seminary, 
where he was ordained by Bishop Corrigan, June 7, 1873. He was master of 
ceremonies at the Newark Cathedral and Chaplain at St. Michael's Hospital 
until August 26, 1877, when he was appointed rector of St. Peter's Church, 
Belleville. July 28, 1879, ne was transferred to the newly erected parish of 
Highland and New Monmouth, and he resided at the former place until the 
fall of 1883, when he became the first resident pastor of New Monmouth, 
Father P'ox succeeding him at Highlands. He then attended Morrisville and 
afterwards Atlantic Highlands until 1889, when he was relieved of the care 
of Missions. He died October 31, 1894, and his remains are buried in the 
cemetery belonging to St. James' Church, Red Bank. 



REV. MICHAEL C. O'DONNELL. 

Rev. Michael C. O'Donnell was born in Lambertville, N. J., November 1, 
1855. He studied at St. Charles' College, Md., and the College and Semin- 
ary of Seton Hall, and was ordained at St. Patrick's Cathedral, Newark, N. J., 
June 7, 1884, by Bishop Wigger. After serving as curate at St. Mary's 
Church, Bordentown, he was appointed May, 1886, rector of St. John's Church, 
Allentown, and on August 9, 1889, he was transferred to the Church of St. 
Joseph, Keyport. 

REV. JOHN R. O'CONNOR. 

Rev. John R. O'Connor became pastor of New Monmouth on December 
J 7> i 895j succeeding Father Geoghegan. Prior to this appointment he had 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



291 



been assistant at the Church of Our Lady Star of the Sea, Long Branch, 
where he devoted much time to the Italians of that town and its vicinity. At 




New Monmouth Father O'Connor completed the new rectory and did much to 
improve the property. His chief work, however, was the erection of the pre- 



292 • THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

sent church edifice, which was dedicated by Bishop McFaul, with the usual 
solemnity, on April 13, 1902, since which time he has been busily engaged in 
this parish. 

REV. MICHAEL A. O'REILLY. 

Rev. Michael A. O'Reilly was born in County Caven, Ireland, September 
5, 1859, and upon his arrival in America he entered St. Mary's Seminary, 
Baltimore, and was ordained by Bishop Laughlin, December 20, 1884. He was 
a curate at the Church of the Sacred Heart, Trenton, and pastor of the 
churches at Dunellen and Hopewell. For a couple of years he labored in the 
city of Brooklyn and upon his return to Trenton, he was appointed adminis- 
trator of St. Francis' Church, Metuchen, during the illness of Father Joseph 
Smith and upon the death of this clergyman, Father O'Reilly was made pas- 
tor, November 1, 1891. March 1, 1895, he was transferred to St. Joseph's, 
Trenton, N. J., and remained in this parish until September, 1898, when he 
again returned to Metuchen. While driving to South Plainfield one Sunday 
morning in the winter of 1900 to celebrate Mass for the Catholics at that Mis- 
sion, he caught a severe cold which developed into pneumonia and he died 
April 6, 1900. His remains were interred in Calvary cemetery, Long Island. 

REV. THOMAS J. O'HANLON. 

Rev. Thomas J. O'Hanlon was born in Dublin, Ireland, January 21, 1845, 
and ordained June 3, 1871. He was for several years connected with the 
Archdiocese of St. Louis, and on April 10, 1882, became affiliated with the 
Diocese of Trenton. He was an assistant at St. Peter's Church, New Bruns- 
wick, and in April, 1882, was appointed first rector of St. Joseph's Church, 
North Plainfield. He built the present church and also purchased the ground 
on which it stands, and remained in charge of the parish until September, 
1888. He was also pastor at Hopewell, and chaplain at St. Francis' Hospital, 
Trenton. 

REV. B. T. O'CONNELL. 

Rev. B. T. O'Connell was born in Phillipsburg, May 31, 1857, and after 
attending the parochial school that was then taught by a layman, he entered 
the Easton High School, at the age of nine years, graduating thence in 1871. 
He afterwards entered Seton Hall College, receiving the degree of A.B., 
1879, and was ordained to the priesthood, July 2, 1882. His first appointment 
was assistant to Father Hogan at St. John's Church, Trenton, where he re- 
mained until August 4, 1883, when he was sent as pastor to St. Joseph's 
Church, Bound Brook. The Catholics of Bound Brook at that time were few 
in number and very poor, and it seems almost impossible to realize that with 
the means at his disposal, he could erect the fine stone church, rebuild 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



2 93 



the old one and fit it for a parochial school, purchase a residence for a con- 
vent and also procure a large farm on the outskirts of the town and turn it 
into a fine cemetery, in so short a period of time. February I, 1895, he was 
appointed to St. Joseph's Church, Trenton, but owing to ill health he re- 
signed this Mission and returned to Bound Brook, March 1, of the same year, 




where he remained until September 2, 1898, when he was promoted to the 
rectorate of St. Mary's Church, Perth Amboy. The wonderful changes that 
have taken place in this parish since his arrival, are due to his zeal and labor. 
He has erected the magnificent new stone church, built the commodious rec- 
tory and purchased the ground on which it stands, and removed and enlarged 
the convent, and also infused new life into the congregation. 



MONSIGNOR J. A. O'GRADY. 

Rt. Rev. Monsignor John A. O'Grady was born at Montague, Sussex 
County, N. J., July 3, 1849, and shortly after his birth his parents moved to 
Dover. He attended the schools of the district, and at the age of sixteen, 
feeling that he had been called to the priesthood, he entered St. Charles' Col- 
lege, Ellicott City, Md., and was distinguished for his studious habits and 
brilliant intellect. On finishing his course there he entered the Seminary at 
South Orange, N. J., and was ordained May 30, 1874, and appointed secretary 
to Bishop Corrigan. Recognizing the talents of the learned young secretary, 
the Bishop tendered him the chair of philosophy which was accepted, but 



294 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

later, feeling that active ministerial work would be more congenial, Father 
O'Grady offered his resignation to the Bishop, and was sent to St. Patrick's 
Cathedral, Newark, and two years afterwards to St. Peter's Church, New 
Brunswick, N. J., as curate to Father Rogers. Two years later he was sent 
to Boonton, N. J., to become rector of the church at that place, and in 1881, he 
was returned to St. Peter's Church, New Brunswick, as its acting rector, ad- 
vancing age having made it impossible for Father Rogers to conduct the 
affairs of the congregation. Called upon at the age of thirty-two to assume 
charge of a parish, which although large, was heavily burdened with debt, 
Father O'Grady displayed such wonderful skill in financiering and so aroused 
the enthusiasm of the people, that they came quickly to his aid, and there was 
a most favorable turn in the financial affairs of the church in a very short 
time. The success which attended his labors at the beginning of his pastorate 
has continued, so that today St. Peter's Church is one of the most prosper- 
ous and best equipped in the State of New Jersey. Father O'Grady, a firm 
believer in the value of a Christian education, has erected a superb parochial 
school and purchased a valuable property adjoining it for St. Agnes' Academy. 
In 1891 he built a new stone sacristy, and since then has enlarged the convent 
occupied by the Sisters, purchased sixteen acres as an addition to the old 
cemetery, completely renovated the church and made many minor improve- 
ments to the property. Remarkable as has been the material progress of the 
parish during his administration, the spiritual advancement may be truly said 
to have been even more marked, as is evident from the great outpouring, of 
parishioners on the occasions of religious festivals, the large numbers that fre- 
quent the Sacraments, and the lavish hand with which charity is dispensed for 
local and diocesan purposes. A notable event in the life of Father O'Grady 
was the Silver Jubilee celebration in honor of the twenty-fifth anniversary of 
his ordination, when not only his own people proved in many ways their love 
and respect for their devoted pastor, but even the leading officials, professional 
and business men, mostly non-Catholic, showed their appreciation of his labors 
in New Brunswick by entertaining him at a grand banquet. Bishop O'Farrell 
shortly before his death appointed him Dean of Middlesex County, and our 
late Holy Father Leo XII, conferred on him the title of Monsignor in recog- 
nition of his successful work for religion and his extraordinary talents. 

REV. RICHARD O'FARRELL. 

Rev. Richard O'Farrell was born in Ireland, July 9, 1874, an d pursued his 
studies at the Seminary of Mount Melleray and was ordained July 9, 1899, at 
Louvain, Belgium. For several years he was a curate at St. Mary's Church, 
South Amboy, and at present is pastor of Glassboro and the missions at 
Mullica Hill and Elmer. 

REV. WILLIAM H. OREM. 

Rev. William H. Orem was born September 19, 1873, and studied at St. 
Hyacinth's, Canada, and at St. Sulpice, Paris. He was ordained Septem- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



2 95 



ber 9, 1863, and adopted into the Diocese of Newark, August, 1873. He 
labored in Warren and Sussex Counties for many years and died at St. 
Michael's Hospital, Newark, 1888. 

REV. P. J. POWERS. 

Rev. P. J. Powers was born in Lonsdale, R. I., December 5, 1875, and 
studied at Holv Cross College, Worcester, Mass., and Niagara University. 




He was ordained May 19, 1900, and after serving as curate at West End for a 
season was sent as an assistant to St. Mary's Cathedral, where he remained 
until his appointment as pastor of Tom's River. 



REV. PETER J. PETRI. 

Rev. Peter J. Petri is a native of New Brunswick, N. J., and was born 
December 28, 1862. After receiving the degree of A. B. from St. John's Col- 
lege, Brooklyn, he entered the Grand Seminary, Montreal, Canada, and was 
ordained at Trenton, December 19, 1885. He was a curate at Trenton and 
Phillipsburg, and was pastor of the parish at Bridgeton. In 1893, Bishop 
O'Farrell decided to place the Church of St. Monica at Atlantic City, which 
had been cared for by the Augustinian Fathers, under the jurisdiction of the 



296 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



secular clergy, and to find a priest who could advantageously cope with the 
difficulties incident to such a change was a difficult task. The choice fell upon 
Father Petri, and time has proved the wisdom of the selection. His fearless- 
ness in defending. the teachings of the church, and upholding the rights of 
Catholicity, have often brought him into conflict with those who would pass 
over abuses unnoticed, or yield a point for the sake of argument. Pious and 




generous to a fault, he is yet unyielding in whatever may savor of indiffer- 
ence or laxity. In December, 1896, St. Monica's was destroyed by fire, and 
at once Father Petri set about collecting funds among a few churches of the 
Diocese and his friends to erect the new edifice which was dedicated under the 
title of Our Lady Star of the Sea. In 1903 he was elected by the clergy as 
their representative in the Bishop's council. 



REV. SECUNDINO PATTLE. 



Rev. Secundino Pattle, a native of Spain, was ordained for the Benedic- 
tine Order at Subiaco, Italy, about the year 1859. He was appointed pastor 
of St. Mary's Church, Salem, January, 1870, and was transferred to St. Paul's 
Church, Burlington, in June, 1876, where he remained until September, 1885, 
when he resigned from the pastorate and went to Europe. He died in his 
native land in the Spring of 1897. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



297 



REV. C. F. PHELAN. 

Rev. Cornelius F. Phelan was born in Paterson, N. J., October 15, 1866. 
After he was graduated from Seton Hall College, he entered St. Mary's Sem- 
inary, Baltimore, and was ordained in the Cathedral of that city, June 21, 1891, 
by Cardinal Gibbons. He was a curate at Cape May, the Cathedral, and pas- 
tor at Florence and Sea Isle City. 



REV. ALOYSIUS POZZI. 

Rev. Aloysius Pozzi was born at Bagna della Porretta, Italy, August 20, 
1868. Having finished his classics at Perugia he completed his philosophy and 
theology at Florence and Rome, and was ordained September 23, 1893, by 




Bishop Kluti Zati di San Clemente. As a member of the Barnabites he taught 
the classics for six years. Coming to America in 1897, he was sent to East 
Vineland, where he did splendid missionary work until August 11, 1901, when 



298 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

he was given charge of the Italians in Trenton. His great success in minis- 
tering to the spiritual needs of his countrymen has prompted the Rt. Rev. 
Bishop McFaul to appoint him Diocesan visitor for the Italians. Since going 
to Trenton, Father Pozzi has erected a large church, and contemplates erect- 
ing a parochial school in the near future. 



REV. CHARLES POLISECK. 

Rev. Charles Poliseck, pastor of the Hungarian Church at Alpha, was 
born July 7, 1864, in Szomolnok, Hungary, and studied at Rozsnys and Buda- 
pest and was ordained at Basztarzsabanya, Hungary, July 16, 1888. Since his 
ordination he has been a chaplain and professor previous to his present ap- 
pointment. 



REV. JOHN QUAREMBA. 

Rev. John Quaremba was born in Castelgrande, Italy, July 6, 1876, and 
studied at Lucrano, where he was ordained May 24, 1902. He was a curate 
at the Italian Church, Orange, N. J., and then did missionary work at Silver 
Lake, N. J. Bishop McFaul appointed him pastor of the Italians at Atlantic 
City, Pleasantville, Cape May and vicinity. 



REV. ALOYSIUS S. QUINLAN. 

Rev. Aloysius Quinlan was born in Scottisville, New York, March 25, 
1876, and educated for the priesthood at St. Andrew's Preparatory Seminary, 
and St. Bernard's Seminary, Rochester, N. Y., and at the Seminary of Mt. 
St. Mary's of the West, Cincinnati, Ohio. He was ordained at Trenton, June 
1, 1901, and served as assistant to Dean Kivelitz until April 18, 1904, when he 
was sent to Gloucester to assist Father Giese. October 1, 1905, he was ap- 
pointed the first permanent pastor of Eatontown. 



REV. JOSEPH A. RYAN. 

Rev. Joseph A. Ryan was born in New York City on January 4, 1870, and 
was educated at St. Francis Xavier's College, and St. Mary's Seminary, Balti- 
more, where he was ordained, May 1, 1895. He was an assistant at Lakewood 
for five months and was then transferred to St. Mary's Church, Perth Amboy, 
to assist the Rev. P. L. Connolly, where he remained for two years and nine 
months. June 17, 1898, he was appointed the first resident pastor of Bernards- 
ville and although he had to establish the parish and build the church and rec- 
tory, so successful was Father Ryan in his undertaking, that within eighteen 
months, the church was completed and opened and consecrated on the same 
day, May 2, 1900. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 299 

REV. JOHN ROGERS. 

Rev. John Rogers, the Apostle of Catholicity in the Counties of Middle- 
sex, Somerset and Monmouth, was born in County Fermanagh, Ireland, in 
1808. He studied for the priesthood in Ireland, at Chambly and Montreal and 
was ordained by Bishop Lartigue of the latter city in 1834. For some months 
after ordination he labored amongst the English-speaking residents of Canada, 
but was recalled by Bishop Dubois and appointed to the parish of Onondaga, 
N. Y. During the ten years he remained in this city he was constantly en- 
gaged in visiting, instructing and administering the Sacraments to the Catho- 
lics of the surrounding country and was often known to attend sick calls at a 
distance of fifty and on one occasion, a hundred miles. In 1844 he was sent 
to Jersey City, where he resided with Father Kelly and went every Sunday to 
Hoboken to say Mass. In 1845, Bishop Hughes sent him to New Brunswick. 
Here he found many difficulties to contend with, the chief being to subdue 
the trustees who sought to regulate the affairs of the parish, and who in a letter 
to his predecessor, stated that henceforth they would attend to needed church 




improvements. In a gentle but firm way he soon became master of the situa- 
tion and overcame the abuses of the trustee system. He attended the spiritual 
needs of the Catholics of South Amboy, Woodbridge, Somerville, Princeton, 
Millstone and the adjacent towns until the year 185 1, when he was relieved 
of South Amboy and Monmouth County. In 1854 ne purchased the ground 
upon which the present St. Peter's Church stands, and commenced the erection 
of the building towards the end of the year, although it was not completed 
until 1865. As Catholicity made rapid progress, Mission after Mission be- 
came parish churches, with resident pastors, and in the year 1867, owing to the 
advanced age of Father Rogers, Father Major Duggan was appointed assist- 
ant at St. Peter's, with power of administrator. Father Rogers devoted 
forty-two years of his life to the service of the church in New Brunswick and 
vicinity. He lived under five different Bishops, and without changing his 
residence, in three successive Dioceses. In 1884 he celebrated the Golden 
Jubilee of his ordination and three years afterwards he appeared publicly 
for the last time at St. Peter's, where he went to assist at the first Mass of 
Father Thomas Roche, whom he had baptized and held in the highest esteem. 
He passed to his eternal reward, July, 1887. 



3°° 



THE CATHOLTC CHURCH 



REV. WILLIAM J. REDDAN. 

Rev. William J. Reddan was born in Trenton, N. J., July 31, 1878, and 
prepared for the priesthood at St. Joseph's College, Philadelphia, and the Uni- 
versity of Innsbruck, Austria. Since his ordination at Brixen, Austria, No- 




vember 3, 1 901, he has been an assistant at Long Branch, St. Peter's, New- 
Brunswick, the Church of the Immaculate Conception, Camden, and pastor 
of St. Alphonsus' Church, Hopewell. 



REV. JOSEPH REGOROWICZ. 

Rev. Joseph Regorowicz, rector of the Polish congregation at South 
River, was born in Dombrona, Galicia, Austria, November 5, i860, and was 
ordained at Tavnor, July 12, 1888. January, 1903, he was sent to South River 
to establish a church for the Polish people of that vicinity. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



3 or 



REV. RICHARD THOMAS RYAN. 

Rev. Richard T. Ryan was born in Woodbridge, N. J., August 29, 1877, 
and studied the classics at Seton Hall, and theology at St. Mary's Seminary, 
Baltimore. After his ordination at Trenton, N. J., June 1, 1901, he was sent 
to Long Branch, then to Phillipsburg to assist Father P. F. Connolly, and suc- 
ceeded Father Allen as chaplain at Fort Hancock, Sandy Hook. 

REV. JOSEPH RATHNER, D. D. 

Rev. Dr. Rathner is a native of Austria and was born in 1865. He was 
educated at Freistadt, Upper Austria, and studied theology at Genoa, in the 
Seminary of Collegio Brignoli-Sale, and was ordained in 1897. Shortly after 
his arrival in America, he was appointed to take charge of the Italians in Long 





5 


ilpili 


fPllilii 


• 


i:ill:ll:ll:::§>:^lllllilllllllils 

llSBIllllll 



Branch, and when St. Joseph's Church, Camden, was handed over to the 
secular clergy, by the Franciscan Fathers, he became rector. Upon the death 
of Father Thurnes, he was made pastor of St. Francis' Church, Trenton, June 
16, 1902. 



REV. THOMAS A. ROCHE. 

Rev. Thomas A. Roche was born in New Brunswick, N. J., November 30, 
1861. After attending St. Peter's Parochial School, he entered Niagara Uni- 
versity, and later on St. John's College, Fordham, and received his degree of 



302 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



A. B., with the class of 1884. After completing his studies at St. Mary's Sem- 
inary, Baltimore, he was ordained June 11, 1887, at the Cathedral of Baltimore, 
by Cardinal Gibbons. He was curate at Seabright after his ordination, and 
then at St. Peter's, New Brunswick, and the Church of the Immaculate Con- 




ception, Camden. For a short time he was pastor of Colt's Neck, Monmouth 
County, and after the death of Vicar General Kelly he was Locum Tenens 
at St. Mary's Church, South Amboy. In May, 1891, he was appointed pastor 
at Atlantic Highlands, and on October 18, 1900, he became rector of the 
Church of the Holy Spirit, Asbury Park. 



REV. JAMES A. REYNOLDS. 

Rev. James A. Reynolds was born in Princeton, N. J., September 18, 1859, 
and pursued his studies at St. Charles' College, Maryland, and Seton Hall 
College, South Orange, and was graduated from the latter institution with 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



3°3 



the class of 1882. After completing his theological course at the Seminary of 
Seton Hall he was ordained a priest at St. Mary's Cathedral, Trenton, by 
Bishop O'Farrell, August 24, 1885. His first mission was in his native town 
where he became acting rector during the absence of FatherMoran in Europe. 
After Father Moran's return, he was placed in charge of Mount Flolly, which 
was then heavily burdened with debt. Here he labored for six years and suc- 
ceeded in reducing the debt considerably. Upon the death of Father Kane in 
1891, Father Reynolds was appointed to succeed him as pastor of St. James' 
Church, Red Bank. He at once set to work to make many improvements, and 
how much he accomplished within a few years, the grand property of the 
Catholics of Red Bank bears witness. The beautiful church blessed and dedi- 
cated by Cardinal Satolli, the Apostolic Delegate to the United States, the 
commodious rectory, the improved school and convent, and the handsome 
club house, are evidences of his labors. 

REV. JOHN SCHANDEL. 



Rev. John Schandel, the senior priest of the Diocese of Trenton, was 
born in the town of Rinbruch, Luxembourg, November 28, 1818. He came to 




America in 1848 and settled in New York and was educated at St. Francis 
Xavier's College, and at the College and Seminary of St. Vincent, Penn., and 



3°4 



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was ordained to the priesthood by Bishop Bayley in St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
Newark, July 22, 1859. In August of the same year he was appointed assist- 
ant to Father Beaudevin, pastor of St. John's Church, Paterson, and was 
directed to look after the Germans who were settling in large numbers in that 
city and the surrounding country. He purchased property in 1886, and erected 
a church for the exclusive use of German Catholics in the same year, and 
dedicated it to the glory of God under the invocation of St. Boniface. Whilst 
at Paterson he had charge of the churches at Lodi, Macopin, Ringwood and 
Passaic. The latter place became an independent parish in 1868 and Father 
Schandel was appointed the first resident pastor. He built the Church of St. 
Nicholas and remained at Passaic until September, 1873, when he went to 
Raritan. His stay in Raritan was only four Sundays, when he was trans- 
ferred to Carlstadt, which he had attended as a Mission from Passaic, and 
there he also built a church and had charge of Lodi until May, 1876, when 
he was sent as an assistant to St. Pius' Church, East Newark, From East 
Newark he went to the German church at Railway in August, 1877, and re- 
mained in charge until March, 1878, when he was sent to Stony Hill. For 
twenty-six years he labored in this parish until compelled by old age, he re- 
signed the pastorate on October 1, 1904. 



REV. ARTHUR B. STRENSKI. 

Rev. Arthur B. Strenski, a native of Prussia, Germany, was born Oc- 
tober 6, 1880, and emigrated to America in childhood. He was a student at 
St, Francis Xavier's College, New York, and St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore. 
After his ordination at the Baltimore Cathedral, June 21, 1905, he was ap- 
pointed assistant at the Church of the Sacred Heart, South Amboy, where he 
resided for a short time, when owing to the illness of Father Farrington, he 
was sent as assistant to the Church of Our Lady of Victories, Sayreville. 



REV. AUGUSTINE G. SPIERINGS. 

Rev. Augustine G. Spierings was born in Uden, Holland, August 24, 1828, 
and after becoming a member of the Capuchin Order, was ordained in his 
native land, November 13, 1855. In the year 1870 he received permission from 
his superiors to come to America for twenty-five years and after a short stay 
in the Diocese of Green Bay, he came to New Jersey and was appointed pastor 
of Fort Lee. He visited Europe, and upon his return, was made an assistant 
at St. Michael's Church, Jersey City. June, 1877, he assumed charge of the 
church congregation at Keyport, and during his pastorate erected the present 
church and rectory and convent, introduced the Sisters to teach in the parochial 
school and purchased a new cemetery. After a surgical operation at Antwerp, 
while on a visit to Europe in 1892, he died at the Capuchin Monastery in that 
city. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



3°5 



REV. J. JOSEPH SMITH. 

Rev. J. Joseph Smith was born in the City of Trenton, March 26, 1862, 
and prepared himself for the priesthood at St. Charles' College, Md., and at 
Seton Hall College and Seminary. Ordained at St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
Newark, by Bishop Wigger, May 30, 1885, his first appointment was to Long 
Branch as assistant to Father McFaul and at the end of the Summer season, 




he became an assistant at the Cathedral, remaining such until the death of 
Father Anthony Smith, when he was appointed acting rector. Owing to ill 
health, he was sent to St. Francis' Church, Metuchen, October, 1890, in the 
hope that the change would restore his strength, but the dread disease con- 
sumption had entered into his system, and he continued to sink slowly until 
the following Summer when he returned to his parent's home at Trenton, 
where he died October 31, 1891. 



REV. JOSEPH SCHNELLER. 

Rev. Joseph Schneller, one of the pioneer laborers of the faith in New 
Jersey, was born in Austria and ordained by Bishop Dubois in New York, 



3° 6 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



December 24, 1827. He was sent to New Brunswick shortly after his ordina- 
tion, and notwithstanding the intense hatred against everything Catholic, suc- 
ceeded in purchasing ground on Bayard Street, and erecting a small brick 
church. After leaving New Brunswick in 1833, he became one of the editors 
of the " Weekly Register and Catholic Diary." He was a pastor at Albany 
and Brooklyn, and died September 18, 1862. 

REV. LINUS A. SCHWARTZ. 

Rev. Linus A. Schwartz was born in Pottsville, Penn., September 18, 
1878, and educated at St. Charles Borromeo's College, Philadelphia, and St. 
Vincent's Seminary, Latrobe, Penn. He was ordained by Bishop Canevin, 




June 6, 1903, and shortly afterwards sent to Bordentown as assistant to 
Father D. J. Duggan. October 1, 1904, he was appointed pastor of St. Mary's 
Church, Stony Hill, being at the time the youngest rector in the Diocese and 
succeeding Father Schandel, who was the oldest. 

REV. ANTHONY C. SHUVLIN. 



Rev. Anthony C Shuvlin, rector of St. Joseph's Church, Camden, was 
born in 1870, and was a student at St. Charles' College, Md., and at Inns- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



307 



bruck, Tyrol. He was ordained in 1897 at Innsbruck and served as a curate 
at St. Francis' Church, Trenton and St. Mary's, Bordentown. He succeeded 




Doctor Rathner as pastor of St. Joseph's, Camden, June 16, 1902, where he 
is doing excellent work for God and the people. 



3 o8 



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REV. FRANCIS J. McSHANE. 



Rev. Francis J. McShane, O. S. A., the distinguished rector of St. Nich- 
olas' Church, Atlantic City, N. J., was born in the County Tyrone, Ireland, 
February 15, 1846. At the age of nine years he was brought to America by 
his parents, who located in the parish of the Assumption, Philadelphia, 
where he attended the church school, until he was admitted to Villanova. 
Here he made his classical and theological studies, and was ordained to the 
priesthood February 29, 1872. After teaching at Villanova for a while, and 
doing some parish work till 1876, he then became Vice-President of that insti- 
tution. He was also stationed at St. James' Church, Carthage, N. Y. From 







1882-1894 he was rector of the church at Chestnut Hill. In the following year 
he was made President of Villanova College. In the Summer of 1898 he be- 
came pastor of St. Nicholas' Church, Atlantic City, where he has erected the 
magnificent Church of St. Nicholas, which will always be a monument to his 
zeal and splendid financial management. During Father McShane's admin- 
istration the parish has been advanced wonderfully in every way. If there is 
one trait of character which distinguishes Father McShane, it is the ability 
to mind his own business, and to mind this well he has succeeded in doing 
in all his positions. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 309 

REV. JOHN F. SALAUN. 

Rev. John F. Salami was born in Brittany, France, and educated at the 
Seminary of Nantes, where he was ordained in 1842. He was a priest of the 
Cleveland Diocese previous to his coming to Newark in 1867. His first ap- 
pointment in New Jersey was assistant at St. Peter's Church, Jersey City, and 
in November, 1868, he was promoted to the pastorate of Red Bank, and at- 
tended Long Branch, Sandy Hook and Manchester as Missions. July 1, 1876, 
he was appointed the first resident pastor of Long Branch, but resigned in the 
Spring of 1877, and was given charge of South Orange, where he remained 
until 1888, when he resigned and returned to France, where he died October 
19, 1895. 



VERY REV. ANTHONY SMITH, V. G. 

Very Rev. Anthony Smith, the first Vicar General of the Diocese of Tren- 
ton, was born in Obergunsburg, Bavaria, April 8, 1821. Manifesting from 
childhood an inclination toward the priesthood he entered one of the institu- 
tions of his native land with this object in view, and after applying for admis- 
sion to the Redemptorist Order, joined it in France about the year 1837. 
Requested to go to America by his Superiors, he cheerfully complied with 
their wish and after completing his studies was ordained in the Cathedral of 
Baltimore, by Archbishop Eccleston, December 21, 1845, and celebrated his 
first Mass on Christmas Day. Shortly after his ordination he was sent to 
Buffalo, New York, where he built St. Mary's Church and St. Andrew's Hos- 
pital, and after their completion, he returned to Baltimore, where he remained 
for seven years when obedience again called him to Buffalo. In 1861 he paid 
a visit to his native land and upon his return entered the ranks of the secular 
clergy in the Diocese of Newark, and was appointed pastor of St. John's 
Church, Trenton. His first important work in St. John's parish, was to pro- 
vide a home for the orphans of the brave soldiers who went forth from the 
city to fight for the integrity of the Union, and for this purpose he established 
St. John's Orphan Asylum in 1864, and entrusted the care of it to the Sisters 
of Charity from Madison. In 1865 he purchased ground in the northern sec- 
tion of the city, and on April 22,, 1866, began the erection of the present St. 
Mary's Cathedral. After its dedication in January, 1871, he devoted his ener- 
gies to the completion of the parochial school which had been commenced the 
year previous, on ground purchased by him for that purpose in 1868, and had 
it ready for occupancy in the following October, and a corps of Sisters of 
Charity engaged to teach in it. Upon the completion of St. Mary's Church, 
he resigned the charge of St. John's. His next work was the purchase of 
ground for a cemetery on November 1, 1872, which he enlarged in March, 
1886. In 1877 he bought land in Hopewell and began the erection of a church 
on it the same year. The school which had outgrown its limited quarters en- 
gaged his attention again, and was enlarged sufficiently to accommodate all 



3io 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



requirements. The growth of the city towards Millham did not escape his 
watchful eye and to provide for the future needs of Catholics in that direc- 
tion he purchased ground on Sherman Avenue and in 1882, erected a brick 
building to be used as a school and chapel. This was the foundation of the 
present St. Joseph's Church. After the erection of Trenton into an episcopal 
city, and the selection of St. Mary's Church as the Cathedral of the Diocese, 
Father Smith began the erection of the Bishop's house, and the enlargement of 
the rectory to correspond with it. Bishop O'Farrell appointed him his Vicar 




1 



General, and as Vicar General he was as zealous for the spiritual and temporal 
welfare of the Diocese as he had been unsparing of self for the advancement 
of Catholicity in Trenton. After an official visit to the northern part of the 
Diocese in the Summer of 1888, he returned home feeling unwell, and al- 
though skillful doctors did all in their power to aid him, he continued to sink 
and on Saturday morning, August 11, 1888, his soul winged its flight to the 
Great Master he had served so long and so faithfully. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 311 

REV. MATTHIAS TARNOWSKI. 

Rev. Matthias Tarnowski, pastor of St. Joseph's Polish Church, Camden, 
was born in Galicia, February 22, 1863, and studied at Cracow, where he was 




ordained, December 27, 1886. He had charge of St. Stanislaus' Church, Tren- 
ton, from January 15, 1889, until February 26, 1901, when he went to Camden. 

REV. JOSEPH THURNES. 

Rev. Joseph Thurnes was born in Switzerland, May 25, 1830, and was 
ordained at the University of Innsbruck, July 16, 1854. He was received into 
the Diocese of Newark, May 22, 1866, and appointed an assistant at St. Peter's 
Church, Newark, and on August 12, 1866, he was sent to St. Nicholas' Church, 
Egg Harbor City, as first resident pastor. November, 1878, he was trans- 
ferred to Sts. Peter and Paul's, Camden, and when this parish was given to 
the care of the Franciscan Fathers, November 1, 1883, he was made rector of 
St. Francis' Church, Trenton, where he remained until he died, June 7, 1902. 



312 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



REV. WILLIAM P. TREACY. 

Rev. William P. Treacy was born in County Tipperary, Ireland, Novem- 
ber 21, 1850. He studied at Woodstock, Md., and Louvain, Belgium, for the 
Society of Jesus, and was ordained a priest of that Society, September 8, 1880. 
October 28, 1886, he was received into the Diocese of Trenton and given 




charge of Swedesboro. He was removed from that parish, February 28, 1893, 
by Bishop O'Farrell and after an absence of nearly two years from the 
Diocese, was appointed assistant to Father John Brady, of South Amboy by 
Bishop McFaul. He was afterwards pastor of Bradevelt and East Millstone, 
and died at the last named place, March 29, 1906. 



REV. HENRY WARD. 

Rev. Henry Ward was born in Brackey, near Omagh, County Tyrone, 
Ireland, on June 27, 1857. Having graduated from the Brackey National 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



3^3 



School, he took an advanced course in the Royal Albert College, Glasnevin, 
Dublin. Later on he became an alumnus of St. Joseph's College, Manches- 
ter, England, and from there graduated into the famous Missionary College of 
All Hallows, Dublin, Ireland. Here after a distinguished course, he was or- 
dained to the priesthood on June 24, 1886— the Feast of Corpus Christi. His 
lordship, the Right Rev. Nicholas Donnelly D.D., Bishop of Canea, was the 
ordaining prelate. In September of the same year, Father Ward proceeded 
to the West Indies, where he labored as Missionary Apostolic for nearly two 
years, when he became affiliated to the Diocese of Trenton, N. J. He received 




his first appointment from Rt. Rev. Bishop O'Farrell, who sent him to Long 
Branch in June, 1888. In September, 1888, he was transferred from Long 
Branch to St. Mary's Cathedral, Trenton, and in April, 1890, Bishop O'Farrell 
appointed him pastor of the united parishes of Washington and Hacketts- 
town, Warren County, N. J. Here he labored with much success for nearly 
eight and a half years, when Rt. Rev. Bishop McFaul transferred him to the 
pastorate of St. Joseph's Church, Trenton, N. J. He took charge of this par- 
ish on September 8, 1898. At once he set to work to raise funds in order to 



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THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



liquidate the debt which rested on the school property and to build a much- 
needed church. Success again crowned his efforts and on Sunday, March 19, 
1905, the Feast of St. Joseph, Rt. Rev. Bishop McFaul assisted by many of the 
clergy, dedicated to Divine service the handsome new stone church which 
stands on the corner of Olden and St. Joseph's Avenues, Trenton. 

REV. SIMON B. WALSH. 

Rev. Simon B. Walsh was born in Jersey City, N. J., August, 1862, and 
was educated in St. Aloysius' Academy, Jersey City,. St. Francis Xavier's 
College, N. Y., and graduated from Seton Hall College, South Orange, June, 
1884. He studied theology at Mt. St. Mary's Seminary, Emmittsburg, Md., 
the Seminary of the Sacred Heart, Vineland, N. J., and was ordained a priest 




by' Cardinal Gibbons, in the Baltimore Cathedral, June 21, 1888. He was a 
curate at St. Peter's Church, New Brunswick, the Church of the Sacred 
Heart, Trenton, St. Mary's, Gloucester, and was named rector of the parishes 
at Beverly and Riverton, January, 1895. On May 29, 1901, he was transferred 
to the pastorate of St. Joseph's Church, High Bridge. 



REV. JAMES A. WALSH. 

Rev. James A. Walsh was born in Kilkenny, Ireland, February 22, 1841, 
and was ordained for the Capuchin Order, September 13, 1863. For a time 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 315 

he labored in India as chaplain to an English regiment, but the climate not 
being suitable to his health he came to America and was stationed at the 
Capuchin Church of St. John the Baptist, New York, until he became affiliated 
with the Diocese of Newark, July 27, 1874. His first appointment in New 
Jersey was to the Church of Our Lady of the Valley, Orange, where he was 
pastor from September 6, 1874, to April 29, 1877, when he was transferred to 
Long Branch. While in the latter place he erected a pastoral residence and 
also the Church of the Holy Spirit at Asbury Park. In May, 1883, he was 
sent to Woodbridge, and owing to a controversy with the Rev. P. L. Connolly, 
of Perth Amboy, and also to ill health he resigned from the parish and was 
sent to Bridgeton, where he remained four years. He died at West End 
(Long Branch) December 22, 1S89. 

REV. ALFRED YOUNG. 

Father Young was born in Bristol, England, in 183 1, and came to this 
country in his youth. He was graduated from Princeton College in 1848, at 
which time he was connected with the Protestant Episcopal Church, and in 
1852 he was graduated from the medical department of the University of New 
York. In 1850, while yet a medical student, he embraced the Roman Catholic 
faith. After becoming a physician he practiced medicine for a year, and was 
then sent to Paris by Bishop James Roosevelt Bayley, of the Roman Catholic 
Diocese of Newark, where he studied for the priesthood at the Seminary of 
St. Sulpice. Returning to this country, he was ordained a priest in St. Pat- 
rick's Cathedral, at Newark, August 24, 1856. He was vice president of Seton 
Hall College in 1857, during the presidency of Bishop McQuaid, now of the 




See of Rochester. He was afterward rector of the Roman Catholic Church 
at Princeton, and later at Trenton. Attracted by the life and aims of the 
newly-founded Paulist community, Father Young was received as a member 
of the congregation in 1861. He became a missionary of great zeal and noted 
eloquence. He was also a musician and composed many devotional hymns. 
He was enthusiastic in restoring the Gregorian chant for the entire services 
of the Roman Catholic Church. He wrote a long series of articles in favor 
of this movement and delivered many lectures on the same subject. Beside 
many magazine articles on various religious topics, and a series of epigram- 
matic poems on Scriptural texts in " The Catholic World," he was the author 
of "The Complete Sodality Hymn Book ; " " Catholic Hymns and Canticles ; " 
"The Office of Vespers; " "The Catholic Hymnal; " and " Carols for a Merry 



3 i 6 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Christmas and a Joyous Easter." Much attention was attracted by a contro- 
versial work from his pen, entitled " Catholic and Protestant Churches Com- 
pared." He died April 4, 1900. 



REV. JOSEPH J. ZIMMER. 

Rev. Joseph Zimmer was born in Williamsburg, N. Y., June 20, 1846. 
After graduating from St. John's College, Fordham, he entered the Seminary 
at Seton Hall College and was ordained to the priesthood by Bishop Bayley, 
May 18, 1872. He served as curate at St. Mary's Church, Hoboken, St. 
John's, Paterson and St. Peter's, New Brunswick, and was appointed pastor 
of St. Bernard's Raritan, by Bishop Corrigan, June, 1876. Although Father 
Zimmer was told by the Bishop that his appointment to Raritan was a tem- 
porary one, still he has labored for thirty years in this parish, admired by the 
people of his own congregation and the missions which he formerly attended, 
viz : Somerville, Bound Brook and Millstone, and respected by those who 
are not members of the Catholic Church. 



The following curates are at present on duty in the Diocese : 

CAHILL, REV. EDWARD J., St. Mary's Bordentown. 
CARROLL, REV. JOHN A., St. Joseph's Trenton. 
CATON, REV. JOHN E., St. Peter's, New Brunswick. 
CONWAY, REV. JAMES B., Sacred Heart, Trenton. 
GOUGH, REV. JAMES F., St. Peter's, New Brunswick. 
GRIFFIN, REV. EDWARD C, Cathedral, Trenton, Assistant Secretary 
of Rt. Rev. Bishop. 

HASSETT, REV. ARTHUR D., Cathedral, Trenton. 

HEALY, REV. JAMES A., Immaculate Conception, Camden. 

HENNESSY, REV. THOMAS F., St. Mary's, Perth Amboy. 

KEARNS, REV., St. Mary's Atlantic City. 

LANAGAN, REV. F. H., Our Lady, Star of the Sea, Long Branch. 

LAVEY, REV. M. J.,St. Mary's, South Amboy. 

LINNANE, REV. JOSEPH A, St. James', Red Bank. 

MAHONEY, REV. JOSEPH F., St. Mary's, Perth Amboy. 

MANNION, REV. EDWARD C, St. Mary's of the Lake, Lakewood. 

M'KEAN, REV. WILLIAM J., Sacred Heart, Trenton. 

MORRISEY, REV. PATRICK, St. Catherine's, Spring Lake. 

O'HARA, REV. JOHN, Holy Spirit, Asbury Park. 

QUINN, REV. PATRICK J, Sts. Philip and James, Phillipsburg. 

REIDL, REV. JOSEPH, St. Joseph's, Hammonton. 

STRENSKI, REV. ARTHUR B., Sacred Heart, South Amboy. 

SULLIVAN, REV. JOHN A., Immaculate Conception, Camden. 

TARGIA, REV. JOSEPH, St. Joachim's, Trenton. 

WHALEN, REV. THOMAS J., Cathedral, Trenton. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 317 

REV. FRANCIS GOUGH. 

Father J. F. Gough was born in Trenton, N. J., November 28, 1878, and 
made his preliminary studies at St. Charles' College, Md., Seton Hall, South 
Orange, and St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore. He was ordained at the Cathe- 
dral, Baltimore, June 21, 1904, and appointed a curate at St. Peter's Church, 
New Brunswick, in which parish he still works with all the zeal and piety of a 
good priest. 

REV. THOMAS JOSEPH WHELAN. 

Rev. Thomas Joseph Whelan was born in Birmingham, England, Decem- 
ber 8, 1876, and studied at St. Charles' College, Md., and St. Mary's Semi- 
nary, Baltimore. Since his ordination at Baltimore, June 21, 1905, he has 
been an assistant at the Cathedral, Trenton, where he displays remarkable 
activity for a curate. 

REV. EDWARD A. CAHILL. 

Rev. Edward A. Cahill was born in Newark, N. J., June 25, 1878, and 
after the completion of his studies at St. Peter's College, Jersey City, and St. 
Bonaventure's Seminary, Allegheny, he was ordained in St. Joseph's Cathe- 
dral, Buffalo, June 22, 1904. He was a curate at St. Michael's, West End, 
and at present is assisting Father Duggan at St. Mary's, Bordentown, his first 
curacy. 

REV. JOHN E. CATON. 

Rev. John E. Caton was born in Caldwell, N. J., September 7, 1876, and 
studied at St. Vincent's College and Seminary, Latrobe, Pa. After his ordina- 
tion at the Seminary Chapel, June 6, 1902, he was sent as assistant to the 
Church of the Sacred Heart, Trenton, and during the month of June, 1905, he 
was appointed curate to Monsignor O'Grady of New Brunswick, at St. Peter's. 
Father Caton is not only an eloquent and forcible preacher, but he is also a 
brilliant musician and singer. 

REV. MICHAEL DTELSI. 

Father Michael DTelsi was born March 10, 1876, and studied in the Royal 
College of Lucera. After graduating with honors, he entered the Seminary 
of Lucera where he completed his studies for the priesthood, and was 
ordained September 3, 1899. He was exalted to the dignity of Canon on the 
twenty-third of April, 1901. He has been laboring successfully among his 
countrymen and has done much to improve their spiritual condition in Cam- 
den, where he has already organized a parish for the Italian residents, and is 
preparing to build a church for their special benefit. 



3 i8 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

REV. ARTHUR D. HASSETT. 

Rev. Arthur D. Hassett, one of the curates at St. Mary's Cathedral, was 
born in Lowell, Mass., July 2, 1876, and studied at Holy Cross College, Mass., 
and St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, Shortly after his ordination at Balti- 
more, June 21, 1904, he received his present appointment to St. Mary's Cathe- 
dral, Trenton, and is doing excellent work in every department of a curate's 
life. Remarkable for his gentleness and piety, Father Hassett has won the 
good wishes of all who know him. 

REV. MATTHEW A. LAVEY. 

Father M. A. Lavey was born in Carbondale, Pa., February 21, 1877, and 
studied at Niagara University, and St. Bonaventure's Seminary, Allegheny, 
New York, and was ordained in the Seminary chapel, June 16, 1903. Since 
his ordination he has been a curate at St. Mary's Church, South Amboy, 
where his faithful work in school and parish is known and appreciated. A 
model young priest, he is a consolation and a joy to his pastor. 

REV. FRANCIS X. LANGAN. 

Rev. Francis X. Langan was born in Keyport, N. J., December 17, 1876. 
He studied at Niagara University and was ordained in St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
New York, May 28, 1903. He has been assisting Father Cantwell at Long 
Branch since his Ordination, and bids fair to become a model parish priest 
some day. 

REV. JOSEPH A. LINNANE. 

Rev. Joseph A. Linnane was born in Westboro, Mass., October 3, 1875, 
and studied at Holy Cross College, Worcester, Mass., and Dunwoodie Semi- 
nary, Yonkers, N. Y. After his ordination at St. Patrick's Cathedral, N. Y., 
June 6, 1903, he was sent to assist Father Reynolds at St. James' Church, Red 
Bank. Father Linnane is a hard worker, and leaves nothing undone in the 
fulfillment of his duty. 

REV. WILLIAM I. M'KEAN. 

Father William I. McKean, a native of Belfast, Ireland, was born Decem- 
ber 10, 1873. His college studies were made in Ireland, and his theological 
course at St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore. After his ordination at Balti- 
more, June 21, 1902, he was appointed an assistant at the Church of the Sacred 
Heart, Trenton, and by his gentleness and priestly demeanor has endeared 
himself to the people of the parish. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 319 

REV. P. W. MORRISEY. 

Rev. P. W. Morrisey was born in Haydenville, Mass., March 22, 1877, 
and studied at St. Jerome's College, Berlin, Ontario, and at the Grand Semi- 
nan', Montreal, where he was ordained. Since his ordination he has been an 
assistant at Fitchburg, Mass., and Spring Lake, N. J., where he still assists 
Father McLaughlin. 

REV. EDWARD C. MANNION. 

Father Mannion was born in Gloucester, N. J., December 21, 1881, and 
was a student at St. Charles' College, Md., Seton Hall, South Orange, and St. 
Mary's Seminar}-, Baltimore. December 17, 1904, he was ordained at Balti- 
more, and since that time he has been an assistant at West End, and Lake- 
wood. He now is a very great help to Father Healey. 

REV. JOHN JOSEPH O'HARA. 

Rev. John Joseph O'Hara was born at Chatham, N. J., April 2, 1879, an d 
made his studies for the priesthood at St. Charles' College, Md., Seton Hall, 
and St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore. June 21, 1905, he was ordained at the 
Cathedral, Baltimore, and he was assistant at Seabright from June 28 until 
September 28, 1905, when he was transferred to Asbury Park to be a curate 
at the Church of the Holy Spirit. Father O'Hara is an active and pious 
young priest. 

REV. J. A. SULLIVAN. 

Rev. J. A. Sullivan is a native of Newport, R. I., and was born June 29, 
1879. He was ordained at the Grand Seminary, Montreal, Canada, Decem- 
ber 17, 1904, and since then has been an assistant at the Church of the Im- 
maculate Conception, Camden, where he labors successfully, and gives much 
promise of a useful career in the priesthood. 



3 20 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

DAVID T. KENNY. 

Prominent among the Catholic laymen who have done so much to pro- 
mote the material prosperity of the Diocese of Trenton is David T. Kenny, of 
Plainfield, N. J. Not only is Mr. Kenny an exemplary and consistent Catho- 
lic, but he is also a generous promoter of Catholic education, for through 
his recent donation of a valuable tract of land on the Watchung Mountain, 
near Plainfield, the Sisters of Mercy of Bordentown are enabled to begin the 




erection of the Mt. St. Mary's College for the higher education of women, the 
excavations for which are now in progress. Mr. Kenny was born at White 
House, Hunterdon County, N. J., April 3, 1866. By his industry and skill he 
has achieved marked distinction in the line of mechanics, being the inventor 
of the Flushometer and the Vacuum Cleaner for cleaning public and private 
buildings, which places him in the front ranks of our benefactors from a 
hygienic standpoint. At the present time Mr. Kenny is applying his genius 
to other inventions. He is a member of St. Joseph's Church, Plainfield, N. J. 



DENNIS ROE. 

Always sympathetic with those who were endeavoring to do good Dennis 
Roe of Trenton, N. J., was not satisfied in offering sympathy only, he did 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 321 

what was better and more helpful, he gave generously of his means and in his 
Will remembered the poor by leaving to St. Michael's Home at Hopewell a 
legacy of $14,000.00. As one of the original incorporators of this institution, 
he always took a deep interest in its management, and its welfare, by attend- 




ing all meetings and helping along in every possible way. This is a duty that 
too many of our lay people shirk, thus throwing all the burden of the spiritual 
and material affairs upon the shoulders of the clergy, while they afterwards 
blame them for want of prudence and foresight. Mr. Roe was born in Ire- 
land, but came to Philadelphia in early life. Later on he settled in Trenton 
and identified himself with the Wilburtha quarries. Let his memory be always 
cherished as one of the benefactors of our Diocese. 

COL. DANIEL MORRIS. 

Col. Daniel Morris, of Atlantic City, is the friend and chief benefactor of 
the Protectory at Hopewell. By the aid of his large generosity the dying 
legacy of Bishop O'Farrell has reached his destined end, and the project of 
establishing such an institution, which Bishop McFaul has so eagerly pro- 
moted, has been carried into execution. The contribution of Mr. Morris adds 
up to nearly $50,000. This certainly is a splendid manifestation of Christian 
charity, and a noble expression of a deep and moving sympathy for the 
orphans. The generous act must commend itself to a universal and heartfelt 
appreciation. We honor Mr. Morris for his princely gift. Col. Morris was 
born in Ireland in the year 1820. He came to America in 1849, and found an 
opening for his ability as a civil engineer in the State of Pennsylvania. For 
several years he was engaged on the State roads. He severed connection 
with that enterprise and came to Atlantic City, N. J. He designed the plan 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 323 

of the city in 1853. From this year onward Col. Morris has been identified 
with the best interest of Atlantic City. He labored for its improvement and 
advancement, and every effort to organize and promote the institutions and 
business facilities of the growing city met with his earnest co-operation. His 
investments in landed property were extensive ; he had the utmost confidence 
in the development and future prosperity of Atlantic City, and it was not long 
before many others shared the same confidence and reaped the benefits of the 
wise judgment and prudent foresight which Col. Morris displayed. While 
his purchases were large, his sales were frequent, and easy and moderate 
terms he put within the reach of all. Liberality characterizes Col. Morris' 
dealings. He has always and persistently labored for the welfare of the city, 
and his name will ever be connected with its history. Notable among his 
many munificent deeds is the erection of an armory for the " Morris Guards," 
a social organization of much popularity in Atlantic City. Along with all 
this outlay of generosity Col. Morris has been a constant supporter of his 
church. He is foremost in his devotion to its practice, and its temporal needs 
have always met with his prompt and generous response. The Protectory at 
Hopewell is the latest recipient of his great munificence. His name will be 
forever joined with the good work which this institution purposes to ac- 
complish. We may assure him that the protection and comfort which he has 
given to the homeless will not soon be forgotten. The prayers of the little 
ones will bear his name heavenward in gratitude, and their wish will be, and 
it will be the prayer of every Catholic soul, that God may be good and give 
Col. Morris the blessings of eternal life. Col. Morris died in Atlantic City 
in 1899. His remains are interred 'neath a stately Celtic Cross on a beautiful 
knoll fronting St. Michael's Home, Hopewell, N. J., where visitors and 
inmates may remember his good deeds. 



IN MEMORIAM. 

" The seasons bring the flower again, 
And bring the firstlings to the flock, 
And in the yew tree's shade, the clock, 
Beats out the little lives of men." 

Out of the ranks of the living, into the silent land of the dead, away from 
the firing line of battle, back to the rear, they have been carried, and each one 
has found a resting place in his own little trench, to await the last bugle call 
for a final promotion to the army of Saints when the great Captain Jesus 
Christ reviews his soldiers. 

Soldiers they were on earth, His soldiers, and their battle was against 
sin and temptation, against the forces of infidelity, indifference and worldliness. 
Brave and pious men, gentle and virtuous women, Priests and Sisters, all 
working to that one end, the glory of God and the spread of His kingdom. 

Some were mustered out of His service whilst the bloom of youth was 
still upon their cheeks and the radiance of innocence brightened their counte- 
nances. Others went out bowed down and silvered with age, after the record 
of long years and of many battles won, but all gave up their lives for Him 
who died for all. 

Prelate and pastor, curate and sister, they lived, they labored and they 
died, leaving the sweet fragrance of their noble example, and when to-day we 
look back over those twenty-five years we count one Bishop, two Vicar Gen- 
erals, thirty-five priests and twenty-two sisters. From church and school, 
from hospital and asylum, we miss their kindly words and helpful works. 

Theirs was the labor that did so much to clear away the tangled mass of 
prejudice and bigotry, and planted the seeds of Catholic piety and devotion 
in many of our parishes. On village road and city street they reared their 
church or chapel, and whenever it was possible they placed near it the 
Catholic parish school or taught in its class rooms. All honor then to these 
heroes and heroines — let their memories be cherished by priests and people, 
and let them be placed among our friends and benefactors. The first of those 
to fall in the service of our Diocese (December, 1885) was the old Veteran 
Father Cornelius O'Reilley, who spent nearly twenty-five years with the people 
of Phillipsburg. Every one in that section knew Father Con O'Reilley, and 
the influence of his saintly life still pervades the parish. The next to go was 
Father Esser, the angel of Egg Harbor and surrounding country. Even yet 
the old people speak of his noble character. He departed in April, 1886. In 
the following October the fiery old Franciscan of Swedesboro, Father Anthony 

3 2 4 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



3 2 5 



Cassesse, went to his reward, after years of wrangling with the difficulties of 
the English language and the disappointments of parochial life. 

Poor Father Kars of Gloucester ! The older priests often spoke of his 
zeal and piety and his patient forbearance. He passed away on May 5, 1887, 
and in the following July Father Rogers was buried, the grand old man of 
New Brunswick, who, for nearly fifty years, ruled St. Peter's with an iron 
hand, and feared neither friend nor foe in the discharge of his duty. And 
with all so kind and patient that all looked upon him as a. father. The follow- 
ing year (1888) claimed another of our old veterans, Vicar General Smith, 
who had spent twenty-seven years in Trenton, where everybody knew and 
revered him. Like an old war horse, he was always ready for battle. Big 
of body and equally as big of mind, he left us St. Mary's Cathedral as it 
stands to-day. His brusque good nature made him a favorite with all. 

1899 found three priests drop out of life : Father Martens of St. John's, 
New Brunswick, Father Kane of Glassboro, and Father Orem of Hacketts- 
town — three good men. 

The year 1890 took from the Diocese the Rev. James Walsh, the famous 
fighter of Long Branch. This loss we could bear with patience and resigna- 
tion, but when the following February brought the sad news of Vicar General 
Kelly's death, we knew that a faithful, hard-working priest was gone. Good 
Father Kelly ! All who knew him loved him. His forty-five years of mis- 
sionary labor in the Amboy district have left their marks upon the lives of the 
people to whom he ministered. Planting himself at this point in 1855, with 
his eagle eye he watched the whole coast in search of scattered or neglected 
Catholics, and when he found them his zeal soon brought him to their help. 

Two months later his friend, Father Kane, the scholar of Red Bank, gave 
up his soul to his Creator after a long and beautiful life of usefulness ; while 
the following September took from our midst the youthful pastor of Beverly, 
Father Degnan, just as he was about to begin a life of great and good deeds 
for his people. 

April of 1894 brought the sad news of the death of our chief shepherd 
and first Bishop of Trenton, the lovable and scholarly Bishop O'Farrell. We 
all know how he loved his great Atlantic See, and the resorts on its borders. 
We can never forget his love for the children. 

On November 7, 1894, another pioneer was called when Father John J. 
O'Connor, the hermit of New Monmouth, left us. 

1895 took our lovable Dean Fitzsimons, the genial and gentlemanly host 
of Camden, whom we all revered so much. 

Father Freeman, Father Geoghegan, and Father Danielou soon followed, 
in 1895, 1896, and 1897, as also went the youthful John M. McCloskey, Chan- 
cellor of the Diocese, whose promise of a bright career was cut off by con- 
sumption. 

In 1898 we lost the zealous and energetic builder of Gloucester, Father 
McCormick, followed by Father Flanagan of Woodbridge. 

Monsignor Moran, V. G., the father of Princeton, opened the death list 
for 1900. His thirty-three years' service in the diocese had brought him honors 



326 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

and he was followed by Father O'Reilley of Metuchen, another good priest, 
and Father Glennon, the genial and kind pastor of Asbury Park, and a few 
weeks later the old monk of Cape May, Father Degan, was numbered among 
the dead. 

Father William Dunphy, of Hopewell, another young man, died in 1901,. 
and Father Kerr, of Dunellen, passed away in 1902. 

In 1903 the Catholics of Carteret were called upon to give up their first 
pastor, good Father Carey, and in 1905 Father Mitchell, of Laurel Springs, 
and Father Nolan, of Belmar, both young and emcent pastors, were called 
away. 

Our latest loss was Father William Treacy, who died at Millstone on 
March 28, 1906. 

These, with the good Sisters from schools and hospitals, show what a loss 
we have sustained in the past quarter of a century. The following list will 
give names and dates, as far as such could be ascertained : 

Died. 

Rev. Cornelius O'Reilley December, 1885 

Rev. Joseph Esser April, 1886 

Rev. Antonio Cassesse October 30, 1886 

Rev. Englebert Kars May 5, 1887 

Rev. John Rogers July, 1887 

Rev. Anthony Smith, V. G August 11, 1888 

Rev. Charles F. Kane January 12, 1889 

Rev. William G. Oren April 15, 1889 

Rev. Henry Martens June 21, 1889 

Rev. James Walsh December, 1890 

Rev. John Kelly, V. G February 27, 1891 

Rev. Michael E. Kane April 14, 1891 

Rev. Thomas Degnan September 21, 1891 

Rev. Joseph Smith October 31, 1891 

Rt. Rev. Michael J. O'Farrell April 2, 1894 

Rev. John J. O'Connor November 7, 1894. 

Rev. J. J. Hill 1894 

Rev. Peter Fitzsimmons August 31, 1895 

Rev. Nicholas Freeman September 9, 1895 

Rev. D. P. Geoghegan January 15, 1896 

Rev. John H. Kenny January 24, 1897 

Rev. Stanislaus Danielou April 2, 1897 

Rev. Secundino Pattle May 1, 1897 

Rev. John M. Murphy November 25, 1897 

Rev. Thomas J. McCormick July 30, 1898 

Rev. John M. McCloskey October, 1898' 

Rev. Joseph Flanagan January, 1899 

Mgr. Thomas R. Moran March 31, 1900 

Rev. Michael O'Reilley April V7, 1900* 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 327 

Rev. Michael Glennon October 14, 1900 

Rev. Theophilus Degan October 31, 1900 

Rev. William J. Dunphy October 8, 1901 

Rev. Bartholomew Carey March 20, 1903 

Rev. Samuel A. Mitchell April 1 1, 1905 

Rev. Thomas Nolan September 21, 1905 

Rev. Father Kerr 1902 

Rev. Wm. P. Treacy April 28, 1906 

Sisters of Mercy. 

Sister Mary de Sales Tierney 
Sister Mary Aloysius Behan 
Sister Mary Agnes Lockerbie 
Sister Mary Berchmans Thompson 
Sister Mary Phillipa Closey 
Sister Mary Patricia Dullea 
Sister Mary Barbara Connell 
Sister Mary Michael Bailey 
Sister Mary Mercedes Brophy 
Sister Mary Fabian Brewster 
Sister Mary Eualia Malloy 
Sister Mary Monica O'Leary 
Sister Mary Augustine Lee 
Mother Mary Genevieve McDonald 
Mother Mary Regis Wade 
Sister Mary Clement Dunn 
Sister Mary Jerome Ryan 
Sister Mary Clare Manning 
Sister Mary Eusebius McCregan 
Mother Mary Austin Tierney 
Sister Mary Agnes Doyle 
Sister Mary Angela O'Grady 
That God may reward them for all their good works is the prayer of 
everv earnest reader 



CHAPTER VII. 
DIOCESAN DIRECTORY. 

DIOCESE OF TRENTON 

(Dioecesis Trentonensis.) 

Legal Corporate Title, " The Diocese of Trenton." 

Established July 15, 1881. 

Comprises fourteen Counties in the State of Nevu Jersey — viz., Atlantic, Bur- 
lington, Camden, Cape May, Cumberland, Gloucester, Hunterdon, 
Mercer, Middlesex, Monmouth, Ocean, Salem, Somerset and 
Warren. 

Square Miles =' 5,756. 

RIGHT REVEREND JAMES A. McFAUL, D.D., LL.D., 

Bishop of Trenton; cons. Oct. 18, 1894, in St. Mary's Cathedral. — Res., 153 N. 
Warren Street, Trenton, N. J. 

First Bishop — Rt. Rev. Michael Joseph O'Farrell, D.D., cons. Nov. 1, 1881 ; 

died April 2, 1894. 
Vicar General — Rt. Rev. Mgr. John H. Fox. Res., St. Mary's Cathedral, 

Trenton, N. J. 
Chancellor— Rev. John W. Norris, J. C. D. Res., Deal, N. J. 
Secretary — Rev. James J. Powers. Res., 153 N. Warren St., Trenton, N. J. 
Diocesan Consultors — Right Rev. Mgr. John H. Fox, V. G., Rt. Rev. Mgr. 

John A. O'Grady, Dean ; Very Rev. B. J. Mulligan, Dean ; Revs. William 

P. Cantwell, B. T. O'Connell, P. J. Petri. 
Rural Deans — Rt. Rev. Mgr. John A. O'Grady, of New Brunswick; Very 

Rev. B. J. Mulligan, of Camden; Very Rev. Frederick Kivelitz, of Free- 
hold, and Very Rev. P. F. Connolly, of Phillipsburg. 
Curia for Criminal and Disciplinary Causes — Judge, to be appointed in each. 

case by the Rt. Rev. Bishop. 
Procurator Fiscalis — Rt. Rev. Mgr. John A. O'Grady; Cancellarius — Rev. 

John W. Norris, J. C. D. 
Curia for Matrimonial Causes — Judge, Right Rev. Mgr. John H. Fox, V. G. ; 

Defender of the Matrimonial Bond and Secretary, to be appointed by the 

Rt. Rev. Bishop. 

328 



DIOCESAN DIRECTORY 329 

Moderator of Conferences — Rev. John W. Murphy. 

Examiners of the Clergy — Right Rev. Mgr. John H. Fox, V. G. ; Rt. Rev. 
Mgr. John A. O'Grady, Dean; Very Rev. P. F. Connolly, Revs. D. J. 
Duggan, Joseph J. Zimmer, F. J. McShane, O. S. A. 

Examiners of Teachers — Very Rev. B. J. Mulligan, Dean ; Revs. D. J. Dug- 
gan, James F. Devine, Bernard T. O'Connell. 

Examiners of Schools — (Hunterdon, Somerset and Warren Counties) : Very 
Rev. P. F. Connolly, Chairman; Rev. William F. Dittrich, Secretary; and 
Revs. William H. Lynch and William H. Miller. (Middlesex County) : 
Rt. Rev. Mgr. John J. Q'Grady, Chairman; Rev. Bernard T. O'Connell, 
Secretary, and Revs. John F. Brady, James F. Devine. (Monmouth and 
Ocean Counties): Very Rev. Frederick Kivelitz, Chairman; Rev. James 
A. Reynolds, Secretary, and Revs. William P. Cantwell, Michael C. 
O'Doiinell, and Edward J. Egan. (Mercer and Burlington Counties) : 

Rt. Rev. Mgr. John H. Fox, V. G., Chairman ; Rev. Henry Ward, Secretary, 
and Revs. D. J. Duggan, Walter T. Leahy, and Bernadine Ludwig, O. M. 

C. (Atlantic, Camden, Cape May, Cumberland, Gloucester, and Salem 
Counties): Very Rev. Bernard J. Mulligan, Chairman; Rev. Peter J. 
Petri, Secretary, and Revs. Charles J. Giese, W. J. FitzGerald, J. C. D., 
and Lucius Matt, O. M. C. 

Ecclesiastical Chant Board — Rt. Rev. Mgr. John H. Fox, V. G., Hon. Pres. ; 
Rev. William H. Miller, Pres.; North Plainfield : Rev. William F. Dit- 
trich, Secretary ; Bound Brook, N. J. : Revs. Dennis J. Duggan ; Borden- 
town, N. J. : P. J. Petri ; Atlantic City : Joseph Keuper ; New Brunswick, 
->nd Mr. Godfrey Schroth, Director, St. Mary's Cathedral Choir, Trenton. 

CLERGY, CHURCHES, MISSIONS AND SCHOOLS. 

CITY OF TRENTON. 

St. Mary's Cathedral, Warren and Bank Streets, Rt. Rev. James A. McFaul, 
D.D., LL.D., Rt. Rev. Mgr. John H. Fox, V. G., rector; Revs. Arthur 

D. Hassett, Thomas J. Whalen, Edward C. Griffin, D.D. 

School — 11 Sisters of Mercy. 3 lay teachers. Sister Gonzaga, supr. 

Pupils, 805. 
Stations — Moore's Station, County Workhouse. 
State Industrial School, near Trenton. 
Wilburtha, Asylum for Insane. 
Sacred Heart, Broad and Centre Streets, Rev. Thaddeus Hogan, rector, and 

Revs. Wm. I. McKean and James B. Conway. 
Schools — 11 Sisters of Charity. Sister M. Emeliana, dir. Pupils, 512. 

Sacred Heart Academy. 3 Sisters of Charity. Sister Louise 
Edward. Pupils, 56. 
St. Francis of Assisium (German), West Front Street, near Willow, Rev. 
Joseph Rathner, D.D., rector. Res., 31 W. Front Street. 
School — 4 Sisters of St. Francis. Sister M. Frances, dir. Res., 38 Lafay- 
ette Street. Pupils, 240. 



330 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

St. Hedwig's (Polish), Brunswick and Olden Avenues, Rev. John Supinski, 

rector. Res., Ohio Avenue, above Olden Avenue. 
Holy Cross (Polish), Cass and Adeline Streets, Rev. Joseph Dziadosz, D.D., 
rector. 
School — 4 Felician Sisters, Sister M. Mansueta, dir. Pupils, 200. 
Immaculate Conception, Chestnut Avenue, Rev. Bernadine Ludwig, O. M. C, 
rector. Revs. Ferdinand Meyer, O. M. C, and Hyacinth McMahon, 
O. M. C. 
School — 7 Sisters of St. Francis. Sister M. Dolorosa, dir. Res., 1523 

Chestnut Avenue. Pupils, 566. 
Missions — Hightstown, Mercer County, St. Anthony of Padua, Rev. Stephen 
Korthas, O. M. C, rector. 
Perrineville, Monmouth County. 
Chapel — State Prison, Rev. Aloysius Fish, O. M. C, chaplain. 
St. Joachim's (Italian), Butler Street. Rev. Aloysius Pozzi, pastor. Rev. 
Joseph Targia. Res., 21 Bayard Street. 
School — Bayard Street. 2 lay teachers. Pupils, 90. 
Stations — Princeton, Kingston and Trenton Junction. 
St. Joseph's, Olden Avenue, Rev. Henry Ward, rector, Rev. John A. Carroll, 
Res., 2>7 Sherman Avenue. 
School — 5 Sisters of Mercy and 1 lay teacher. Sister M. Baptist, dir. 
Pupils, 405. 
St. Mary's (Greek), Grand Street, Rev. Basil A. Volosin. Res., 210 Grand 
Street. 
School — 2 lay teachers. Pupils, 125. 
SS. Peter and Paul's (Slavish), Second, below Federal Street, Rev. Coloman 
Tomsczhanyi, Res., 351 Second Street. 
School — 2 lay teachers. Pupils, 78. 
St. Stanislaus (Polish), Randall Avenue, Rev. Augustus Block, O. M. C, 
rector. Res., 71 Randall Avenue. 
School — 4 Franciscan Sisters of Christian Charity. Sister M. Sebastian, 
dir. Pupils, 125. 
St. Stephen's (Hungarian), (Church building). Rev. Charles Rodoczy, rec- 
tor. Res., 200 Genesee Street. 
Chapel — St. Francis Hospital. Rev. M. J. Brennan, chaplain. 

OUTSIDE OF THE CITY OF TRENTON. 

Mlentown, Monmouth Co., St. John's, Rev. Thomas F. Blake. 
Mission — New Egypt, Ocean Co., Assumption B. V. M. 
Station — Hamilton Square, Mercer Co. 
Alpha, (Whitaker), St. Mary's, (Hungarian), Rev. Charles Poliseck. 
Asbury Park, Monmouth Co., Holy Spirit, Revs. Thomas A. Roche and John 

O'Hara. 
Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, Rev. Nicholas Leone. 



DIOCESAN DIRECTORY 331 

Atlantic City, Atlantic Co., St. Nicholas of Tolentino, Rev. Francis J. Mc- 

Shane, O. S. A., rector. 
Our Lady Star of the Sea, Revs. P. J. Petri, Thomas F. Moran. 
St. Michael's, Rev. John Quaremba. 

Belmar, Monmouth Co., St. Rose's, Rev. W. J. McConnell. 
Bernardsville, Somerset Co., Our Lady of Perpetual Help, Rev. Joseph A. 
Ryan ; Dominican Father, assistant. 
Missions — Basking Ridge, Somerset Co., St. James'. 
Beverly, Burlington Co., St. Joseph's, Rev. Peter Dernis. 
Bordentown, Burlington Co., St. Mary's, Revs. Dennis J. Duggan, Edward J. 
Cahill. 
Mission — Florence, Burlington Co., St. Clare's. 
Bound Brook, Somerset Co., St. Joseph's, Rev. William F. Dittrich. 
Bradvelt, Monmouth Co., St. Gabriel's, Rev. John A. Lawrence. 

Mission — Everett, (Morrisville), Monmouth Co., St. Catherine of Genoa. 
Bridgeton, Cumberland Co., Immaculate Conception, Rev. Michael Hagerty, 

D.D. 
Burlington, Burlington Co., St. Paul's Rev. Henry W. Russi. 
Camden, Camden Co., Immaculate Conception, Broadway and Market Streets, 
Very Rev. Dean B. J. Mulligan, Revs. John A. Sullivan and James A. 
Healy. 
Sacred Heart, Ferry Street and Broadway, Rev. Maurice E. Brie. 
Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, Revs. Michael Di Ielsi and Nicholas Nota. 

Missions — West Berlin, Our Lady of Mt. Carmel. 
SS. Peter and Paul's (German), Division and 4th Streets, Rev. Lucius Matt, 
O. M. C, rector. Revs. William Peberi and Martin Whitekamp, O. M. C. 
St. Joseph's, Rev. A. Shuvlin, Res., 2503 Howell Street. 
St. Joseph's (Polish), Rev. M. Tarnowski. 

Cape May, Cape May Co., St. Mary's Star of the Sea, Rev. D. S. Kelly. 
Carteret, Middlesex Co., St. Joseph's, Rev. John J. O'Farrell. 
Deal, Monmouth Co., St. Mary's, Rev. J. W. Norris, J. C. D. 
Dunellen, Somerset Co., St., John the Evangelist, Rev. Edward J. Dumphy. 

Mission — South Plainfield, Somerset Co. 
East Millstone, Somerset Co., St. Joseph's, Rev. William P. Treacy. 
East Vineland, Cumberland Co., St. Mary's, Rev. N. Coscia. 
Eatontown, Monmouth Co., St. Dorothea's (church building), Rev. Aloysius 
Quinlan. 
Mission — Colt's Neck, Monmouth Co., St. Mary's. 
Egg Harbor City, Atlantic Co., St. Nicholas', Rev. A. Van Riel. 
Flemington, St. Magdalene de Pazzi, Rev. John E. Murray. 
Mission — Clinton, Immaculate Conception. 
Station — Stockton. 
Freehold, Monmouth Co., St. Rose of Lima's, Very Rev. Frederick Kivelitz, 
dean. 
School — 3 Sisters of St. Francis. Sister M. Theodora, dir. Pupils, 155. 



332 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Glassboro, St. Bridget's, Rev. Richard O'Farrell. 
Missions — Elmer, St. Ann's. 

Mullica Hill, Holy Name of Jesus. 
Stations — Clayton, Gloucester Co. 

Franklinville, Gloucester Co. 
Hardingville, Gloucester Co. 
Magnolia, Gloucester Co. 
Monroe, Gloucester Co. 
Union, Gloucester Co. 
Gloucester, Camden Co., St. Mary's, Revs. Charles J. Giese, (Diocesan Dir. of 
Priests' Euch. League) ; Rev. Alfred E. Scully. 
School — 8 Sisters of St. Dominic. Sister M. Dalmatia, dir. Pupils, 348. 
Station — Blackwood, Camden Co. 
Haddon Heights, Camden Co., St. Rose's, Rev. J. A. Egan. 
Hammonton, Atlantic Co., St. Joseph's, Rev. Joseph Transerici, P. S. M.; 
Rev. Joseph Riedl, assistant. 
Missions — Waterford, Camden Co., Holy Family. 
Cedar Brook, Camden Co. 
Winslow, Camden Co. 
Stations — Atsion, Burlington Co. 
Malaga, Gloucester Co. 
High Bridge, Hunterdon Co., St. Joseph's, Rev. Simon B. Walsh. 
Stations — Annandale, Hunterdon Co. 
Lebanon, Hunterdon Co. 
Highlands, Monmouth Co., Our Lady of Perpetual Help. Rev. John J. 
Sweeney. 
Stations — Highland Beach, Monmouth Co. 
Navesink, Monmouth Co. 
Holly Beach, Cape May Co., St. Ann's, Rev. James A. Moroney. 
Stations — Anglesea, Cape May Co. 
Wildwood, Cape May Co. 
Hopewell, Mercer Co., St. Alphonsus', Rev. Wm. J. Reddan. 
Station — Skillman, Somerset Co. 

Chapel — St. Michael's Orphan Asylum and Industrial School, Hopewell. 
Jamesburg, Middlesex Co., St. James the Less, Rev. Michael H. Callahan. 
Stations — Helmetta. 

Millstone, Monmouth Co. 
Prospect Plains, Middlesex Co. 
Chapel — State Reform School. 
Junction, Hunterdon Co., St. Ann's, Rev. Thomas A. Allen. 
Mission — West Portal, Hunterdon Co., St. Joachim's. 
Station — Bloomsbury, Hunterdon Co. 
Keyport, Monmouth Co., St. Joseph's, Rev. Michael C. O'Donnell. 
School — 3 Sisters of Mercy. Sister M. Irene, dir. Pupils, 100. 
Lakewood, Ocean Co., St. Mary's of the Lake, Revs. Thomas B. Healy, Ed- 
ward C. Mannion. 



DIOCESAN DIRECTORY 333 

School — Academy. St. Mary's of the Lake. 4 Sisters. Sister M. Ray- 
mond, dir. Pupils, 40. 

Chapel — Academy, St. Mary's of the Lake. 

Sanitarium — St. James' Hall in the Pines. Sisters of St. Joseph. 
Lambertville, Hunterdon Co., St. John's, Rev. William H. Lynch. 

School — 5 Sisters of Mercy. Sister M. Helena, dir. Pupils, 200. 
Laurel Springs, Camden Co., St. Lawrence's, Rev. Gregory F. Moran. 

Mission — Gibbsboro, Camden Co., St. Edward's. 
Lawrenceville, Mercer Co., Morris Hall, Home for Aged. 

Chapel — Rev. John Gammell, chaplain. 

Mission — Pennington, Mercer Co., St. James'. 
Long Beach City, St. Thomas', (open only in summer). 

Long Branch, Monmouth Co., Our Lady, Star of the Sea, Revs. Wm. P. Cant- 
well, F. H. Langan. 

School — 5 Sisters of Charity. Pupils, 120. Sister M. Digna, dir. Pupils 
165. 

Academy — 9 Sisters of Charity. Sister Imelda, sister-servant. Pupils, 130. 

Mission — Monmouth Beach, Monmouth Co., Precious Blood. 

Station — Galilee, Monmouth Co. 

Long Branch City, Monmouth Co. 
North Long Branch, Monmouth Co. 
Ocean Port, Monmouth Co. 

St. Michael's, (West End), Rev. Richard A. Crean. 

Station — Norwood, Monmouth Co. 
Merchantville, Camden Co., St. Peter's, Rev. P. J. Clune. 

Mission — Collingswood, Camden Co., St. John's. 

Stations — Delair, Camden Co. 

Pensauken, Camden Co. 
Metuchen, Middlesex Co., St. Francis, Rev. John A. Graham. 
Millville, Cumberland Co., St. Mary Magdalene's, Rev. Wm. J. Fitzgerald. 
IVJilmay, Atlantic Co., St. Mary's, Rev. Theodore McCormick. 
Minotola, Atlantic Co., St. Michael's, Rev. Gerald Cristiano. 
Moorestown, Burlington Co., Our Lady of Good Counsel, Rev. John W. Mur- 
phy. 
Mount Holly, Burlington Co., Sacred Heart, Rev. Peter J. Hart. 

Mission — Jobstown, Burlington Co., St. Andrew's. 
New Brunswick, Middlesex Co., St. Peter's, Somerset Street, Rt. Rev. Mgr. 
John A. O'Grady. dean. 

St. Mary of Mount Virgin's, Rev. Francis Papa. 

St. John the Baptist (German), Rev. Joseph Keuper. 

Sacred Heart, Troop Ave. and Suydam Street, Rev. Jas. F. Devine. 

St. Ladislaus Magyar (Hungarian), Rev. John Nep Sneneczey. 
New Monmouth, Monmouth Co., St. Mary's, Rev. John R. O'Connor. 
North Plainfield, Somerset Co., St. Joseph's, Rev. Wm. H. Miller. 
Ocean City, Cape May Co., St. Augustine's, Rev. John A. Caulfield. 



334 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Oxford Furnace, Warren Co., St. Rose of Lima's, Rev. Peter J. Kelly. 

Mission — Belvidere, Warren Co., St. Patrick's. 
Perth Amboy, Middlesex Co., St. Mary's, Center Street, Rev. Bernard T. 
O'Connell. 
St. Stephen's (Polish) State Street, Rev. Julian Zielinski. 
Church of the Holy Trinity (Slavish), Division Street, Rev. Nicholas 

Hodobay. 
St. Mary's Greek Church, Penn Street, Rev. Louis Novah. 
Holy Cross Church (Hungarian), State Street, Rev. Louis Kovacs. 
Phillipsburg, Warren Co., SS. Philip and James', Very Rev. P. F. Connolly. 
Point Pleasant, Ocean Co., St. Peter's, Rev. Daniel Lutz. 

Port Reading, St. , Rev. Clemens Cardarelli. 

Princeton, Mercer Co., St. Paul's, Rev. Walter T. Leahy. 
Raritan, Somerset Co., St. Bernard's, Rev. Jos. J. Zimmer. 

St. Ann's (church building), Rev. Isidore Cortesi. 
Red Bank, Monmouth Co., St. James', Rev. Jas. A. Reynolds. 
Riverside, Burlington Co., St. Peter's, Rev. Theodosius Goth. 
Riverton, Burlington Co., Sacred Heart, Rev. James F. Hendrick. 
Salem, Salem Co., St. Mary's, Rev. Stephen M. Lyons. 
Sandy Hook, Monmouth Co., Fort Hancock, St. Mary's Catholic Church, 

Rev. R. A. Ryan. 
Sayreville, Middlesex Co., Our Lady of Victories, Rev. James H. Farrington. 
Seabright, Monmouth Co., Holy Cross, Rev. Edward J. Egan. 
Stations — Low Moor. 
Normandie. 

Oceanic, Monmouth Co. 
Rumson Beach. 
Sea Isle City, Cape May Co., St. Joseph's, Rev. C. F. Phelan. 

Mission — Goshen, Cape May Co., St. Elizabeth of Hungary. 
Somerville, Somerset Co., Immaculate Conception, Rev. Martin A. v. d. 
Bogaard. 
Station — Neshanic, Somerset Co. 
South Amboy, Middlesex Co., St. Mary's, Revs. John F. Brady, M. J. Lavey. 
School — io Sisters of Mercy. Sister Margaret Mary, dir. Pupils, 450. 
Sacred Heart (Polish), Revs. Francis Czernecki, Arthur B. Strenski. 
School — 4 Felician Sisters, O. S. F. Sister M. Cyprana, dir. Pupils, 214. 
South River, St. Mary's, (Polish), Rev. Francis Regorvich, rector. 
Spring Lake, Monmouth Co., St. Catherine's, Revs. Thomas J. McLaughlin, 
Patrick J. Morrissey. 
Stations — Como. 

Sea Girt, Monmouth Co. 
Manasquan. 
Stony Hill, Somerset Co. (P. O. Scotch Plains, R. F. D.), St. Mary's, Rev. 
Linus A. Schwarze. 



DIOCESAN DIRECTORY 335 

Swedesboro, Gloucester Co., St. Joseph's, Rev. Michael C. McCorristin. 
Stations — Auburn, Gloucester Co. 

Bridgeport, Gloucester Co. 
Courses Landing, Salem Co. 
Fredericktown, Salem Co. 
Tom's River, Ocean Co., St. Joseph's, Patrick J. Powers. 
Mission — Lakehurst, Ocean Co., St. John's. 
Station — Tuckerton, Burlington Co. 
Vineland, Cumberland Co., Sacred Heart, Rev. Thomas J. Rudden. 
Stations — Garden Road, Cumberland Co. 
Newfield, Gloucester Co. 
South Vineland, Cumberland Co. 
Willow Grove, Gloucester Co. 
Washington, Warren Co., St. Joseph's, Rev. Joseph A. Rigney. . . 

Mission — Hackettstown, Warren Co., Assumption B. V. M. 
Woodbridge, Middlesex Co., St. James', Rev. John J. Griffin. 

School — 5 Sisters of Mercy. Sister M. Stanislaus, dir. Pupils, 240. 
Woodbury, Gloucester Co., St. Patrick's, Rev. Michael Dolan. 
Mission — Paulsboro, St. John's. 
Stations — Barnsboro', Gloucester Co. 

Billingsport, St. John's (church not built). 
Gibbsboro, Gloucester Co. 
Iona, Gloucester Co. 
Malaga, Gloucester Co. 
Mount Royal, Gloucester Co. 
Mantua, Gloucester Co. 
Sewell, Gloucester Co. 
Wenona, Gloucester Co. 
Woodstown, Salem Co., St. Joseph's, Rev. James F. Morrison. 
Mission — Penn's Grove, St. James's 
Stations — Carney's Point. 

Harrisonville, Salem Co. 
Point Airy. 
Sharptown, Salem Co. 
Retired, infirm and absent : Revs. James McKernan, Patrick Hanley, Neal 
McMenamin, Patrick Treacy, John Schandel, James C. Kane, Thomas J. 
O'Hanlon, 

INSTITUTIONS IN CHARGE OF RELIGIOUS ORDERS. 

Trenton, Convent of St. Francis of the Minor Conventuals, Chestnut Avenue, 
Rev. Bernardine Ludwig, O. M. C, Supr. ; Very Rev. Francis M. Neu- 
bauer, O. M. C, Master of Clerics and Novices ; Rev. Aloys M. Fisher, 
O. M. C.,; Rev. Ferdinand Mayer, J. C. D., O. M. C.,; Rev. Hyacinth 
McMahon, O. M. C. 7 Clerics, 3 Novices and 3 lay brothers. To the 
Convent is annexed St. Francis' College : Rev. Daniel Lutz, J. C. D., O. 



336 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

M. C, rector; Gregory Scheuerman, D.D., O. M. C, Stephan Korthas, 
O. M. C, Ignatius Berna, O. M. C. 3 lay brothers and 34 students. 

Atlantic City, Summer House, Redemptorist Fathers. 

Bordentown, Motherhouse of the Congregation of the Mission. 

Little Silver, Summer House, Redemptorist Fathers. 

Metuchen, Novitiate of the Brothers of the Sacred Heart. The Motherhouse 
of the Brothers of the Sacred Heart in the United States. Bro. Fabian, 
Dir. Brothers, 12; Novices, 55. Rev. Francis Papa, chaplain. 

Sea Isle City, Summer House. (Diocese of Philadelphia.) St. Joseph's. 

House for Homeless Boys. Rev. D. Fitzgibbon, C. S. Sp. Inmates, 125. 

ORDERS OF WOMEN. 

Trenton, Sacred Heart Academy. Sister M. Emeliana Dir. Pupils, 50. 

St. Francis Hospital, Cor. Hamilton Avenue and Chambers Street. 29 Sisters 
of the Third Order of St. Francis. Sister Mary Hyacintha, Supr. 
Patients treated during the year, 1700 in-door and 6000 out-door. Beds, 
160. Rev. M. J. Brennan, chaplain. 

St. Michael's Union (formerly St. Mary's Union), established February 2, 
1882, for the protection, education and moral improvement of homeless 
children, under the patronage of the Rt. Rev. James A. McFaul, Bishop 
of the diocese, and conducted by the Rev. Director, who has charge also 
of "St. Michael's Messenger" (formerly St. Mary's Messenger). This 
pious association, through the annual alms of 25 cents from each member 
is the chief support of " St. Michael's Orphan Asylum and Industrial 
School, Hopewell, N. J." (legal title). Several donations have been re- 
ceived during the past year for the Orphan Asylum ; it is hoped that these 
are but an earnest of similar gifts from those whom God- has blessed with 
temporal goods. All correspondence should be addressed : Rev. James J. 
Powers, Director, St. Michael's Union, 153 North Warren Street, Tren- 
ton, N. J. 

St. James' Day Nursery, 136 North Warren Street. Mission Helpers of the 
Sacred Heart. Mother M. Michael, Supr. Number of children in nur- 
sery, 65. 8 Sisters, 1 Postulant. 

Atlantic City, St. Ann's Convent for Italians (Mission Helpers). Sister M. 
Luke, Supr. 4 Sisters. 2727 Atlantic Avenue. 

Beverly, St. Joseph's Home of Providence for the Aged. 8 Sisters of St. 
Francis. Sister M. Hyacintha, Supr. Inmates, 33. 

Bordentown, Motherhouse of the Sisters of Mercy. Mother M. Gabriel, 
Supr. 25 Sisters, 13 Novices. Number in diocese, 145. Connected with 
the Motherhouse is St. Joseph's Academy. Pupils, 40. 

Camden, Association of the Perpetual Rosary, Monastery of the Dominican 
Sisters. Sister Catherine of Sienna, prioress. Founded in 1900 by Sisters 
from West Hoboken, N. J. Established specially for the Association at 
Camden, N. J., where the chapel is the center of the Perpetual Rosary in 
America. 16 professed Sisters, 5 Lay Sisters and 5 postulants. Rev. D. 
M. Saintouren, O. P., chaplain. 1500 Haddon Avenue. 



DIOCESAN DIRECTORY 337 

Cape May, Sisters of the Holy Child. Summer House. (Motherhouse, Sha- 
ron Hill, Pa.) 

Hopewell, Legal title, " St. Michael's Orphan Asylum and Industrial School, 
Hopewell, N. J." All bequests to this Institution should be made in the 
above title, leaving it discretionary with the Rt. Rev. Bishop of the Dio- 
cese of Trenton, N. J., to apply the funds for that or any other diocesan 
charitable work. In charge of Sisters of the Third Order of St. Francis. 
11 Sisters. Children, 180. Sister M. de Sales, supr. 

Lakewood, Academy of St. Mary of the Lake, 8 Sisters of Mercy. Mother 
M. Raymond, dir. 40 pupils. 
St James' Hall in the Pines. Sanitarium under the care of the Sisters of 

St. Joseph. Sister M. Virginia, supr. 11 Sisters of St. Joseph. 
Motherhouse and Novitiate of the Sisters of St. Joseph, to which is at- 
tached a training school for nurses. Mother M. Virginia, supr. Sister 
M, Victorine, assistant. Sister M. Augustine, secretary. 

Lawrenceville, Mercer Co. Morris Hall (Home for the Aged of both sexes). 
All communications must be addressed : Sister M. Juniperia, supr., Law- 
renceville, N. J. The legal corporate title is "The Diocese of Trenton" 
(Body corporate) for the benefit and use of Morris Hall Home for the 
Aged, near Lawrenceville, N. J. 7 Sisters of St. Francis. Rev. John 
Gammell, chaplain. 

Long Branch, St. Mary's, Star of the Sea, Academy. 8 Sisters of Charity. 
Sister M. Imelda, supr. Pupils, 90. 

New Brunswick, St. Agnes' Academy. 2 Sisters of Charity. Sister M. 
Rosina, supr. Pupils, 60. 
St. Mary's Catholic Orphan Asylum and Home for the Aged (corporate 
title : " The Sisters of St. Francis of St. Mary's Orphan Asylum, New 
Brunswick, New Jersey.") All bequests, etc., to the Asylum at New 
Brunswick should be bequeathed under the above corporate title. 10 
Sisters of St. Francis. Aged women, — , orphans, 82. Sister M. Phil- 
ippa, supr. Attended from St. Peter's, New Brunswick. In connection 
with this Institution there is attached an Asylum for Infants, 9; old peo- 
ple, 15. 

North Plainfield, St. Joseph's Home for Working Girls. 5 Sisters of Mercy. 
Sister M. Philomena, supr. 
St. Gabriel's Academy, Sister M. Philomena, dir. 5 Sisters. Pupils, 40. 
Mt. St. Mary's College of the Sisters of Mercy. 

Phillipsburg. St. Catherine's Convent of Merc}-. 9 Sisters. Sister M. Gon- 
zaga, supr. 

Point Pleasant. Summer House of St. Vincent's Home, Archdiocese of Phil- 
adelphia. Sister M. Joseph, supr. 10 Sisters. Children, 180. 

Sea Isle City. Walsh Memorial Home. Summer House, Archdiocese of 
Philadelphia. Mother M. Arsenia, supr. 14 Sisters. 225 orphans (girls). 
Continental House. Sister M. Bonaventura, supr. 20 Sisters. 480 orphan 
boys. Summer Home, Archdiocese of Philadelphia. 



3$8 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Convent of St. Mary. Summer Home. (Sisters of Mercy, Pittsburg, Pa.) 
Convent of St. Joseph. Summer Home. (Sisters of St. Joseph, Chestnut 
Hill.) 

RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES IN DIOCESE. 

COMMUNITIES OF MEN. 

Franciscan Fathers (Minor Conventuals), Trenton, Camden, Point Pleasant. 

Augustinian Fathers, Atlantic City. 

Priests of the Congregation of the Mission (Summer only), Bordentown. 

Fathers of the Pious Missions, Hammonton. 

Brothers of the Sacred Heart Novitiate, Metuchen. 

Fathers of Holy Ghost, Sea Isle City (Summer only). 

Brothers of the Christian Schools, Ocean City (Summer only). 

COMMUNITIES OF WOMEN. 

Sisters of St. Francis (Syracuse, N. Y.) St. Francis School, Trenton; Home, 

Beverly; School, Riverside; School, Pavonia. 
Sisters of the Third Order of St. Francis (Glen Riddle, Pa.). Immaculate 

Conception School, St. Francis' Hospital, Trenton. Egg Harbor City r 

Freehold; New Brunswick; Hopewell, N. J., Lawrenceville. 
Franciscan Sisters of Christian Charity (Alverno, Wis.). Trenton.* 
Sisters of Charity (Convent Station, N. J.). Sacred Heart, Academy and 

School, Trenton; Long Branch; Millville ; New Brunswick, Academy and 

School. 
Mission Helpers (Motherhouse, Baltimore.) Trenton, St. James' Convent,. 

136 N. Warren Street. St. Ann's Convent, Atlantic City. 
Sisters of Mercy (Bordentown, N. J.). Motherhouse, Academy and School, 

Bordentown; Bound Brook; Burlington; Camden; Cape May; Keyport; 

Academy, Lakewood; Lambertville ; North Plainfield ; Perth Amboy; 

Phillipsburg ; Princeton ; Raritan ; Red Bank ; Sayreville ; Trenton, St. 

Joseph's and Cathedral; South Amboy; Woodbridge. 
School of Notre Dame (Baltimore, Md.). School, Camden. 
Sisters of St. Dominic (New York City). School, Gloucester. 
Dominican Sisters of the Perpetual Rosary, Camden, N. J. Sister Catherine 

of Sienne, prioress. 8 Sisters. Res., 1500 Haddon ave. Rev. D. M. 

Saintourens, O. P., chaplain. 
Felician Sisters (Doyle, N. Y.), Trenton, Camden, South Amboy, and Perth 

. Amboy. 
Sisters of St. Joseph. Lakewood. 



DIOCESAN DIRECTORY 



339 



RECAPITULATION. 



Bishop i 

Secular Priests 132 

Priests of Religious Orders.. 22 

Total 154 

Churches with resident priest, 100 
Churches in course of erection 

and contemplated 4 

Missions with churches 40 

Stations 90 

Religious Women (inc. Nov- 
ices and Postulants) 320 

Colleges of Religious Orders, 1 

Students 34 

Academies for young ladies.. 6 

Pupils 320 

Parishes with P a r o c h i a- 1 

Schools 43 

Pupils 10,659 



Orphan Asylums 2 

Orphans 270 

Total of young people under 

Catholic care 15,294 

Hospitals 1 

Number treated during year : 

Indoor 1,700 

Outdoor 5,000 

Total 6,700 

Day Nursery 1 

Number of children 65 

Homes for Aged 2 

Inmates during year 45 

Baptisms 4,953 

Marriages 1,178 

Burials 2,224 

Catholic population about. . . .99,000 
Total pop. (census 1900) .. .716,282 



PASTORAL LETTERS 



OF 

THE RT. REV. JAMES A. McFAUL, 

BISHOP OF TRENTON 

THE CHRISTIAN HOME 

1905-. 




setvice. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

PASTORAL LETTERS. 

THE CHRISTIAN HOME. 

N. B. — i. A portion of this Pastoral Letter is to read at all the Masses, 
beginning February 26th, Sexagesima Sunday. If a few pages be read instead 
of the usual instruction or sermon, the Letter can be finished during Lent. 

2. Those priests, whose congregations do not understand English, will 
translate the Letter and read it in their respective languages. 

James Augustine, by the grace of God and the favor of the Apostolic See, 
Bishop of Trenton, to the Clergy and Faithful of his Diocese, .health and 
benediction. 

Venerable Brethren of the Clergy, and Beloved Children in Christ Jesus : 

We have already addressed you by numerous letters and sermons on im- 
portant subjects. A special Circular Letter was sent to the priests, in which 
the principal laws enacted by the Diocesan Synod were brought to their atten- 
tion, and now we have prepared, for all under our charge, a Pastoral Letter 
to supplement and develop the substance of our discourses delivered during 
the Canonical Visitations. 

We have selected as our theme " The Christian Home." This subject 
has been suggested by our own observation and reflection as well as by the 
testimony of those without the fold who affirm the alarming deterioration of 
American home-life. We quote from an address pronounced before the 
Religious Educational Association : — 

" We all rejoice in the remarkable growth and the excellent features of 
American civilization; we are pleased at the relatively good state of the com- 
mon morality of the people ; but a deeper examination of the social side of our 
American life reveals a situation that causes anything but satisfaction. It is a 
matter of consternation and deep concern to us that the moral standard of 
American life is deteriorating. In the hustle and bustle of every-day activity, 
we have astonished the world, but morally we are rapidly going astern — so 
rapidly that one is dumfounded at the contrast, after a visit to some of the 
countries of the Old World. I am an optimist through and through, but I 
am not a stone-blind optimist. I feel, and I know from observation, that 
religion has little, if any part, in our American civilization to-day. This is a 
lamentable state of affairs, and it behooves each and all of us to do all we can 



342 



PASTORAL LETTERS 343 

to stem this tide of indifference. Our home-life is not what it should be, and 
it is not to be wondered at when we realize the general apathy of the people 
as regards their spiritual welfare." 

Let us consider what home-life should be, and what influence is on the 
family and on society. 

THE HOME, THE CHURCH AND THE SCHOOL. 

There are three great educational institutions : the Christian home, the 
Christian Church, and the Christian school. Each has its own special sphere, 
each bears an intimate relation to the other. So necessary is the home with 
the education it impart? that the Church and the school can only with the 
greatest difficulty produce desirable results, or counteract evil tendencies 
without its assistance. 

We all understand what is meant by " Home'' yet we find no words 
adequate to describe it, to express its joys and its sorrows, to picture the 
sweet recollections which cling so closely and lovingly around it, thrilling us 
with the tenderest emotions, and making us realize the exquisite pathos em- 
bodied in that simple melody, " Home ! Home ! Sweet, Sweet Home ! " 

GOD AND THE HOME. 

A well-known scholar points out the analogy between God and the family. 
The language is so simple and expressive that I deem it expedient to quote 
the passage in its entirety : " In the holy family of Nazareth we have a per- 
fect model of a Christian home. Man was made after God's image and God 
Himself was his preceptor. God was his model, and it was his privilege to 
aspire and seek to attain the perfection of his Maker. But man was made for 
society; and the unit of society is the family. Now the model for the family 
is the Blessed Trinity. While the individual can aspire to the perfection of 
Divinity, the family finds its archetype in the relations between the Three 
Persons of the Adorable Trinity. Our Saviour was the most perfect image 
of God ; He came down from Heaven to earth that He might be for us a 
model, so that in our striving after divine perfection we might have Him to 
copy after. Therefore, He said : ' Follow me ; I have lived, and I leave you 
an example.' But man in his family relations finds a model, not in the indi- 
vidual Christ, but in the life of the Triune God; the Eternal Father generated 
from all eternity His divine Son; and the term of this filiation is the Holy 
Ghost. The Father is the source of the Holy Trinity; the Son has been 
generated by the Eternal Father ; and the love which binds the Father to the 
Son is the Holy Ghost. And these three are one. 

" In Christian marriage we have something of this mystery ; for the man 
and the woman united in Christian wedlock are one. Our Saviour says they 
are two in one flesh. God so made it from the beginning. There is more 
than a mere contractual union ; there is a union of state, making the wife and 
the husband one moral entity. In married life the husband does not lead an 
individual existence ; neither does the wife. There is a union of mind, a 
community of sentiment, a union of heart ; there is a perfect sympathy, uniting 



344 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

their lives and blending them in one— just as the Father and the Son are 
one. From this union proceeds offspring — just as from the union of Father 
and Son proceeds the Holy Ghost. So that the Christian family is the unit; 
and is composed of father, mother, and children ; and these three are one 
Christian family. God in His triune life is the model of this family. He is 
one, essentially one; so must the family be. He is happy, essentially happy; 
so should the family be. He is love, essentially love ; so must the family be. 
These three conditions must unite the family if they would reflect the image 
of the Triune God. The family must be one, it must be happy, and it must be 
loving. Therefore, when God gave His commandments to Moses on Mount 
Sinai, He claimed the first three commandments for Himself : ' I am the Lord 
thy God ; Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain ; Thou 
shalt keep the Lord's day holy.' But the fourth commandment, the one next 
in importance to the three that concerned the honor due to the Godhead, refers 
to the father and the mother : ' Thou shalt honor thy father and thy mother.' 
Here we have the father united to the mother in love, and the father and 
the mother united to their offspring by obedience and honor. This was the 
primal idea; this was the family as contemplated by God.* 

PAGANISM AND THE HOME. 

Previous to the establishment of Christianity, there was no conception of 
the home such as is found in the new dispensation. Under the law of 
nature, and that of the patriarchs, as well as under the law of Moses, the 
individual, and the family : the husband, the wife, and the child, were merged 
in the tribe and the nation, and their life partook of all the imperfections of 
that primeval state. This condition is forcibly conspicuous among all those 
peoples who, following their own conceits, wandered away from primitive 
revelation. Neglect of the individual is a striking characteristic of heathenism. 
The Father had absolute control over the family; it included wife, children, 
and slaves, and these were really so many chattels subject to the will of the 
master. 

Paganism prized the multitude because it was a multitude, an accumula- 
tion of animal force ; the individual was valued only in so far as he contributed 
to the strength, stability, perpetuity, and welfare of the" multitude, or the 
State. Such is the prime defect of all systems of government not based 
upon the principles of the Gospel. Christ planted the seeds of true liberty, 
when He said : " You shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you 
free."** The Pagan never fully apprehended, and, therefore, never rightly 
appreciated man's sublime dignity. For the same reason man was not shown 
the respect due him as a creature made to the image and the likeness of the 
Creator, whose inheritance was the earth, and Heaven his final reward and 
dwelling place. Unbelievers boast of their acquisition of what they are pleased 



*The Gospel Applied to Our Times. 
**Jno. VIII., 32. 



PASTORAL LETTERS 345 

to call " freedom of thought," forgetting that, when God and His teachings 
are cast aside, the mass of humanity sinks to a low level, while men and 
women become the slaves, and the instruments of the vices of the rich, the 
powerful, and the indolent. History shows that, in so far as men have de- 
parted from the true conceptions of God and their everlasting home, they 
have lost those principles on which the happiness of the earthly home and the 
family are founded. 

MERE DWELLINGS. 

Alas ! many houses of the poor are mere dwellings, the atmosphere im- 
pregnated and tainted with intemperance and general disorder, causing the 
heart to sicken and loathe entrance therein. The father seeks solace, perhaps, 
in the saloon ; the children betake themselves to the streets, are thrown among 
vicious companions, and rush headlong to destruction. The comforts, the 
pleasures, the peace that should be found in the house are absent, and, there- 
fore, it is deserted. If we examine the residences of the rich, we will discover 
that many of them, too, are far from being homes. There is a veneer of 
respectability, refinement, and virtue ; they are, however, but " whitened sepul- 
chres." The family shrine is frequently dedicated to jealousy, wrangling, 
mammon, intemperance, and lust. What extraordinary sacrifices those of 
slender fortune make to keep up the pace set by their more opulent neighbors ! 
Finally, the strain becomes unbearable, and is followed by inevitable collapse, 
and disgrace. In some families continued prosperity has banished the fear of 
God, and the observance of His commandments. There, the family life is 
little above that of paganism; worldly enjoyments and pleasures being the sole 
purpose of existence. The men and women, who go forth from these habita- 
tions, scorn honest poverty ; and those reared amid squalor, degradation, and 
grinding toil are easily brought by unprincipled demagogues to hate the pos- 
sessors of wealth. In this way the chasm between the classes and the masses 
is widened daily, and the seeds of discontent, hatred, and revenge, sown to 
mature into Socialism, Nihilism, and Anarchism. 

HUSBAND AND WIFE. 

Let us leave these gloomy and distressing scenes, and, knowing that "Un- 
less the Lord build the house, they labor in vain that build it,"* view the home 
as composed by the Almighty. The husband is the head of the household. 
This is the natural order sanctioned by the Creator : "Let the women be sub- 
ject to their husbands, as to the Lord: because the husband is the head of the 
wife, as Christ is the head of the church. Therefore as the church is subject 
to Christ, so also let the wives be to their husbands in all things."§ Woman, 



*Ps. CXXVI. 
§ Eph. V., 22-24. 



346 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

however, is by no means the slave of man as she was under paganism, for 
the Apostle adds : "Husbands, love your wives, as Christ also loved the church, 
and delivered Himself up for it."** 

The wife is the companion of her husband, his equal in her own sphere. 
God created Eve to be to Adam " a help unto himself ."*** Men and women 
are the complements of each other. Certain qualities possessed by the one 
are wanting in the other. A woman is called a virago, not because she has 
the qualities of a man, but because she lacks those distinctive of normal 
womanhood. In like manner, a man is said to be effeminate because he has 
not the characteristics peculiar to a man. Each has a different province and 
they are signally well adapted to it. The husband is the provider ; he is 
robust and active, courageous, willing to face difficulties and dangers, and to 
make sacrifices. He is fitted to rule, to found States and nations, to regulate 
domestic and public affairs, and to defend with his life, if necessary, his 
hearth and his country. The wife has been formed in a finer mould, she pos- 
sesses grace, gentleness, and beauty. She does not reason so much as she 
feels. To enable her to occupy this unique position over the family, her in- 
stincts are more delicate and penetrating; they outstrip the slow, cumbersome, 
logical processes of man. He discerns danger when it confronts him; she 
detects it afar off, and gives instant alarm. Holy Scripture has vividly por- 
trayed the true wife: "Who shall find a valiant woman? Far and from the 
uttermost coasts is the price of her. The heart of her husband trusteth in 
her. * * *. She will render him good, and not evil, all the days of her 
life. * * * Her husband is honorable in the gates, zvhen he sitteth among 
the senators of the land. * * * Her children rose up, and called her 
blessed: her husband, and he praised her."* 

PARENTS AND THE HOME. 

Parents should resolve to make the home inviting and attractive. Too 
many men regard the house solely as a place for eating and sleeping, whereas 
by strength of faith, warmth of love, its pure moral atmosphere, its neatness 
and comfort, it should be the dearest, sweetest, most charming spot on earth ; 
valued for the hallowed relations arising from the intimate intercourse be- 
tween the Christian father, mother, and child. 

O the exalted position of the Christian father ! How carefully he should 
qualify himself for his sublime and difficult office ! It is a pleasure to be in the 
company of the true Catholic father, to listen to his conversation, to watch his 
example. He knows the doctrines of the Church, and can render an account 
of the faith that is in him ; he fulfills the obligation of hearing Holy Mass ; he 
receives the sacraments at seasonable times, has his pew in the church, and 
occupies it with his family. He delights in assisting religion according to his 



** Eph. V., 25. 

***Gen. II., 18. 

* Prov. XXXI., 10-28. 



PASTORAL LETTERS 



347 



means, is industrious, sober, and amply provides the necessaries and some of 
the comforts of life for himself and those intrusted to his care. He is manly, 
not effeminate ; cheerful, not gloomy and narrow ; happy and contented, not 
peevish and fault-finding. The firm, noble manliness of the father should 
make the sound of his footsteps the sweetest music to his dear ones. Then, 
his love together with the mother's affection and prudence, will inspire respect 
for parental authority, and bring about that cheerful obedience which makes 
the house another Eden. 

The parents owe the child health of body and soul, a debt which increases 
with its years and cannot remain unpaid without the commission of sin. Woe 
to the parents who bring physical disease upon their children, but greater woe 
to those who are the cause of their moral ruin. Let the father and mother 
teach their offspring the doctrines of religion and morality. Thus will con- 
science recognize its obligations, and that knowledge be obtained which 
strengthens good inclinations, opposes evil propensities, and has a wholesome 
effect on the entire conduct. 

It is an old saying that " words move, example draws." When we speak 
of good example in the home, we mean not only that the father and the 
mother should abstain from intemperance, dishonesty, backbiting, anger, and 
the like, but that the exercise of all the virtues should be so prominent as to 
attract the notice of their children, and influence their daily lives. Beyond 
doubt, if the public and private life of the parents make them esteemed, the 
children will be proud of them, admire them, and desire to imitate them. 

WOMAN AND THE HOME. 

History proclaims the power of woman when it relates that all great men 
had great mothers. Well has it been said : " The hand that rocks the cradle 
shapes and rules the world." 

Who has not been moved by the story of St. Monica and St. Augustine, 
and thanked God that she lived, brought forth such a son, and by her prayers, 
gave so great a saint and Doctor to the Church ! We are all, in a great meas- 
ure, what our mothers have made us. Yes, the destinies of the individual and 
the race, the purity and security of nations, are dependent on the mother. 
She is the light of the home by day and by night ; she clothes the body and 
stores the granery of the soul. 

A thoughtful writer tells us of her worth in the household : "A healthy 
home presided over by a thrifty, cleanly woman will be the abode of virtue, 
comfort and happiness ; the scene of every ennobling relation in family life. 
It will be rendered dear by many delightful memories, by the affectionate 
voices of those we love. Such a home will be regarded not as a nest of com- 
mon instinct, but the training ground of immortal souls, a sanctuary for the 
heart, a refuge from the storms of life, a resting place after labor, a consolation 
in sorrow, a pride in success, and a joy at all times." 

Motherhood is woman's sacred prerogative. As mother she exercises 
the greatest influence on humanity. She is close to the child, constantly its 
companion, and on her is the weighty responsibility of moulding the frail 



348 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

body and the innocent soul of her offspring. She teaches the young the 
lessons of religion and virtue, and instills into their minds those basic truths 
which have been the consolation of the ages. She builds up character, forms 
the Christian man and woman, fashions the future cleric and nun, the lawyer, 
the merchant, the patriot, the soldier, and the statesman. 

A clever American lady has this to say of motherhood : " That the early 
Christian Church recognized in Mary, the Mother of Jesus, the woman proph- 
esied of old, whose ' seed shall crush the serpent's head,' giving thus a literal 
and individual interpretation to that promise, which may well be claimed to 
apply to womanhood at large ; and that homage paid to the Virgin Mother 
was one of its earliest institutions, are abundantly proved by the writings of 
the early Fathers, and by the testimony of the catacombs, where the crude 
drawings of the humble and illiterate Christians of the early centuries, sealed 
for a thousand years from the knowledge of the world, and revealed some of 
them, only in our own times, attest equally with the finer and more artistic 
productions of later centuries their love and devotion. Places of worship 
were named in her honor, even before the Church had emerged from the cata- 
combs, and the first Christian Emperor placed his new capital, Constantinople, 
under her patronage. It was not to the spouse of the carpenter of Nazareth 
that these honors were paid, but to the great Mother of Christ and Christi- 
anity ; nay more, to that Christian motherhood which was thereafter to be 
recognized as one of the prime factors in the world's regeneration." 

THE CHILD. 

Within the home dwells the child, the bond by which the hearts of hus- 
band and wife are wedded together ; by it their aspirations are attained, and 
their interests coalesce. For this consummation they entered the marriage 
state. What a privilege to be entrusted with this flower from Heaven, to 
watch the budding, the expansion of its marvellous faculties ; to sow truth 
in virgin soil, fresh from the hand of Omnipotence ! It was the innocence, 
the purity, the reliance of childhood that touched the heart of the Saviour 
and made the little ones so ineffably dear to Him, that He welcomed them in 
these affecting words: "Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid 
them not; for of such is the kingdom of God."* 

Here we may be permitted to say a word on child labor, which in some 
instances deprives the child of the benefits of home. A reliable New York 
journal informs us that, " The almost insuperable difficulty of an equitable 
adjustment of a law regarding child labor is beyond denial; but that such 
regulation is necessary is indisputable. The proper place *for children is the 
home, supplemented by the school-room, and play-ground. Their employment 
in shops, factories, mills, and stores is a social danger and an economic mis- 
take. 



Mark X., 14. 



PASTORAL LETTERS 



349 



" In the United States there are about 2,000,000 children under 16 years of 
age engaged in gainful occupations. This is about one in every fifteen of the 
entire number of people so employed. But in any consideration of the evils of 
the system this statement requires modification. One-half of that number are 
reported as employed in agriculture, probably represented largely by the far- 
mer's boy, and even the farmer's girl, who earns a few dollars in the course of 
a year by aiding in the work on the home place or by a certain number of 
hours of labor for neighboring farmers. It probably includes the boy who 
plants corn, the girl who picks berries and the pickaninny who gathers a few 
pounds of cotton." 

It is difficult to legislate so as not to trespass upon child labor which is 
harmless, nay often beneficial. Yet, some sort of legislation is necessary, for, 
as the same writer states : " Child employment as a system is utterly wrong. 
Its evils are both social and economic. The evidences of injury resulting to 
the victims of the system are obvious. Dwarfed physically and stunted men- 
tally by daily confinement in mills and factories, such children become a 
menace to the social organism. The influences which make for race deterio- 
ration are sufficient in number and in force without this most serious of them 
all. In the economic domain child labor often supplants that of adults because 
of its cheapness. In thousands of instances it is at best an utterly fallacious 
policy. In many others it is little short of pernicious." 

Parents should make every sacrifice to keep their children at home and at 
school, as long as possible, so that they may avoid the evils just enumerated. 

THE ENEMIES OF THE HOME. 

As the Christian home is so necessary for the growth of the physical, the 
intellectual, and the moral life, a constant battle must be waged against its 
enemies. Unbelief is a foe which destroys the sanctity of the home by rend- 
ing asunder the relations existing among the members of the family, as well 
as those between them and their Creator. It consists in wholly or partly 
denying God and His teachings, and leads to disregard of His commandments. 
It is painful to contemplate an unbelieving family. No more beautiful scene 
can be imagined than the Christian mother with her little ones gathered 
around her, lisping their prayers to their Heavenly Father while angels bear 
them aloft before the everlasting throne; on the other hand, no more desolate 
and heartrending picture can be drawn than that of the irreligious, infidel 
mother. How horrible the thought of such a woman entrusted with the care 
of innocent children; helpless in adversity, proud and domineering in pros- 
perity; without fear of God, she utters no prayer, asks no mercy or forgive- 
ness ! Looking forward to an eternal night in oblivion of the grave, how can 
she urge her offspring to seek the path trodden by the heroes of faith, to 
approach nearer by the purity of their lives to the infinite perfection of the 
great Father? She discerns no beacon to ward off disaster and point out the 
haven of safety; her life and example are little beyond the maternal brute, 
except that she possesses understanding, a faculty which makes her all the 



350 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

more pitiable as her acts are not in conformity with it. Such a mother is 
incapable of planting the seeds of virtue in the child, of creating and nurtur- 
ing a healthy, vigorous, moral life, incapable of resisting the storms of passion 
and the assaults of temptation. In such a family the associations, the usages 
which make for cheerfulness, comfort, and happiness, and, in after years r 
give rise to the tender, inspiring recollections of home and mother, have no- 
existence. No matter how magnificent that house, or secure its material 
interests, it is only a shelter from the elements ; it is not the home sought 
after by the weary heart of man, the abode wherein he possesses a foretaste 
of the joys of the blessed. 

Another enemy of the home is divorce. It parts husband and wife, scat- 
ters the children, blights their young lives. What a dreadful curse this evil is 
in America ! Oh ! the thousands to whom it has brought ignominy ! What 
scandal it has given to young and old ! How destructive its effects upon the 
whole body politic ! 

These statistics of divorce, in the United States, should bring the blush 
of shame to the cheek of every American : 

" Number of divorces in the United States from 1869 to 1901 . . 700,000 

Men and women whose homes have been broken up 1,400,000 

Children (estimated) robbed of their rights to. real home 4,000,000"* 

The illustrious Leo XIII., in his Encyclical on "Christian Marriage/' says: 
" It is hardly possible to describe how great the evils are that flow from di- 
vorce. Matrimonial contracts are by it made variable ; mutual kindness 
weakened ; deplorable inducements to unfaithfulness supplied ; harm done to 
the education and training of children ; occasion offered for the breaking up of 
homes ; the seeds of dissension sown among families ; the dignity of woman- 
hood lessened and debased ; and women run the risk of being deserted after 
having ministered to the pleasures of men. Since, then, nothing has such 
power to lay waste families and destroy the mainstay of kingdoms as the cor- 
ruption of morals, it is easily seen that divorces are in the highest degree 
hostile to the prosperity of families and States, springing as they do from the 
depraved morals of the people, and, as experience shows, opening up a way to 
every kind of evil-doing in public as well as in private life." 

For these reasons we cannot but view with alarm the rapid spread of 
Socialism. Father Cathrein, one of the greatest authorities on this subject, 
affirms that " the atheistic and materialistic tenets of socialism are incompatible 
with the unity and indissolubility of marriage. * * * Marriage is the root 
and foundation of the entire family. Socialism, however, by its theories of 
equality loosens the marriage tie, and introduces instead some amorous rela- 
tion based on mere whims and passing inclinations." 

THE TENEMENT. 

A formidable enemy of the home is the ordinary tenement house with its 
swarm of inmates, its incitements to and occasions of sin. In these unhealthy, 



N. Y. Freeman's Journal. 



PASTORAL LETTERS 351 

crowded buildings it is well nigh impossible to be free from moral contamina- 
tion. Municipal authorities should root out these obnoxious hovels, and assist 
the poor to have clean, commodious, well-ventilated, healthy apartments. 
The outlay would be more than repaid by the increase of physical and moral 
strength given the community. 

It is undeniable that little progress can be made in training the heart, 
when the foundations are not laid in the home, and the superstructure added 
by its daily life. There the boys and girls grow up to be men and women; 
there they are constantly influenced morally, physically, intellectually, and 
socially by their environment. It is evident that just as unclean dwellings 
produce sickly children, and cast upon society the victims of disease, so do 
wicked surroundings, evil companions, the bad example of parents corrupt 
hearts, and crowd the pathways of crime. Every priest knows that the absence 
of home-training often totally nullifies the work of the parochial school. How 
is it possible that the seed sown therein will produce good fruit, when the 
child daily returns to a house where the father is intemperate, profane, and 
heedless of his obligations to his God, his family, and himself; where the 
mother is slovenly, and careless, where sin, sorrow, and misery ever dwell? 
Indeed, the sharpening of the intellect, in the midst of such incentives to sin, 
frequently produces greater adepts in wickedness. 

INTEMPERANCE. 

Here is a graphic description of the effects of intemperance on the home : 
" In a row before the magistrate stood ten mothers, blear-eyed, with bloated 
faces, dishevelled hair, and soiled, tattered garments, their limbs still trembl- 
ing from the debauch of the day before. As the ten mothers stood there, 
shaking from the dissipation which had degraded them, twice that number of 
little children stood or sat in the court room and witnessed their mothers' 
shame. It was a very natural thing for the magistrate to exclaim as he viewed 
the long list of wretched womanhood before him :' Why this is something 
awful ! Mothers with little children too ! ' 

" When France was in the throes of a great crisis, some one remarked to 
Napoleon, 'Sire, wherein lies our hope?' 'In the mothers of France,' was 
the Emperor's reply. If our national salvation depends upon the mothers, in 
the name of God ! what is to become of us, if the drink habit gets hold of the 
women? A drunken father is bad enough, but when it comes to a drunken 
mother we have reached the bottom of the abyss. If the home is the heart 
of the world, what may we look forward to if that heart becomes paralyzed 
with strong drink? The father may debauch himself and the home still be 
saved by the purity, and the devotion of the mother ; but when the mother 
becomes debauched, then the deluge ! With a depraved motherhood our doom 
is sealed, and not all the prayers of all the saints on earth and in Heaven can 
save us. It were an intensely interesting question to ask : How far this 
strong drink virus has worked its daily way into the hearts of our American 
womanhood? How man}- women, how many mothers, are there in the land 



352 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

who drink? It is alleged by those who know what they are talking about, 
that " Society " is literally honeycombed with alcoholism ; and here we have 
the other extreme; but how about the middle term? Ask the wine merchants 
and grocerymen what it is their wagons carry to far too many doors? But, 
it will not do to push the inquiry too far; for the present we stop with the 
horrible sight of those ten drunken mothers lined up in the police court." 

Another magistrate was asked this question : " Do you notice any differ- 
ence in the types of the men and women who come to this place, during the 
years you have been on the bench ? " " They have not improved," he said. 
" They seem to me to grow downward all the time. 

" To the rich classes a great deal of the evil that ends in the police court 
can be traced. The man in easy circumstances is usually indulgent and care- 
less of his children; is it any wonder that they become careless in turn? The 
father perhaps doesn't know, or perhaps doesn't care that his boy is learning 
to smoke cigarettes. When he does notice that his fingers are stained and 
reproves him it is too late. By that time the boy's heart and his mind are 
stained too. And the mothers, the rich mothers who neglect their children, 
who leave them in the care of nurses until the little ones hardly know who> 
their parents are — what of the moral side of life there? 

HOUSEHOLD DUTIES. 

Another enemy of the home is ignorance of household duties. * The priest, 
the physician, the Sisters, and the men and women connected with our vari- 
ous charitable organizations, can testify to the sad condition of many houses, 
to the desolation and misery of the family, owing chiefly to the indolence and 
the slatternly habits of mothers. This is in a great measure due to want of 
instruction in the care of a house. The following testimony by a workman 
before a committee of the British House of Parliament is so applicable to our 
own country that I may be pardoned for quoting it at length : " My mother," 
said he, " worked in a manufactory from an early age. She was clever and 
industrious. She was regarded as an excellent match for a working man. To 
the best of her ability she performed the duties of wife and mother. But 
she was lamentably deficient in domestic knowledge. In that most important 
of all instruction — how to make home and fireside lovable and to possess a 
charm for husband and children — she never received a single lesson. As the 
family increased, everything like comfort disappeared altogether. The power 
to make home cheerful and comfortable was not given to her. She knew not 
the value of cherishing in my father's mind a love of domestic objects. 

" Not a moment's happiness did I ever see under my father's roof. All 
this dismal state of things I can distinctly trace to the entire and perfect 
absence of all training and instruction in my mother. My father became in- 
temperate, and my mother was forced to do shop-work. The family was 
large, and every moment was required at home. I have known her after a 
hard day's work to sit up nearly all night for several nights together washing 
and mending clothes. My father could have no comfort there. These domes- 



PASTORAL LETTERS 353 

tic obligations, which in a well-regulated home, even in that of a working 
man, where there are prudence and good management, would be done so as 
not to annoy the husband, were to my father a sort of annoyance, and he, 
from an ignorant and mistaken notion, sought comfort in the ale-house. 

" My mother's ignorance of household duties, my father's consequent 
irritability and intemperance, the frightful poverty, the consequent quarreling, 
the pernicious example to my brothers and sisters — one and all of us being 
forced out to work so young that our feeble earnings would produce only one 
shilling a week — cold, hunger, and the innumerable sufferings of my child- 
hood crowd upon my mind and overpower me. My own experience tells me 
that the instruction of females in the work of a house, the teaching of them 
to produce cheerfulness and comfort at the fireside, would prevent a great 
amount of misery and crime. There would be fewer drunken husbands and 
disobedient children. As a working man within my own observation, female 
education is disgracefully neglected." 

These are strong words ; nevertheless, they are true of thousands of 
homes in our great cities. The remedy might be found in giving domestic 
instruction in our schools, public and parochial, or by individuals, or the State 
providing courses in domestic economy. This instruction should extend 
beyond the mere art of cooking ; it should take in the entire management of 
the house. 

ADORNMENT OF THE HOME. 

Not only order and cleanliness, but also furniture, statuary, pictures and 
similar objects, all contribute to make the home pleasant. The Christian 
mother will always give the first place to Christian art. She will desire to 
form her loved ones after the example of Jesus, and, therefore, the sacred 
scenes in His life and those of the saints will be kept before them. This 
extract from one of our Catholic weeklies is instructive : " There are Catholics 
so full of human respect, and so narrow and uncultured withal, that they 
exclude sacred pictures from prominence in their houses, lest they be reckoned 
among the devout, or annoy the non-Catholic or infidel guest. They do not 
fear to offend pure eyes with dangerously suggestive pagan pictures ; nor 
refined tastes with the banalities of some fleeting fashion in art. They have 
not sufficient common sense nor fineness of feeling to understand what they 
are shutting out of their lives and those of their children in banishing the 
Blessed Mother and the Divine Child. Wherever the pictures of the Divine 
Redeemer and His Blessed Mother and the saints abound in the household, 
faith is strong. An eminent non-Catholic once said before a large gathering 
of women, also non-Catholic for the most part : ' What a sad mistake Pro- 
testantism made, when it put the Child Jesus out of the nursery ! ' ' Precious, 
too, in the home will be the heroes and heroines whose deeds have shed lustre 
upon their country, who have added by lofty purpose and action to the glory 
and prosperity of America, or have been engaged in the elevation of humanity 
throughout the world. 



354 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

LITERATURE. 

What shall I say of the efficacy of good books upon family life and 
thought ! When I speak of books I do not mean to restrict them to religious 
and devotional works. No, I include all healthy literature. In our day 
everybody reads. Periodicals, pamphlets, and newspapers are the literature of 
the millions. It is the daily newspaper, however, that enjoys the largest 
patronage. We must have the news warm, at our breakfast table, every morn- 
ing. No doubt, a newspaper is a potent factor' for good or evil; and America 1 
publishes some excellent, secular newspapers, which may safely be introduced 
into the family. Our religious weeklies are performing a very beneficial work, 
and should receive a more generous support. Every Catholic family should 
subscribe for a Catholic newspaper and a Catholic magazine, possess a small 
library of religious books, and such other works as will instruct and interest. 

But, what about those purveyors of uncleanness, the vulgar sheets reeking 
with nastiness so largely read by all classes? Reprove them for their vileness, 
and the reply is: " We print the news." Yes, they do, and such news; and 
such advertisements! Let us recall the words of the Apostle to the Gentiles: 
"But all uncleanness, * * * let it not so much as be named among you, 
as becometh saints: or obscenity, or foolish talking, or scurrility, which is to 
no purpose:"* 

Every one will admit that some of our newspapers are a disgrace. It is 
shocking to witness the harm which these disreputable journals do by pander- 
ing to the lower passions of the multitude. They educate in crime, destroy 
purity, in a word, sow immorality. They are so many foul demons entering 
the family for its defilement and ruin. Perhaps the most terrible indictment 
that can be brought against America is that the public demand for the filth 
supplied by the "Yellow Journals" is so great as to render rich and prosperous 
the unscrupulous editors, writers and publishers, who cater to debased appe- 
tites. 

We desire to employ all the power of our holy office to stem this flood of 
corruption, and we, therefore, most earnestly beseech parents to banish all 
such newspapers and books from their firesides. O fathers and mothers, 
never permit them to contaminate }^our homes ! 

NECESSITY OF ORDER. 

Christian parents will insist on family prayer ; they will always say 
" Grace " at meals, recite the Rosary before retiring, at least in Lent, frequent 
the sacraments, and see that those subject to them follow their example. 
Let them recollect that many other things conduce to the happiness of the 
family, such as music, innocent amusements, kindness, forbearance, politeness. 
Let not the ordinary courtesies of life be disregarded; they make the house 



* Eph. V., 3, 4. 



PASTORAL LETTERS 355 

home-like, and show solicitude for one another's comfort. All these things 
bring system and order into the home. St. Augustine says : " God is a God 
of order, therefore, he who lives according to order, lives according to God." 
The author of "By the Fireside" tells that "Order is a power in educa- 
tion, and if we have never acquired it for our own sake, let us at least bring 
it into the household for the sake of our children. In a home unorganized, 
without fixed hours for working, eating, and sleeping, there is only anarchy 
and confusion, and any sort of education is impossible. The child should be 
accustomed to rules of life that are observed by every one around him. Thus 
he learns to march in the ranks, to protect the rights of others, to make con- 
cessions to the general interest, to discipline his movements. In a well- 
directed household, where everybody is respectful of the common law, sub- 
mits himself to the hours, and consents to put back in their places the things 
that he uses, few words are heard, few outcries or explanations, but a great 
deal of work is done." He concludes by declaring that: "Order is needful 
everywhere ; let home be the first school to teach it ; its efforts will be re- 
warded both in the peace and satisfaction of its own circle, and in the future 
careers of its members." 

EFFECTS OF DISORDER. 

Where disorder reigns the children are permitted to have too much of 
their own way, to do as they choose. How many boys and girls leave the 
house whenever they like, and return at their own discretion? Parents should 
see that regular hours are kept, and know where their children are, and with 
whom they associate. It has been well said that : " There is a beauty in the 
character of an innocent, young girl which nothing else upon this earth can 
equal. Its influence has ever been so deeply felt, so universally acknowledged, 
that even the hungry lions have been said to pause in their career of blood, 
having been at once rendered powerless by the soft, earnest gaze of young, 
innocent, guileless womanhood. 

" Whatever tends to impair this innocence in woman, to cast suspicion 
on her smile, or to make her purity a jest; whatever throws a shadow, how- 
ever slight, upon her name — that is the rain which beats upon the bosom of 
the lily — the rude hand which crushes the light butterfly — the storm which 
levels to the ground the golden grain — the frost of autumn, which steals upon 
the summer flower; that is the first blight, after the touch of which she can 
never be herself again." 

With what concern then must the serious, virtuous man and woman con- 
template this description of a phase of modern life : " Young girls with trim: 
little tailored suits and natty hats, with snooded hair and fresh round faces; 
girls who ought to be home with mother and father, are to be seen upon the 
streets without escort, or in groups of twos and threes at hours long past cur- 
few time, on any night of the week. There is something in the round faces 
that gripes a little at the heart, however, and there is too often a swagger to 
the light-footed walk that seems out of harmony with sweet girlhood. There 
is a quick retort, a flippant jest from their lips, and a bold glance or a brazen. 



356 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

stare from eyes that should be veiled in maiden modesty. Poor little girls, 
not to know how much more precious than all things born they are, when 
they properly estimate their own worth, and prize themselves at it! But 
they come to be unprized by themselves, neglected by their proper protectors, 
and taken at their own estimate by the world. 

WHO ARE TO BLAME. 

" It isn't always their fault. Most of them have mothers and fathers who 
can tell them of the pitfalls that lie in the path of vanity and disobendience. 1 
Most of them have homes that should be their shelter after the sun goes down, 
and most of them would listen to advice properly given — and in time. The 
mother and father who think their duty clone in sending their young daughter 
to school, dressed as well as the neighbor's little girl, will have a lot to answer 
for some day." 

Some may reply: "But we can't control them." Why not? As parents 
you have the right and the duty to exact obedience by punishment. When a 
child disregards kind admonition, more forcible means must be devised. The 
Christian father and mother, however, will take care to correct in the same 
spirit as the Lord: " For whom the Lord lovcth, he chastiseth; and he scourg- 
eth every son whom he rcceiveth. Persevere under discipline. God dealing 
with you as his sons; for whai son is there, whom the father doth not cor- 
rect f" The reason given is: " Now all chastisement for the present indeed 
seemeth not to bring with it joy, but sorrow: but afterwards it will yield,, to 
them that are exercised by it, the most peaceable fruit of justice."* Corporal 
punishment is not to be resorted to except when necessary. Let it be remem- 
bered that to bring the child to obedience, it must be admonished and pun- 
ished without anger, abuse, or cruelty, otherwise it will regard the parent as 
an enemy, and no good result will follow. In a word, the family must be 
presided over with authority, justice, and mercy. Thus God governs the 
world ; so must parents rule the home. 

Again listen to the Apostle : " Children, obey your parents in the Lord, 
for this is just. Honor thy father and thy mother, which is the first com- 
mandment with a promise: that it may be well with thee, and thou may est 
be long lived upon earth. And you, fathers, provoke not your children to 
anger; but bring them up in the discipline and correction of the Lord."** 

DOMESTICS. 

Here let me touch upon the so-called Servant Problem. It has been said, 
no doubt with some exaggeration, that in our day " the master wants to get 
as much work from the man for as little money as possible, and the mistress 
acts in like manner with the maid. The miserable result, on the part of man 
and maid, is discontent more or less bitter, hatred for the power for which 
they must work, and a rigid determination to do as little and as defectively 



*Heb. XII., 6-1 1. 
** Eph. VI., 2-4. 



PASTORAL LETTERS 



357 



as possible." This condition is far from being universal; yet there must be 
some truth in the statement that dissatisfaction prevails on both sides, to a 
considerable extent, otherwise complaint would not be heard so frequently. 

What suggestions may be made towards the solution of this problem? 
Servants should be trained for their respective positions. Let them be con- 
vinced that only a competent service is a sufficient and satisfactory return for 
their wages, and that it is necessary, if they desire to command the confidence 
and the regard of their employers. On the other hand the master and mis- 
tress should bestow on servants the comforts of life, suitable to their station ; 
just wages should be paid, and fidelity rewarded by generous compensation. 
Further, it is the bounden duty of master and mistress to interest themselves 
in the spiritual as well as the temporal welfare of those in their employ. They 
should manifest affection for them and not treat them as mere drudges. St. 
Paul writes: "Exhort servants to be obedient to their masters, in all things 
pleasing, not gainsaying : not defrauding, but in all things showing good 
fidelity, that they may adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things." * 
And in another letter he says: "Servants be obedient to them that are your 
masters according to the -flesh, * * * not serving to the eye, as it were 
pleasing men, but as the servants of Christ doing the will of God from the 
heart. * * * And you, masters, do the same things to them, forbearing 
threatenings, knowing that the Lord both of them and you is in heaven; and 
there is no respect of persons with Him."** Let, therefore, superiors exer- 
cise kindness towards servants; be solicitous of their welfare, and see that the 
rest of the members of the house follow their example. This is especially 
true of the children. Often parents allow their offspring to annoy servants, 
and to treat them with arrogance and contempt. There is no greater tyrant 
than a suacy, unruly boy or girl. Some one has said : " Except in rare in- 
stances, servants and dependents of all kinds are precisely what their superiors 
have made them." I would add that not all servants are perfect, and that the 
same holds good of their masters and mistresses. More forbearance, more 
charity are needed between the heads of the house and their servants. 

To participate in the work of the home is beyond doubt a most worthy 
employment; nevertheless, domestic labor is not looked upon with favor. The 
boys and girls of this generation despise the honorable work of the home and 
the farm, regardless of their unfitness for higher positions. Many are filling 
their heads with branches of learning that will never be a particle of service to 
them. What is worse, this education leads them to crave things which they 
can neither lawfully nor innocently acquire, and lays the foundation of dis- 
content in themselves and of injury to society. Just here begins the downfall 
of so many of our youth of both sexes. 

So far we have endeavored to describe the Christian home and its benefits 
to the family, now let us view it in relation to society; for its field is certainly 
not restricted to the home circle. 



* Tit. II., 9, 10. 
** Eph. VI., 5, 9- 



358 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



THE NURSERY OF RELIGION AND VIRTUE. 

If home be the nursery of religion and virtue, society will be God-fearing 
and pure, since it is an exaggeration of homes. To discover the evils to be 
corrected, it will be unnecessary to go beyond our own country, for they are at 
our very doors. The first and greatest is religious indifference. That diabol- 
ical, irrational hatred of Christianity which exists in Europe is seldom found 
among Americans. There is, however, widespread unbelief, especially among 
men. Most of them, indeed, will declare that they have great respect for 
Christianity, and some may even praise the Catholic Church. They admire 
her marvellous organization, her beneficial influence on every condition of 
life. The profession of religion, the practice of its teachings, and the fulfill- 
ment of its obligations, they leave, however, to their wives and children. 
Whence it happens that these also become careless and tainted by the con- 
tagion of bad example. 

Among the causes of this defect of American life is the absence of relig- 
ious instruction in the home. Catholics are not blameless in this respect. 
Some consider the pulpit, the Sunday-school, and the parochial school suffi- 
cient to train the mind and the heart, whereas, they seldom, if ever, can fully 
supply the want of home-training. But what about non-Catholics? When 
Jesus' and religion are banished from the school, and from numerous homes, 
it is easy to understand why multitudes in America never bend the knee to 
God, and never enter a house of worship. In the midst of a civilization, the 
fruitage of Christianity, we find St. Paul's picture of the pagans true of many 
men of to-day : " Because that, when they knew God, they have not glorified 
Him as God, or given thanks; but became vain in their thoughts, and their 
foolish heart zvas darkened. For professing themselves to be wise, they 
became fools. * * * Wherefore God gave them up to the desires of their 
heart, unto uncleanness * * *. Who changed the truth of God into a lie; 
and zvorshipped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is 
blessed forever."*..\i they are reproached for their conduct, they answer: 
" We belong to the big church" what Christ called the world, which is 
always without doctrine, and generally without morality. Let us not deceive 
ourselves; the rising generation will not be Christian without being taught 
Christianity; and what a dreadful want of this teaching there is in the Ameri- 
can family! The Christian man or woman who reflect, and. understand that 
religion and morality are the basis of society, cannot but view with alarm the 
future of the race and the nation. 

The home, wherein the voice of the Catholic Church is heard, proclaims 
the truths of faith and morality with no uncertain sound ; doubt has no place 
at that fireside, for there the divine commission resounds: "All power is 
given to me in heaven and in earth. Going, therefore, teach ye all nations; 
baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy 



Rom. I., 21-25. 



PASTORAL LETTERS 359 

Ghost. Teaching them to observe all tilings whatsoever I have commanded 
you: and behold I am with you all days, even to the consummation of the 
world"** The home that possesses these truths will abound in good works by 
obedience to God, and fidelity to all the relations of life. 

Religious instruction will assist in rooting out another evil, impurity. 
The hearth where the demons of lust and divorce dwell is destructive of the 
purity of society. After all, is there much difference between successive and 
simultaneous polygamy? Perhaps the effect upon morals is worse under 
divorce and remarriage. If the words of Christ are obeyed, the home- 
atmosphere will have a sweet and salutary effect upon society : " You have 
heard that it was said to them of old: ' Thou shalt not commit adultery/ But 
I say to you, that whosoever shall look on a woman to lust after her, hath 
already committed adultery with her in his heart."* Those who ought to 
know assure us that a terrible vice is drying up the source of human life, 
and destroying the American home. Woe to the nation in which there are 
more deaths than births ! There, the tree of life is attacked at its root and 
will soon wither away. 

An evil which is rapidly spreading is dishonesty. Were we to believe 
the reports daily published about private persons and great corporations, we 
might readily conclude that commercial honesty had no existence here. This 
much is certain, that many value wealth for its own sake, regardless of the 
means of its acquisition. 

I cannot conclude without laying stress upon another evil which the 
Christian home can do much to alleviate — disregard of law and authority. 
Beyond doubt this disposition is dangerous. Filial obedience is very lightly 
esteemed by the youth of this generation. Hence, there is too little respect 
for public authority. The majesty of a great nation, the dignity of its legisla- 
tive and executive functions, the enactments of its representatives, are entitled 
to our highest respect. Let regard for authority be banished from the home, 
and patriotism will sooner or later be extinguished. The Holy Scriptures 
strongly inculcate civil obedience : " Let every soul be subject to higher pow- 
ers: for there is no power but from God \ and those that are, are ordained of 
God. Therefore he that resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God. 
And they that resist, purchase to themselves damnation. * * * Where- 
fore be subject of necessity, not only for wrath, but also for conscience' sake. 
* * * Render therefore to all men their dues. Tribute to whom tribute 
is due: custom, to whom custom: fear, to whom fear: honor, to whom 
honor."* 

We have written at some length, but it has been a labor of love. As we 
studied the Christian Home, we gradually became more interested in our 
subject, more anxious to develop the thoughts which dwell within its sacred 



* Romans, XIII., 1-7. 

* Matt. V., 27. 

** Matt. XXVIIL, 18-20. 



360 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

enclosure, and more deeply convinced that the family of Christian faith, 
purity, honesty, and obedience confers countless blessings upon its members, 
proves itself the saving unit of society, and sweetness, strengthens, and per- 
petuates the nation. 

" Therefore, my brethren dearly beloved, and most desired, my joy and my 
crown; so stand fast in the Lord *■ * *. And the peace of God, which 
surpasseth all understanding, keep your hearts and minds in Christ Jesus. 
For the rest, brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever modest, what- 
soever just, whatsoever holy, whatsoever amiable, whatsoever of good repute, 
if there be any virtue, if there be any praise of discipline, think on these things. 
* * * And may my God supply all your want, according to his riches, in 
glory in Christ Jesus. Now to God and our Father be glory, world without 
end. Amen."* 

Given at Trenton, this 24th day of February, the feast of St. Matthias, the 
Apostle, in the year of our Lord 1905. 

f JAMES AUGUSTINE McFAUL, 

Bishop of Trenton. 
Jame J. Powers, Secretary. 



* Phil. IV., 1-20. 



PASTORAL LETTER 



OF THE 

Rt. Rev. MICHAEL JOSEPH O'FARRELL, D-D. 

BISHOP OF TRENTON 

ON CHRISTIAN EDUCATION. 

1883. 



CHRISTIAN EDUCATION 

Michael Joseph, by the grace of God and the favor of the Apostolic See, 
Bishop of Trenton, to the Clergy and Faithful of his Diocese, health and 
benediction. 

Dearly Beloved Brethren : In addressing you during the holy season of 
Lent last year, we stated that it would have been our wish to treat, in our first 
pastoral letter, of Christian Education, as the subject most dear to our heart 
and most important to your souls. But, as we felt that Christian education 
supposes naturally a Christian home, and that such a home cannot exist with- 
out Christian Marriage, we decided to begin our public instructions to you 
upon that fundamental doctrine. We pointed out to you the true teaching of 
the Church with regard to the unity, the perpetuity, and the indissolubility of 
the marriage bond ; how all the modern notions of divorce are contrary to 
the teachings of the- Gospels, as well as injurious' to the best interests of the 
family and the state — teaching founded on the sentence pronounced by our 
Divine Lord Himself, that "what God has joined, let no man put asunder."* 
Then we showed you how the Catholic Church, with the wisdom given to 
her by her Founder, and from the ever-flowing fount of His graces, has pro- 
vided a constant supply of blessings for those who enter into the holy state of 
matrimony, to strengthen them against the natural fickleness of the human 
heart. Finally, we insisted upon the due observance of the practical rules 
laid down for. us by the Church in order to secure these blessings. And now, 
dearly beloved, we have reason to thank God and to congratulate you for the 
good success that has attended our exhortations. From every parish we have 
received most consoling accounts of the docility and obedience of our faithful 
people. Marriage is felt to be an honorable and holy institution, and is 
treated as such. Our young people have come to ask the Church to bestow 
her most solemn blessings on their union, and the adorable sacrifice of the 
Mass is offered up, in most cases, for the spiritual and temporal welfare of the 
married couple. Clandestine, disgraceful, uncatholic unions have entirely 
disappeared; evening marriages are now unheard of; and the pastors rejoice 
over the improvement of their flocks. Even when one or two exceptions 
occurred in opposition to this Christian spirit, the sorrow and the public 
apology of the repentant sinners soon consoled us for the violation of the law. 

Such, then, dearly beloved brethren, is your spirit with regard to Chris- 
tian Marriage. You believe it to be a divine Sacrament instituted by Christ 



" St. Matthew, XIX., 6. 
362 



PASTORAL LETTERS 363 

to give every grace to the husband and wife to live happy together, and to 
bring up their children in the fear and love of God. As the primary object of 
the, institution of marriage was to perpetuate the human race, so the chief 
end of Christian marriage is to beget children for God, to bring up a godly 
race of Christian men and women, to add new living members to the body of 
Christ, until the number of the elect is completed. Hence it is evident that a 
Christian education should follow a Christian marriage, and that Christian 
parents are necessarily bound to bring up their children in a Christian way. 
It is upon this most important truth that we wish to address you ; and we 
pray you with all the earnestness and affection of your heart to give the deep- 
est attention to our words, and show the same docility to our teachings as you 
have hitherto done. We know of no subject more important to you and to 
your children in all its bearings, or more far-reaching in its consequences. 
May the Author of Light, He " Who enlighteneth every man that cometh into 
this world " * guide and direct and enlighten us in the elucidation and in the 
practice of this grand principle ! 

That every parent, still more every Christian parent, should provide for 
the wants, both temporal and spiritual, of his child seems almost a self-evident 
truth. The child is entrusted, in a most helpless condition, to the care of its 
parents. It can do nothing for itself, — it has not even the instinct of animals 
to protect itself. To the love of its parents it must be indebted for every- 
thing. The parents must assist it in its growth and development. Now, as 
the child is a complex being, consisting of a body and soul, its growth must be 
in this twofold capacity. It must grow physically in its body to become a man 
and capable of a man's duties. But it must also grow in its mind and its 
intellect, otherwise it would not become a reasonable, intelligent being. It 
must also grow in its moral nature, otherwise it would not become a Christian 
man. 

Now, nature • itself secures the growth of the body ; the very fact of liv- 
ing brings physical development ; and the common instincts of humanity in- 
duce parents to provide for the physical wants of their children. Even the 
most unprincipled seldom fail in this duty. There are of course exceptions 
to the rule. There are parents who, to gratify their own vile passions, espe 7 
cially when debased by the foul habit of intemperance, seem to lose their 
natural feelings, and abandon their children to poverty and degradation. But 
these are exceptions; they are like monsters, and are held everywhere in just 
execration. The brand of shame and dishonor is stamped upon them. Even 
the most wretched parents will try to find food and clothing for their little 
ones; and nature itself supplies what may be deficient. For do we not often 
see how strong and vigorous is the physical growth of the children of the 
poor, although oftentimes wanting what to many would appear the very 
necessaries of life? We may trust the human heart, even when debased, 
unless in very rare exceptions, to provide for the material and physical wants 



* St. John, I., 9. 



364 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

of the young. No need, then, to insist upon this truth. But the chief growth 
the most important development of the child, is in its intellect, in its spiritual 
nature. Man is distinguished from other animals by his soul and his intel- 
ligence. It is by the growth of his spiritual faculties that he becomes more 
and more a man. Now this growth will not come spontaneously from nature. 
It must be brought about and be carried on principally by outside influences. 
The truths which will develope the intellect must come from without. They 
will not grow in the mind themselves. They must be sown there by a friendly 
hand, as the good grain will not spring forth from the soil, no matter how 
fertile, unless the farmer had previously deposited it there. The education of 
the mind and soul of the child must then come from external sources, from 
those who surround him and are interested in his welfare ; and a Christian 
education must come from sources blessed and protected and directed by the 
Christian faith. Now the first and most natural source of growth must be 
the home, by the domestic hearth and fireside, — by the side of the father and 
mother. This home teaching for Christian children must be supplemented 
and continued by the Christian Church, and still further developed by the 
Christian school. Hence we have three distinct, yet thoroughly connected 
sources of Christian education — the Christian home, the Christian Church, 
the Christian school. These three are essential for the full Christian growth 
of the child, and should not, if possible, be separated. But the foundation is 
in the home, The most important is the home-training, which may supply in 
a certain measure the absence of the other two, but can scarcely be replaced 
itself. These are the points to which we intend to call your attention, the 
three centres for the Christian education of your children ; and we earnestly 
hope and pray that you may be enabled to give them the inestimable benefits of 
the three — the Christian home, the Christian Church, and the Christian school. 

I. EDUCATION IN THE CHRISTIAN HOME. 

Home ! What precious memories this name evokes ! What pure and 
holy joys, what noble thoughts, what sublime deeds have sprung from the 
Christian home ! There did our intellect first receive the earliest rays of 
divine truth ; there did our heart expand under the pure sunlight of a loving 
mother's smile ; there did our soul grow strong under the mighty influence of 
a good father. Home is the first, the chief, the best centre for the education 
of the child. To the mother belongs the first part in this great work. For 
the earliest years her loving hand, her gentle touch, is needed to direct the 
growth of the tender plant confided to her. What a wonderful privilege, 
what a glorious mission for her ! The Almighty has entrusted chiefly to her, 
in those first years, the welfare on earth and the happiness in heaven, of her 
child. As she is the first to feed and nourish her infant, so she also is the 
first who can reach to the depths where its soul lies hidden; she can bring 
it forth by her loving call from its recesses and stamp her own image upon it. 
She can, as it were, touch this soul with her hand, and fashion it as she 
pleases. Through her, the rays of truth and knowledge begin to beam upon 



PASTORAL LETTERS 365" 

the child's mind; through her, the mysteries of this life and of the life to 
come are gradually unfolded. From her loving" heart, by her gentle words, 
her kindly tones, her tender glances, the child is made to grow in the virtues 
of faith and hope and heavenly charity. By her side he kneels in reverential 
posture, and his infant tongue lisps the sacred names of God and Jesus. How 
deeply he drinks in the pious words which fall from his mother's lips ! how 
the God to whom she looks up, the great Being of whom she- speaks so 
reverently and so lovingly, becomes for him wonderful in all His attributes, 
and most deserving of his love, because of the example of his mother's love ! 

Prayer becomes sweet to him ; attendance at divine worship, a source 
of delight ; religion, a consolation and a comfort. His intellect is awakened, 
his heart is lovingly drawn towards the beauties of faith. His childish joys 
are thus sanctified by and connected with the practice of his religious duties. 
Ah ! who can tell in adequate terms the wonderful influence of the Christian 
mother? 

The pages of history attest that nearly all the great men, men dis- 
tinguished above their fellows by extraordinary deeds, — great saints or great 
sinners, — men who strove best to benefit their race and country, or who by 
their crimes inflicted most injury on both, — have nearly all been such as their 
mothers trained them. The mother makes the man. Without speaking now 
of the great men of the world, of the great scholars, the conquerors of nations, 
of whom this observation has been frequently made by their biographers or 
historians, let us simply look to the lives of our great saints. It would be 
impossible here to enumerate the noble women who, from their own generous 
and devoted hearts, enkindled the fire of religious heroism in the souls of 
their children. Not to mention in the old law the mother of the Machabees 
pointing out to her noble sons the pathway to heaven through most frightful 
sufferings, nor the mothers of the martyrs in the new, let us simply recall 
some of the mothers of the great saints and doctors of the Church. St. Paul 
reminds his disciple Timothy of what he owed to " the faith tmfeigned " * of 
his grandmother Lois and his mother Eunice. St. Basil and his brother, St. 
Gregory of Nyssa, gloried in preserving the faith in which they had been 
trained by their grandmother St. Macrina. St. Gregory describes most min- 
utely the manner in which his mother instructed his sister. St. Fulgentius 
owed his education, not merely in sacred science but also in polite literature, 
to the care of his mother Mariana, " the religious mother," as she is called in 
his Life. The early education, both liberal and religious, of St. John Chrysos- 
tom was in like manner directed by his admirable mother Anthusa, whose 
conduct in this particular drew from the pagan sophist Libanius the exclama- 
tion, " Ye gods of Greece, how wonderful are the women of the Christians ! " 

Who has not read or heard of the touching story of St. Monica guiding 
the early steps of St. Augustine ; and when the violence of his passions led 
her son astray from truth and virtue, she followed him through all his wan- 



2 Tim., I., 5. 



366 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

derings with her advice, her prayers, and her tears, until at length she was 
consoled by his return to God, and the words of St. Ambrose were verified, 
"that the child of such tears could not perish." How well St. Augustine 
himself understood how much he was indebted to his mother for his con- 
version and his happiness may be seen from the touching words of his Con- 
fessions. 

And again, many of you may have listened to the story of Queen Blanche 
of Castile, the mother of Louis IX., King of France, whom in his childhood, 
when seated on her knee, she thus addressed : " My Louis, I love you above 
everything in this world, but I would rather see you fall dead at my feet than 
know that you committed a single mortal sin." How well that boy remem- 
bered those lessons of his mother can be seen in his after-life, so manly, so 
heroic, and so holy that he has merited the honor of being proclaimed by the 
Church of God, and proposed to the veneration of the people, as the model 
of Christian kings and the type of the Christian gentleman. 

The father, too, has his recognized place, as the head of the Christian 
family, in the great work of home education. Without his example to fortify, 
his authority to confirm and support her, the teachings of the mother would 
very often lose their efficacy. The boy, who in his earliest years can be 
directed safely by the mother, needs, as he grows older, the sterner hand 
and the strong will of the father to restrain him. In vain will the mother 
point out to the wayward child the beauty of virtue if his father does not 
convince him of its manliness also. But when both parents work harmoni- 
ously and lovingly, when their authority is combined for the one great pur- 
pose, when father and mother place their chief care in the religious develope- 
ment of their child, then God's blessing seldom fails to descend upon them. 

It will thus be seen that the first, the best, the most solid foundations of a 
Christian education are laid in the Christian home, where the gentleness and 
love of the mother, encouraged, sustained, and developed by the manliness, 
honesty, integrity, purity, and high-mindedness of the Christian father, gradu- 
ally form the character, bring forth all the good instincts of the soul, strengthen 
and guide the efforts of the intellect, repress and diminish the evil inclinations 
of the heart, so that when their child is exposed to the dangers of the world 
he is equipped and prepared to take his part in the battle of life, and almost 
certain to gain the victory. Happy 'is the man who can look back to the holy 
memories of such a home. He may, no doubt, have forgotten for a time those 
precious lessons; his passions, like an impetuous torrent, may have swept him 
from the path of honor and virtue ; yet, sooner or later, amidst all his tempta- 
tions, the image of his Christian mother will rise up before him, and like a 
guardian angel draw him back even from the very edge of the abyss. It was 
the memories of his home that touched the poor prodigal son of the Gospel in 
the midst of the husks of swine, and brought him back, sorrowful and re- 
pentant, to the feet of his generous father. 

But, on the other hand, how miserable, how pitiable the lot of the child 
who never had a Christian home! For him no holy lessons remembered; no 



PASTORAL LETTERS 367 

prayers said at his mother's knee; no wise counsels from his father's lips. 
He was neglected and abandoned to himself. Like a young plant which no 
skillful hand has cultivated, he has grown up in all the wild exuberance of his 
passions. He learned not of the goodness of God, nor of His greatness; 
neither the glories of heaven nor the horrors of hell. Perhaps he only heard 
God's name pronounced when it fell from the lips of a blaspheming father. 
What virtues could he acquire? Could he learn industry from an idle or 
dissolute father, sobriety from a drunken one, probity from a dishonest one, 
self-respect from a mean and worthless one? How could he acquire strength 
of soul against temptation, steadfastness of purpose in the pursuit of truth, 
integrity and uprightness of heart, when all the lessons of his home, all his 
surroundings, all the examples of his parents, teach him the very contrary? 
What charms can virtue have for him? No wonder that the enemy of souls 
finds him an easy prey and an apt pupil for every lesson in vice ; that the 
street becomes his school, in which he learns with marvelous facility the 
various phases of crime. From the unchristian, bad home to the streets is an 
easy step for both boy and girl, and from the streets to dens of infamy and 
to the prisons is a still easier one. And though the boy and the girl should 
stop short of that infamous goal, what a wreck they become for the Church 
and for God! The young man grows up without religion; he does not com- 
prehend her beauty; he learns to despise her commands. This world becomes 
everything to him; to succeed in it his sole ambition. His passions are his 
law ; his pleasures his chief motives of action. Worldly prudence may re- 
strain him w T here excess might bring danger, but he will not love virtue for 
itself, nor will he seek truth for its own sake. Religious dogmas are cast 
aside as too great a restriction upon his mind. Religious duties are discarded 
as too great a burthen for his heart. He has no religious principles to 
support him, no religious truths to enlighten him, no religious consolations to 
cheer him. This world is everything to him; beyond the grave all is dark 
and gloomy, and he does not wish to look into it. Is it not from an un- 
christian home, or from unchristian teachings and examples in the home, that 
so many young men have derived their contempt of religion, their scorn of 
its teachings, their mockery of its votaries? Is it not thus that religious 
indifference begins, to be turned oftentimes to religious hatred? How many 
an infidel can trace back his loss of faith to the want of religious teaching in 
his home, or, what is even worse, to the false, distorted, harsh, truly unchris- 
tian views of God and His dealings with His creatures ! Alas ! how many of 
our own children, in years past, have been perverted from the faith of their 
fathers, and drawn into the proselytizers' nets, to become the worst- enemies 
of that religion which was thus stolen from them! How many, in the large 
cities and throughout the country, have been kidnapped, their names changed, 
and their religion destroyed ! How many thousands, nay, we might say mil- 
lions, have been thus stolen from the ranks of the Church to become her 
most bitter foes ! And this principally because they had bad homes and 



368 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

wretched, unnatural parents who would have sold them body and soul for the 
gratification of their own vile passions. 

How unhappy, then, is the man or woman who has no tender memories 
of home, no loving recollections of childhood ! When he thinks of the mother 
who neglected him, of the father who misdirected him, who abandoned him 
without care or love, he must feel tempted to curse those who so foully be- 
trayed their most sacred duties, and allowed or even forced him, by their 
vices, to grow up without religion, without honor or true Christian manhood. 
His blood will surely cry to heaven for vengeance against those guilty parents. 

But you, dearly beloved brethren, are already, we trust, convinced of 
these important and terrible truths. You know the maxim of Holy Writ, 
"A young man according to his way, even when he is old, he will not depart 
from it." * You have understood that your children are a sacred treasure 
confided to you by heaven, and that you have no more important duty than to 
train them for heaven. You provide for the wants of their body :, you feed 
and you clothe them. This is right and proper. Hence you justly consider 
that the father who neglects his work, indulges in vice, squanders his earnings 
in debauchery and intemperance, and thus renders himself incapable of sup- 
porting, feeding and clothing his children, is a monster who deserves the execra- 
tion and loathing of all honest men. But the feeding and caring for the body is 
not all. The caring for the immortal soul, the feeding of the imperishable 
mind, is of far more importance, and as far exceeds the former as the im- 
mortal spirit is superior to the body which it inhabits. Hence you, we hope, 
are convinced, dear brethren, that the parent, whether father or mother, who 
neglects this duty, who allows the mind of his child to grow up in ignorance, 
and like a fair field, when uncared for, to become filled with thorns, thistles, 
and noxious or poisonous weeds, is guilty of a greater crime than if he had 
brought his child to the grave by deliberate starvation or cold-blooded mur- 
der. Listen to the terrible words of St. Paul, which should strike fear into 
the heart of every Christian parent : " If any man have not care of his own, 
and especially of those of his house, he hath denied the faith and is worse 
than an infidel."f Are there any amongst you to whom these words can be 
applied? We trust not, dear brethren; we earnestly pray that there may be 
none. But we ask you to open your hearts and your minds more fully to the 
divine truths which we proclaim to you, and to become more firmly con- 
vinced that there is no more important duty, none that will bring truer con- 
solation in this life and more solid hopes for happiness in heaven, than to give 
to your children that blessed home-training which will make the yoke of the 
Lord sweet to them from their youth, and prepare them for a Christian man- 
hood. Thus you will secure to them what we have called the first, the best, 
and the most lasting foundation of a truly Christian education — the education 
of a Christian home. 



* Prov., XXII., 6. 
f i Tim., V., 8. 



PASTORAL LETTERS 369 

II. CHRISTIAN EDUCATION BY THE CHURCH. 

The education begun at home must be continued by the Church. The 
teachings of the father and mother must be supplemented, developed, and 
strengthened by the instructions of the ministers of religion, who are divinely 
appointed by Christ to teach the nations and to instruct them unto justice. It 
is a remarkable fact, and worthy of being mentioned, that in the early ages of 
the Church no special provision seems to have been made for the instruction 
•of the children of the faithful. For the catechumens, adults, converts from 
paganism, a long course of sermons, homilies, and catechetical discourses was 
fixed by the discipline of the Church ; but for the children of Christians, the 
little ones of the faith, there is no mention of any instruction. It would seem 
as if it were universally felt that the instruction in the Christian home was 
quite as sufficient, and no fears were entertained that Christian parents would 
ever neglect so important and sacred a duty as the teaching of Christian doc- 
trine to their children. But as time elapsed and faith grew somewhat cold, 
many parents became indifferent and careless. Then the Church made it a 
special obligation for her priests and sacred ministers to look after the little 
ones, — the young lambs of the flock. In our days especially, when parents 
for the most part are engaged in the arduous labors of modern industry, and 
when, because of the difficulties and trials of their own childhood, many of 
these parents have not been able to acquire such a knowledge of their religion 
as to be able to impart it in an interesting way to their children, it becomes 
absolutely necessary to come to their aid, and supply, by instruction in the 
Church, what they themselves either have not the time or have not sufficient 
knowledge to communicate, or, still worse, have not sufficient love for the faith 
to make them feel it a joy and a privilege. Therefore, catechism classes, or, as 
they are nowadays styled by the very pretentious and deceiving title of, " Sun- 
day-schools," have been established in all churches wherever the priest of God 
has found it possible. Here the young mind is brought directly under the 
teaching power of the Church. Here the priest, taking the parents' place, 
but acting as the representative of our Lord Jesus Christ, unfolds the won- 
erful story of God's dealings with men. Here the most sublime truths are 
adapted to the weak minds of the children, and are accepted by them almost 
•as self-evident. Truths and mysteries such as the greatest of the pagan phil- 
osophers could never conceive, or at the best could only guess at in a doubtful 
groping way, are presented as the most elementary principles by men conse- 
crated for that purpose by God's providence, specially commissioned by His 
Church, and who speak without hesitation, with positive certainty, as men 
having authority to speak, and not as the scribes and Pharisees and all false 
teachers. 

What a glorious mission is this of the priest, to be brought so closely to 
young hearts yet untainted by the world, and to have the charge of unfolding 
them, expanding them, under the influence of divine grace ! Next to the 
mission and dignity of the mother comes this privilege of the Christian priest. 
How consoling, how refreshing to the soul of the true priest is this com- 



370 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

panionship with childhood ! Like his Divine Master he desires to have the 
young near him, and he cries out, " Suffer the little children to come to me." 
When these children come from Christian homes, where the foundations of 
piety and knowledge were deeply laid, this work becomes a labor of love. 
When he speaks of God and His infinite love for souls; when he unfolds the 
wonderful life of the Redeemer, His boundless tenderness to the poor and the 
suffering, and then leads them through the awful scenes of His passion and 
death, the priest does not speak to those children in an unknown tongue, nor 
of wonders which they never heard before. A loving mother has already 
given them the outlines of this grandest story that human ears have ever lis- 
tened to ; and they can follow, with beating hearts and eager minds, the 
beautiful details which the priest's greater knowledge enables him to supply. 
How glorious, too, becomes the history of the rise and establishment of the 
Church of Christ ; of her early suffering under the persecutions of the Roman 
emperors ; of the heroic constancy of her martyrs ; of the myriads of Chris- 
tians of both sexes, the strong and the feeble, the learned and the ignorant, 
joyfully pouring out their blood for the faith of Christ! Then the immortal 
life of that Church through all ages down to us, in spite of every storm and 
tempest that the malice of men or the rage of demons could incite against 
her. What a noble work for the priest to develop the germs of virtue, to 
show the loveliness of holiness, to pluck up the seeds of vice which contact 
with the world or evil example may have sown in these young hearts, as the 
gardener carefully roots up the weeds that would soon choke his fairest 
flowers ! To love their God and their neighbor, to cherish truth and to hate 
falsehood, to work for all that is good and noble, and to seek the crown of 
immortal bliss, — this is what the priest can teach them. What merely human 
teacher can have such a mission, and what human knowledge can equal it in 
grandeur? We say it, and we say it most sincerely, that for the true priest 
of God's Church there is no more glorious work, no sweeter employment, no 
better recompense than this religious instruction of the little ones. When 
discouraged by the dreary scenes of vice and crime that meet his gaze so 
often during the labors of his ministry, it is a consolation to turn to the pure 
hearts and guileless souls of children. It is like coming to a green and fertile 
oasis in the desert, where the traveller, weary with his march through arid 
and desolate plains, can sit down to rest and gather fresh strength for his 
onward journey. 

Yet, this consolation comes only to the priest when he has to deal with 
children who have a Christian home, and are under the direction of Christian 
parents ; for, then their hearts are gentle and easily guided to what is good,, 
and their intellects awakened to the beauties of truth. But, when they have no 
Christian homes nor Christian parents, then there is labor and toil for the 
priest, and little consolation. These hearts, that, if taken in time, would 
have been like soft wax to receive and retain the holiest impression, have 
now through neglect, through want of instruction, through evil example, be- 
come hard and unyielding almost as flint. How will the priest speak of the 



PASTORAL LETTERS 371 

love of God to children who never learned it in their homes? how inculcate 
the necessity of prayer, when perhaps they never saw their parents on their 
knees? how make them feel the shocking sin of blasphemy, or of irreverence 
to God's name, when they seldom heard that name except when it fell in 
curses from their father's lips? how teach- them to value purity, honesty, truth, 
and all the other virtues, when they perhaps were familiar at home with only 
the contrary vices? Every priest, who has worked in the large missions of 
towns and cities, can testify to the exceeding great difficulty he experiences in 
preparing such children for the reception of the sacraments. Yes, this is the 
labor, the cross, .the deep sorrow of the priest. He feels that he is building 
without a foundation, and that his work will not be durable. Give him the 
work of Christian parents to build upon, and see what a glorious structure 
he will erect. But to expect that he will accomplish the mighty work of 
training these children' to grow up to be noble men and women, in a half- 
hour or so, once a week, on Sunday ; that he will impress the most sublime 
truths upon their minds perhaps entirely unprepared, or even indisposed to 
receive them, and that he will do this, when already so busy with his Sunday 
duties, — this 'is to expect an impossibility. Yet, this is what many parents 
count upon. This is what many Catholics imagine to be quite sufficient for 
their children. They neglect these children at home, they leave them without 
religious instruction for the entire week, and then they expect that a tired 
and exhausted priest will be able, in a half-hour on Sunday, to give to careless, 
undisciplined children a sufficient dose of religion which will last for the 
coming week. What folly! But this grand name of Sunday school satisfies 
their sleeping consciences. A half-hour or an hour on Sunday ; a few lessons 
recited, in a careless manner, by giddy, thoughtless children longing for play, 
and having little relish for the dry pages of the Catechism, and no compre- 
hension of the divine truths underlying them, — this is enough, according to 
such Catholics, for these children ; this will make them good and noble men 
and women, will make them love the cross of their Saviour, and bear oppro- 
brium and insult for His sake; this will make them strong against the relig- 
ious indifference or the hatred of religion so common around them ; this will 
make them prefer the poverty and lowly condition of their Church to the 
honors and riches which they might often obtain by forsaking her. The 
Sunday-school is to accomplish all this! No thinking, serious Catholic could 
imagine it; and those who speak most of the Sunday-school and its advan- 
tages are often the same who most neglected the home education. 

III. CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS. 

But, will home-teaching, even when united to the teaching in the Church, 
be sufficient to form a thorough Christian education? This is a question 
that needs the deepest consideration by all who are anxious for the Christian 
training and development of the rising generation. To answer it properly 
we must lay down some preliminary truths. In the first place, we must bear 
in mind that the vast majority of parents, and certainly of Catholic parents, 



372 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

belongs to the working and industrial classes, and that it is difficult, not to 
say almost impossible, after the severe and exhausting labors of the day, that 
they can find time or strength, even if they always had the requisite knowledge, 
to develope the Christian growth of their children. Then, again, how many poor 
people, though full of faith and anxious for their children's welfare, are not 
well qualified to instruct the bright little ones who fill their home! On the 
other hand, the work of the priest is very limited; the time that he can spare 
very short. He can only see these children on Sunday, as a general rule, 
and then he has many other duties to fulfil, and we have seen how little can 
be effected in the short time at his disposal. But during the week, during all 
the time when the children are neither at home nor in church, during those 
hours of mental activity in their school-studies, what will enable them to grow 
in their faith and in the knowledge of their religion if they have no assistance 
and no teaching? Here, then, appears the necessity of Christian schools, to 
continue the work of Christian parents, to help on the work of Christian min- 
isters, and to complete the work of Christian education. What the parents 
began in their homes, what the priest continues in the church, the school must 
develop and fortify. This is what it behooves you to consider. This is a 
subject far more important than many Catholics imagine. The enemies of the 
Church instinctively realize it. From the conduct of those who make war 
upon religion, and who with wonderful unanimity select as their favorite 
and most powerful weapon godless schools and mere secular teaching, sen- 
sible Catholics, even if they had no other motive to determine them, no 
authority to guide them, should learn what to think of such schools and such 
teaching. It is right to learn even from an enemy; and precisely, because the 
foes of Christianity attach such importance to the banishment of the religious 
element from schools, so should all sincere Christians unite most earnestly 
in preserving and guarding for the schools of their children the sacred influ- 
ence of religion. But for you, my brethren, as we shall show you hereafter, 
there is higher ground than this to stand upon. There is the unanimous 
teaching of the Catholic hierarchy throughout the world ; the voice of the 
Bishops of America as spoken in various Councils ; the voice of the Bishops 
of Ireland, Germany, France, and England ; the voice of the Bishops of the 
Old World and the New ; and clear above them all, directing and guiding all,. 
the voice of the chief Pastor of the flock, — the voice of Christ's vicar, — the 
voice of the successor of St. Peter who was charged with feeding both the 
lambs and the sheep of Christ. Never, except upon positive articles of faith, 
has there been such unanimity in the teachings of the chief pastors of the 
Church as with regard to the evils of godless schools. For you, dear brethren, 
this authority ought to be, and is, we trust, sufficient to determine your assent. 
But we desire to go more fully into the matter, and state some of the reasons 
which should make you, as Catholics, and which will also, we hope, soon 
induce every Christian man, every one who believes in Christ and who de- 
sires to save his soul, to feel, as certain and not to be doubted, that Christian 
schools are needed if we wish to train up the future generations as Christian, 



PASTORAL LETTERS 



373 



and that godless schools will not only destroy supernatural faith and all 
belief in revelation, but that they will sap parental authority, undermine the 
family, and diminish the social and civic virtues. 

In the first place, we need scarcely remind you that the Catholic Church 
has ever been the friend and protectress of all true knowledge. Her whole 
history proves how carefully she cultivated and fostered it in all ages. She 
established schools and universities in the darkest epochs; she made her 
monasteries storehouses of learning, where all the remains of Grecian and 
Roman literature that had escaped the invasions of the barbarians were care- 
fully treasured up, and lovingly transmitted down to our times by the inde- 
fatigable labors of her monks. The wonderful services which she rendered 
to human knowledge are now generally conceded even by those who do not 
submit to her teaching. The Church that founded all the great universities 
of the Old World; that established the first public schools for the children of 
the poor ; that fostered all the fine arts ; that invented Gothic architecture, 
and reared those mighty temples which are even yet unapproachable in their 
majesty and sublimity; that gave a soul to painting and to music; that in- 
spired Fra Angelico, Raphael, and Michael Angelo ; Palestrina, Mozart, and 
Hayden; that encouraged every invention, the art of printing, the mariner's 
compass, the discoveries of astronomy, the reformation of the calendar, — the 
Church that fostered these and hundreds of other inventions of the human 
mind cannot be set down as opposed to knowledge and to science. 

This is our first proposition, that the Catholic Church loves and protects 
knowledge within its natural limits; and this proposition will be easily ad- 
mitted even by those outside of her, in proportion to the extent of their 
studies and researches in the domain of history, and will only be contested by 
those shallow sciolists who have picked up a little on its surface, without ever 
sounding its depths ; or by designing men who, wishing ao undermine all 
religion, find it convenient to calumniate the Church, the true bulwark of 
Christianity, and therefore try to persuade thoughtless dupes that the Catholic 
Church is opposed to all knowledge.- This is simply false, as it equally is that 
we are opposed to public schools in their true and full meaning. 

The next point to which it may be well to call your attention is the com- 
mon idea that the State has the right to teach. This is not a Christian idea ; 
it is a pagan one. It was natural for the pagans who deified the State, and 
worshipped it as a divinity, to believe that the State could enter into the human 
conscience and take possession of the human soul. But Christianity, in cast- 
ing down the old idols, raised up man from his degradation, and made his con- 
science and his soul a temple into which no state, no earthly power, can enter. 
When the Lord laid down the law, " Render unto Caesar the things that are 
Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's" He established the principle 
of God's sovereignty over the human soul. When the Apostles proclaimed 
that " it is better to obey God rather than men," they struck the key-note of 



i Galatians IV., 31. 



374 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

true liberty, " that freedom wherewith has Christ made us free."* The State 
is not appointed to teach; the Church alone has that mission. The State 
cannot deprive a parent of the right to bring up his children in his own way, 
as long as he does not inflict an injury on the State. The father has a divine 
right and a divine obligation to educate his child, and it would be tyranny to 
deprive him of it, unless for a notorious abuse or violation of this right. The 
State may, and ought in certain cases, assist the parents; it may insist that 
the children shall be brought up as good citizens. But the State ought not 
and cannot dictate the entire scheme of education or take it out of the hands 
of the parents. This is a principle which needs to be well remembered, since 
the tendency of all modern governments and states is to encroach upon the 
domain of conscience, and to usurp the rights of parents by withdrawing 
children from their authority in the arrangement of systems of education 
But though we protest, as Christians, against this anti-Christian principle, we 
will not now combat it. We pass it by, and proceed to the next point for 
your consideration; and that is, the true nature of education itself. 

Education, in the full force of the term, and according to its derivation 
from the Latin words c and duccre, is the bringing up or a bringing forth of 
all the faculties of the child — the development of its entire nature. To 
develope one of the faculties at the expense of the others, or to the neglect of 
the others, is not education. To cram the child's memory without strengthen- 
ing the judgment, for instance, is surely not education; to develope the under- 
standing, without improving the heart, is likewise no education. Man is an 
intelligent being, but he is likewise a moral being, bound by certain laws and 
responsible for their violation. To give all attention to the intelligence and 
little or none to the moral side of our nature is not, then, true education. 
True education takes the whole, child together, intellect and heart, all the 
longings of the mind and all the cravings of the heart, and gradually lifts 
him up, advances him all together. We charge the present public school 
system, as its first defect, that it does not educate, it only instructs ; and we 
also charge that it does not even instruct well. It only instructs — it claims 
no more ; it simply intends to supply to the memory and to the intelligence a 
certain number of facts and dates which have little or no influence upon the 
moral nature of the child. Granting for the moment that the instruction, as 
far as it goes, is true and correct, and that the intelligence of the child is not 
perverted by false knowledge, how will that knowledge fit him for his duties 
in life to God and to his country? He has learned, we suppose, all the ordi- 
nary branches taught. He can read and write and cipher ; he has learned a 
little of the sciences, and as many other things of the kind as he is able to 
acquire. What then? Is his heart any way changed? Are his passions thereby 
conquered? Are the evil instincts of his soul thereby vanquished? He grows 
up a smart, intelligent boy, keen and bright-witted, able to hold his own 
against others. But what principle has he to guide him, what law to direct 
him, what motives to restrain him? His learning, separated from all religion, 
or only veneered by a weak coating of the vaguest morality, can only serve to 



PASTORAL LETTERS 375 

make him more dangerous than even the ignorant man. The better armed 
he is by his knowledge the more powerful he becomes for evil, unless relig- 
ious principles restrain him. But those religious principles his education will 
not give him. It is not necessary, dear brethren, to point out to you in detail the 
evils arising from this godless education. You well know that the great crimes 
committed against society are not committed by illiterate men. Isolated cases of 
violence, robber)-, and other sins are often perpetrated by the ignorant and the 
uneducated. But the crimes that go to the very heart of society and shake 
it to its foundations — the frauds on public funds, the robbery of savings- 
banks and insurance offices, by which countless numbers are made to mourn; 
the public gambling in stocks ; the unsettling of public credit ; the squandering 
and the pilfering of the treasures of the state ; the creation of those huge 
monopolies that threaten to destroy the very liberties of a nation; the unlim- 
ited power of corporations and industrial companies, by which the artisan and 
the laborer may be despoiled of the fruits of his honest toil — these, and many 
more such evils, are not the work of ignorant, illiterate, and uneducated in- 
dividuals. When we see rich men growing richer and poor men growing- 
poorer, when discontent is increasing and socialistic principles are spreading, 
when public honesty and public morality are at such a low ebb, it is time to 
feel that the public schools, under their present form, have not benefited the 
country. We will not dwell on the moral corruption of those schools. We 
leave that painful subject to be treated by other pens. But we point out to 
you the loss of religious convictions, the growth of religious indifference, and 
the spread of infidelity, as the necessary consequences of the absence of all 
religious teaching. The teachers, for instance, in the immense majority of 
schools belong to different forms of religion. Now, without even supposing 
that these teachers go out of their way to attack our faith, if they have any 
settled convictions themselves — and what teacher worthy of the name is with- 
out such convictions? — will they not necessarily influence and warp the chil- 
dren's minds? Is any parent mad enough to believe that the teacher with 
decided religious convictions — not to speak of decided religious antipathies — 
can for six hours each day hold the closest relations with the child without, 
unconsciously if you will, influencing the doctrinal conviction of those with 
whom he is so associated, whose full and free confidence he has secured, of 
whose moral being he has made himself master? And when the child con- 
trasts his gentlemanly teacher, who perhaps has no religion, with a poor, 
uneducated parent who teaches him badly his own faith, is it not very likely 
that he will lose all respect for religion and either despise or abandon it? 

Then, again, from the companions of school-hours, often well cared for 
in their homes, who have learned to sneer at Catholic doctrines and to speak 
with contempt of Catholic worship, another danger arises for Catholic boys. 
Who does not know how much a school-boy dreads ridicule? And when he 
hears his Church assailed by vile calumnies which he does not know enough 
to refute, and by the jeers of his schoolmates, how often will he blush for his 
religion, and be ashamed to belong to it? And if it should happen, as it only 



376 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

too often does happen, that at home he has an ignorant, brutal, intemperate 
father for whom he can have no respect, what will keep him true to his 
Church? Just as he learns from his comrades to ridicule the language or the 
country of his parents, he will quickly learn to despise their faith. Children, 
in school, influence each other more than many imagine, and an unfashionable 
religion finds no mercy from them. 

But danger also comes to your children from the books used in these 
godless schools. Of course a great show of impartiality is made by eliminat- 
ing what might be too offensive to Catholics ; yet we know that many text- 
books used in those schools contain vile calumnies against the Catholic 
Church, misrepresentations of her doctrines, and sneers at the nations who 
profess them. How many false statements in the text-books of history ! and 
how much suppression of the truth wherever Catholics are concerned ! Who 
would know, for instance, if we only read the histories of America commonly 
used, that Catholics had any share in the early building up of this country, or 
took any part in securing its freedom? Then, what real knowledge of 
history, geography, and several other branches of science can any one learn 
from those colorless, even if not falsified, accounts, where religion must be 
ignored and its influence on the destinies of the world entirely concealed? 
Hence we charge that these schools do not instruct well ; for they do not and 
cannot give the truth upon many branches that have to be learned, and leave 
a greater chaos and confusion in the mind than if nothing at all had been 
taught upon those matters. We have not space in this letter to develop this 
idea at greater length, but we hope you yourselves will meditate upon it and 
see how important it is. Enough to say at present that religion hasjiad too 
great a share in the moulding of society, and directing the destinies of nations., 
to be completely ignored without giving a false coloring to all the history of 
the past. 

Finally, the system is unjust, because of the taxation imposed upon those 
who do not believe in it and who cannot adopt it. It would be almost as fair 
to establish a system of religion to which all should come, and build temples 
of worship for which we should all pay. We, who believe that religion is the 
best part of education, and that the school should be like the porch part of 
education, and that the school should be like the porch through which the 
young are brought into the Church, feel it unjust to tax us for what our con- 
sciences will not allow us to use, unless in cases of extreme necessity, when 
we cannot go elsewhere. 

Here, then, dear brethren, you see that these public schools, so much 
vaunted, (i) do not educate, for they do not improve the heart, but at the 
most only instruct the intellect; (2) they do not even instruct well, since 
many branches of learning can only be studied in connection with religion; 
(3) they are not truly American, since they abridge unnecessarily the rights 
of citizens, and sap the foundations of authority, by encroaching on the rights 
and authority of parents; (4) they are unchristian and are calculated to de- 
stroy Christian principles in the rising generations; (5) they tend to loosen 



PASTORAL LETTERS 



377 



moral laws and do away with all restraint upon the passions; (6) they impose 
an enormous tax, every year growing greater, upon the entire community, 
and a very unjust and unnecessary tax upon a large section of that com- 
munity. 

To you, dear brethren, and we think to all fair-minded persons who have 
any love for the Christian faith and who desire to see, for the honor of their 
country, a godly race of men and women growing up in the future, we think 
that the foregoing consideration will be amply sufficient to determine you 
against the present godless system of public instruction. But as, unfortunately, 
there are still some Catholics who, either because they have been brought up 
under the dark shadow of these schools, or because their personal interests 
are superior to their religious feeling, or because they are deeply influenced 
by public opinion, cannot be brought to see the evils inherent in the system, 
we deem it right to add to our own decision some of the judgments pro- 
nounced in the most solemn manner by those whose position in the Church 
entitles them to obedience on the part of all Catholics, and whose personal 
virtues, great talents, and deep love of truth and justice would even excite 
the admiration of those who are outside the Church. We shall only give a 
few of these decisions, as the limits of our Pastoral letter forbid any more. 

The Holy Father, Pius IX., in the Syllabus of errors which he publicly 
condemns, marks the following proposition, as one which no Catholic can 
hold : "Catholics can approve of a system of educating youth which is uncon- 
nected with the Catholic faith and the power of the Church, and which re- 
gards the knowledge of merely natural things, and only, or at least primarily, 
the ends of social life." The whole Catholic world has accepted the condem- 
nation of this proposition. 

Again in 1875 the sacred Congregation de Propaganda Fide sent a letter 
to all the bishops of the United States, giving them directions and instruc- 
tions on this subject of the public schools. We quote from it the following 
passage : " This system the sacred congregation considers by its nature to be 
fraught with danger and very hostile to Catholicity. For, since the system of 
such like schools excludes all teaching of religion, the pupils neither learn in 
them the rudiments of faith, nor are instructed in the precepts of the Church : 
hence they will be deprived of the knowledge most necessary to man, without 
which a Christian life is impossible. Now, in this kind of schools youths are 
instructed from their childhood, not to say from very infancy : at which age, 
as is evident, the seeds of virtue and vice take most tenacious root. And, 
certainly, it is an immense evil that such tender children should grow up 
without religion. 

"Again, in the aforesaid schools, as they are divorced from the authority 
of the Church, teachers indiscriminately of every sect are employed ; and as no 
law prohibits them from doing harm to youth, they are left free to sow errors 
and the seeds of vices in tender minds. 

" Certain corruption likewise ensues from the fact that in these same 
schools or in many of them, youths of both sexes are congregated in the same 



378 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

room for the recitation of lessons, and males and females are ordered to sit 
on the same bench (in eodem scamno) : all which have the effect of lament- 
ably exposing the young to loss in faith, and endangering of morals. 

" Now, if this proximate danger of perversion be not made remote, such 
schools cannot be frequented with a safe conscience." 

To these declarations, so grave and so binding on all Catholics, we will 
only add the public decision of the Plenary Council of Baltimore, held in 
1866, at which forty-four Bishops and two representatives of Bishops were 
present : 

" The experience of every day shows more and more plainly what serious 
evils and great dangers are entailed upon Catholic youth by their frequentation 
of public schools in this country. Such is the nature of the system of teach- 
ing therein employed, that it is not possible to prevent young Catholics from 
incurring through its influence danger to their faith and morals; nor can we 
ascribe to any other cause that destructive spirit of indifferentism which has 
made and is now making, such rapid strides in this country, and that cor- 
ruption of morals which we have to deplore in those of tender years. Familiar 
intercourse with those of false religions, or of no religion ; the daily use of 
authors who assail with calumny and sarcasm our holy religion, its practices, 
and even its saints — these gradually impair in the minds of Catholic children 
the vigor and influence of the true religion. Besides, the morals and examples 
of their fellow-scholars are generally so corrupt, and so great their license in 
word and deed, that through continual contact with them, the modesty and 
piety of our children, even of those who have been best trained at home, dis- 
appear like wax before the fire." 

We also refer you to a little work, entitled The Judges of Faith and the 
Godless Schools, for a fuller development of this side of the question. 

No Catholic can refuse to listen and to obey such positive instructions 
from the supreme Head of the Church and Her divinely appointed pastors. 

Hence we are obliged in conscience to condemn the present godless, 
anti-Christian, anti-parental system of public schools. But we are not obliged 
to condemn, and we do not condemn, public schools in themselves. We desire 
most heartily that there should be public schools for the education of all the 
children of the land ; we wish to see ignorance banished and true knowledge 
exalted and honored. But these schools should combine secular and relig- 
ious training. And let it not be said that such a system is impossible. It is 
not so. It has been established elsewhere and found to work well. It suc- 
ceeded in France, until infidels resolved to make war upon religion ; it suc- 
ceeded in Germany, until a despotic Minister, through selfish ambition, partly 
destroyed its good effects ; and finally, passing over other countries, it has 
succeeded in Canada, our next neighbor. There the Catholic Bishops and 
priests are satisfied with the system which the Protestant majority of Upper 
Canada, or Ontario, has established. Cannot we, in this great republic, re- 
ceive at least as much consideration as Catholics living under the British 
crown? and cannot our statesmen as easily devise a method satisfactory to all 



PASTORAL LETTERS 



379 



as Canadian politicians? We hope so; we believe so. We trust that the era 
of conciliation and goocl feeling is approaching, that our just claims will be 
considered favorably, and that all Christian men will combine to make our 
schools truly Christian, in order that our children may be prepared for the 
great struggle against infidelity and atheism which is rapidly coming upon us. 
We appeal to American fair-play and to American honor, and we are not 
doubtful of our claims being heard. 

But, in the meantime, we must support our own schools, at whatever sacri- 
fice they may impose. Our children's souls must be saved and their faith 
preserved ; and we are certain that those who so generously have built our 
churches and raised up so many glorious temples to the majesty of the Cath- 
olic faith will not hesitate to make equal sacrifices for the erection and main- 
tenance of our religious schools, without which our children will be exposed 
to the greatest dangers for their faith. And we firmly believe that there 
will be too many churches, too many empty ones, in the future, if the children 
of the faith, should be now neglected. We hope that our wealthy Catholics 
will come to our help, and, by aiding us to build new schools and to endow 
the old ones, acquire for themselves true glory on earth and a generous re- 
ward in heaven. 

IV. GOOD READING. 

But education is not confined to the school. It is always going on, im- 
proving or retrograding, but never standing still. The mind is constantly 
receiving new kinds of food upon which it may grow strong or by which it 
may be seriously injured. This food is supplied principally by reading; and 
just as the reading is, so the mind will gain or lose. In this country reading 
is universal, we might say ; our children have a great thirst for it. There is 
little need to stimulate it ; but it has to be wisely directed. Reading gives the 
turn to the minds of children ; hence Christian education will gain or lose its 
effect, according to the reading of the child. 

Here, dear brethren, we would have many things to say to parents upon 
the necessity of watching over carefully, and directing prudently, the tastes 
of their children in the selection of their reading books. How many parents 
who never take the trouble to see what their children are reading; who never 
advise them, never sympathize with them, never try to gain their confidence, 
so that the children might be inclined to consult them and rely upon them ! 
The vilest trash, the most obscene stories, the most irreligious tracts, may fall 
into the hands of these young people, who become interested, excited, and 
inflamed with what they read. Their minds become unbalanced, their intel- 
lects darkened, their hearts corrupted, their morals depraved, — and the father 
calmly goes on his way and never pays attention. His child is devouring 
poison ; he never minds. We see every day the evil effects of such reading, crimes 
most serious and most vile committed under its influence ; children abandoning 
their homes for wild adventures, boys learning dishonesty, girls losing their 
purity. This evil is spreading to an enormous extent, and is all the more 
dangerous, because it does not always work openly. The evil of intemperance 



33o THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

is very great, no doubt ; and temperance societies do well to wage war upon it. 
But the effects of drunkenness are apparent; all can see the ruin and the 
desolation it causes. Not so with bad reading. It works stealthily upon the 
mind; it poisons slowly all the faculties; it dries up the generous impulses of 
the heart; it inflames all the corrupt passions of our nature; it enkindles a 
fire which consumes and withers up all God's graces. Oh, would that our 
temperance societies and our other beneficial societies would unite in a cru- 
sade against bad reading! It is from it that evils worse even than drunken- 
ness flow. Irreligion, impiety, infidelity, are some of its fruits. Yet how 
many fathers care nothing, do nothing, to save their children! How few, 
even Catholic parents, supply good books, good newspapers, interesting his- 
tories, for them ! The daily papers, with all their shocking narratives of vice and 
crime, with their bigoted attacks upon the Church and their distorted reports 
of Catholic affairs, are eagerly read, while perhaps not one Catholic paper 
ever enters the house. The child reads slanders about his Church; he never 
reads the answer. The poison is swallowed and no antidote is at* hand. We 
earnestly recommend you, then, dear brethren, to provide according to your 
means for the wholesome reading of your children. Few families but could 
afford to subscribe for one or two Catholic papers. We have now several 
good ones, well written, full of interesting matter, and able to furnish useful 
and varied information. Then we have the Catholic World and the Catholic 
Quarterly, which treat of the most interesting questions of the day. For the 
parents themselves we recommend two little books lately published, called the 
Christian Father and the Christian Mother, m which they will fully learn all 
their duties to their children. Lastly, we earnestly urge upon the parents to 
make religion pleasant, to make the home lovable, to win the confidence of 
their children, and then, by the help of the sacraments and by prayer, they will 
lead them on gently, yet firmly, in the pathways of virtue and honor. 

Such, dearly beloved, are the reflections and considerations which we 
have felt it our duty to lay before you on this most important subject of 
Christian Education. In this holy season of Lent you will have more leisure 
to meditate upon them. We are obliged by our charge to preach the Word to 
you in season and out of season. The Bishop, like the prophet of old, has to 
be on the watch to announce the danger and to summon to the battle for right 
and truth. To him is addressed the demand of the Lord, " Watchman, what 
of the night? Watchman, what of the night?"* Soldier of the Lord, what 
dost thou see amidst the shadows of the night, threatening the peace and the 
happiness of my people? Look carefully; strain thy sight; turn thy ear to 
catch every sound. There may be danger in the darkness ; the enemy with 
silent footfall may be approaching, and thy people are calmly slumbering, re- 
lying on thy vigilance. "Watchman, what of the night?" And shall we be 
able to reply in the words of the same prophet, " The watchman said, The 
morning cometh, also the night : if you seek, seek ; return, come " ? ** 



*Isais, XXL, ii. 
**Isais, XXI, ii. 



PASTORAL LETTERS 381 

Yes, we hope, the morning with its beauty and its light, is coming to us 
all. Seek for help, O dearly beloved brethren ! Return to God with your 
whole hearts. The light of divine faith, the morning of religious truth, will 
beam upon us; but this will only come through a Christian education: and 
this education, we repeat in closing must consist of the education of the 
Christian home, the education of the Christian Church, and the education of 
the Christian schools. Give this education to your children and they will rise 
up around you " and call you blessed." *** 

This letter shall be read, either altogether or in part, at all the Masses 
in the churches where there are resident priests, on the first Sunday after its 
reception. Or the clergy can divide it into parts, and explain them each Sun- 
day, until the whole is read. In the mission churches the pastors will read it 
at the earliest opportunity. 

Given at Trenton, this 7th day of March, the Feast of St. Thomas of 
Aquin, Doctor of the Church, in the year of our Lord 1883. 

f MICHAEL JOSEPH O'FARRELL 

Bishop of Trenton. 
James A. McFaul, Secretary. 



: * Prov., XXXI., 28. 



PASTORAL LETTER 



OF 



RIGHT REV. MICHAEL JOSEPH O'FARRELL, 



BISHOP OF TRENTON 



ON CHRISTIAN MARRIAGE, 



1882 



CHRISTIAN MARRIAGE. 

Michael Joseph, by the grace of God and the favor of the Apostolic See, 
Bishop of Trenton, to the Clergy and faithful of his Diocese health and 
benediction. 

Beloved Brethren of the Clergy, and dear children of the Laity: 

On this solemn day, when the Catholic Church commemorates, with such 
touching and mournful ceremonies, the passion and death of Our Blessed 
Saviour, we wish to address you on some practical truths which we believe to- 
be of the greatest importance for the welfare of your souls. Having com- 
pleted the penitential exercises prescribed for the due observance of Lent, 
and having been frequently instructed by your pastors, during this holy sea- 
son, on your chief duties as Catholics, we feel convinced that you will be more 
than ever disposed to listen to the voice of your bishop who speaks to you 
to-day, in God's name, with all the affection and earnestness of one who knows 
that he is obliged to watch over you, as " having to give an account of your 
souls '" to the Good Shepherd and Chief Pastor of all. What we say to you, 
dear brethren, will not be regarded by you in the light of human opinions 
ever variable and inconstant, but as the expression of the teachings of our 
Holy Church, " the pillar and the ground of truth." 

In this our first pastoral letter to you, we had intended to explain the 
importance and necessity of Catholic education for your children. That 
subject has been always most dear to us, not only from our desire to carry 
out in all things the doctrines and teachings of the Holy See, so clear and 
explicit on the necessity of Catholic schools, but also from a long and close 
study of the many evils resulting to faith and morals from the mixed or god- 
less system of education. But on reflecting that Catholic schools and Catholic 
education cannot produce by themselves all the true fruits of religion ; that 
they require to have as a foundation, upon which they can firmly stand, the 
home education of the family, and that, without this basis of parental direc- 
tion, the fruits of the labors of Christian teachers will be very much dimin- 
ished, if not completely neutralized, we felt that before examining the ques- 
tion of education in schools, it would be necessary to enter into the family 
circle and consider the sacred duties of parents towards their children in the 
training of their hearts and minds, that they may be fitted to become good 
and useful citizens, and noble, zealous Christians. 

But here, again, we find another problem underlying this one. How can 
fathers and mothers realize the importance and the sacredness of their obliga- 
tions towards their offspring, unless they understand the true nature of Chris- 

384 



PASTORAL LETTERS 385 

tian marriage, and the duties which that holy state necessarily imposes on 
them? If marriage be simply a civil union or contract; if it can be made 
and unmade, either at the pleasure of the parties themselves, and by mutual 
agreement as in other contracts, or by the power of the State allowing divorce 
for various causes, then we can well understand how the Christian ideas of 
duty and obligation to the children would become clouded and gradually dis- 
appear. It is easy to see that only a Christian marriage — Christian in its 
true sense — can produce true Christian ideas as to the training of children. 
Hence, behind the question of education, rises up the question of the nature 
of Christian marriage ; and to realize the importance of the former, it will be 
necessary to find out what constitutes the latter. Therefore, dear brethren, 
instead of addressing you at once on the subject of Catholic education, we 
deem it essential to begin by the study of Catholic or Christian marriage, 
reserving that of Catholic education for a future occasion, being well con- 
vinced that if this question be properly understood, it will be very easy to 
explain the other truths that are so intimately connected with it. 

The greatness and the importance of this question of Christian marriage 
will appear evident to you from the fact that all society rests upon the family; 
that the family is the unit from which the aggregate of human society is 
constituted, and that if the family ties be loosely joined or easily broken, 
society would lose its consistency and cohesive power, and soon relapse into 
barbarism and anarchy. But it is in its Catholic meaning that we wish you, 
dear brethren, specially to consider it. The Church teaches us that our 
Blessed Redeemer raised the natural contract of marriage to the dignity of 
one of the Sacraments of the New Law ; that He made it a sacred and indis- 
soluble union between husband and wife ; that He constituted it the great and 
mysterious symbol of His own perpetual union with His Church, and that He 
expressly declared the law, that, " what God hath joined together, let no man 
put asunder." * 

Hence, the Catholic Church has always proclaimed to the world that the 
sacrament of marriage is one and cannot be dissolved; that the union must 
be of one man with one woman ; that this union must last for life, and that 
death alone can break it. It was by insisting on these principles that the 
Church civilized the barbarous nations of Europe, and built up Christendom 
and Christian civilization. It was by refusing even to powerful monarchs 
the right to trample upon the marriage ties, as their lusts and unbridled pas- 
sions often prompted them, that the Christian family was saved, the dignity 
of woman was exalted, and the character of wife and mother made so holy 
in true men's eyes. Rather than allow the violation of this sacrament, the 
Church, to her great sorrow, saw the English nation dragged from the unity 
of Christian faith by the ungovernable passions of Henry VIII. It was upon 
broken marriage ties and broken religious vows that the Reformation of the. 
16th century was built. 



* St. Matthew, chap XIX., 6. 



3S6 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

By the teaching of the Catholic Church, the evil system of polygamy, the 
curse of pagan and idolatrous nations, was made hateful to the Christian 
world, and if so great an abhorrence of Mormonism is truly felt by so large a 
proportion of the American people, it is due to the fact that the Catholic 
Church so deeply impressed the truth of the singleness of marriage upon the 
consciences of Christian peoples, that even three centuries of erroneous teach- 
ings have not been able entirely to eradicate it. 

Catholics, therefore, should hold most firmly those doctrines which have 
constituted in the past the most solid basis of the prosperity of nations. Let 
it, then, be clearly understood by all, that the bond of Christian marriage is so 
firm that no earthly power can sever it ; that no laws made by earthly legis- 
lators can justify in conscience absolute divorce between persons lawfully 
married. As the Apostle of the Gentiles declared, "A woman is bound by the 
law so long as her husband liveth," * and by parity of reasoning, that the 
man is equally bound as long as his wife is living, so no State, no nation, no 
legislation can dissolve the marriage tie, for "What God hath joined together 
let no man put asunder.'' ** 

But this perpetuity and indissolubility of marriage will often be con- 
sidered a great hardship, and so it must prove where God's law is not ob- 
served. Men's passions will long for a change, and human frailty and fickle- 
ness revolt against a constant yoke. 

The Catholic Church alone possesses the remedy and the antidote. She 
teaches that marriage, being a Sacrament, possesses within itself, and bestows 
on those who worthily receive it, all the graces and helps necessary to 
support and strengtehn them amidst the crosses and cares and sorrows that 
so often accompany it. She teaches that God grants through this Sacrament 
all the blessings that will enable husband and wife to live happy together, and 
to bring up their children in the fear and love of God ; that by those graces 
the inconstant human heart can be kept faithful and true to its early love. 
If Her counsels and commands were well observed, so many unhappy mar- 
riages would not exist, so many homes would not be made wretched, so many 
scenes of hatred and violence and so many scandalous lawsuits would not be 
known. 

We desire, then, to call your attention to some of the rules and regulations 
which the Catholic Church has wisely prescribed, as we are well assured that 
their strict observance will bring upon you and your children many blessings 
in this life and eternal happiness in the next. 

I. The Banns of Marriage. — The Church, acting on the principle that 
marriage is honorable in all, has prescribed that the banns of marriage should 
be published previous to the celebration in the parish church. She does so, 
not only that whatever obstacle or impediment to the due solemnization of the 
sacrament should exist may be made known and thus removed while there is 



* St. Paul, ist Corinthians, chap VII., V., 59. 
** St. Matthew, chap. 19. 



PASTORAL LETTERS 387 

still time, but also to interest in the happiness of the young couple the faithful 
amongst whom they live. She does so especially for the sake of the future 
wife, to protect her from deception, as far as possible, and to shield her from 
any slur that might be thrown upon her good name in after years, if her mar- 
riage were clandestine or secret. No true Catholic woman, then, should ever 
consent to be married, unless in very rare cases, without the publication of 
the banns, in order to show that she is not ashamed of her marriage. We 
desire the pastors and rectors of the different churches to explain these and 
other reasons for the law of the banns, and to apply for no dispensation from 
them, except in rare and exceptional cases. 

2. The Celebration of the Marriage. — Since marriage is a sacrament 
of the living, it must be received in the state of grace. It is therefore always 
desirable that it should be preceded by a good Confession and Communion. 
But if the conscience were burthened by sin, then the Confession would be- 
come necessary; otherwise the reception will be a sacrilege, and the graces 
destined by God to strengthen and comfort the married couple will not be 
given. Hence so many wretched marriages. How can such marriages be 
blessed by God? At the wedding of Cana, in Galilee, our divine Master and 
His Holy Mother assisted and sanctified the marriage by their presence ; and 
even the miracle was wrought by the Son of God, as if to show to all how He 
will bless those to whose marriage He is lovingly invited. But alas ! how many 
marry without a thought of their Saviour? How many enter into that sacred 
union without any knowledge of its importance, of its nature and of its true 
end ; and with low, earthly motives, or the mere promptings of passion and 
sinful desire? Hence we may well imagine that, instead of being blessed by 
the presence of the Son of God and His pure, virgin Mother, such nuptials 
have as a guest only the arch enemy of all to bring malediction upon them. 
To guard against such evil marriages, entered into with so much haste and so 
little deliberation, with so little respect for their sanctity that confession is 
omitted, even when the conscience is burthened with crime and the union is 
thus contracted in sin, we recommend earnestly our people to dispose them- 
selves by prayer and the sacraments for the worthy reception of marriage, 
and to implore the divine assistance with all their heart. The Catholic Church 
also desires most earnestly that all should be married in the morning, and 
with a special nuptial Mass ; and so great is her maternal anxiety to procure 
every blessing for the young couple, but especially on the young wife, that she 
obliges her ministers to interrupt the adorable sacrifice in order to pronounce 
the most solemn and touching blessings upon her. The Priest prays that all 
the gifts bestowed by the Most High upon the noble and saintly women of the 
old law may descend upon her, and that her name, like that of Sarah, Rebecca, 
Rachel and Esther, may be in benediction for ever; and that she may live to 
see her children and children's children to the third and fourth generation. 
Now the Church allows no such interruption in any other Mass, except in the 
blessing of the holy Oils, for the administration of the sacraments, and in the: 
Mass for the ordination of her own ministers and priests. 



388 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

We command, therefore, that, after the reading of this pastoral, no mar- 
riages shall be celebrated in this diocese, either during the afternoon or at 
night; that all shall be celebrated in the morning, and with a nuptial Mass. 
We are certain that our people will reap abundant graces and blessings from 
following this holy law. Already this is the custom in many parishes of the 
diocese, to the great edification of the community; and we see no reason why 
the other parishes should not do the same. We prescribe, then, that Mar- 
riages shall henceforth be celebrated always in the morning, and with a 
nuptial Mass wherever it is possible. 

Having thus seen the mind of the Church with regard to the manner in 
which Catholics should prepare themselves for the due reception of the Sacra- 
ment of Marriage, and her anxiety lest they should be deprived of any of its 
blessings, we will more easily understand the indignation and sorrow and 
horror with which she regards the conduct of those unfaithful children, who, 
instead of profiting by the advantages she offers them, turn their backs upon 
her and seek to be united in marriage outside of her pale, and by others than 
her priests. Truly their conduct must be considered as sacrilegious, as mani- 
festing a contempt for their Church, and a complete disregard of her sacra- 
ment. What excuse can be offered for such a crime? What motive can 
justify them, particularly when in this country marriage before the priest is 
invested with all legal effects? Hence the severest punishments have been 
threatened by the Church against such offenders. Sentence of excommunica- 
tion has been pronounced against them, and priests are not allowed to ab- 
solve them without special permission from the Bishop. But, as in despite of 
past warnings and menaces, there are still to be found some Catholics, either 
so ignorant as not to know them, or so reckless as to disregard them, we, 
knowing well from experience, that those who thus marry outside of their 
Church care very little about their own souls, or about the religious training 
of their children, who are almost invariably brought up in ignorance, if not in 
contempt of their faith, moved by the earnest desire of our hearts to save them 
and others from such evils,, in the name of God, and by the power invested in 
us, now solemnly command the Pastors to announce to their people, that, in 
future, after this letter has been clearly explained, with our reasons and 
motives developed before the congregations, all Catholics belonging to this 
diocese, who shall marry before any one not a Catholic priest, shall not and 
cannot be absolved by any priest of this diocese, until they shall have done 
penance publicly in the church, and either by themselves, or by the priest 
speaking publicly at the Mass for them, shall ask pardon of the congregation 
for the scandal and bad example which they have given, and only upon the 
accomplishment of this penance shall we authorize the Pastors to grant absolu- 
tion. We also command and enjoin most strictly upon the Pastors not to 
admit to be churched, after childbirth, any woman who shall be married in 
this way, after the publication of this letter, until she first perform public 
penance for it, in the manner just described. 



PASTORAL LETTERS 389 

3. Mixed Marriages. — Another great evil which the Church very much 
deplores, arises from mixed marriages, which are, unfortunately, but too com- 
mon in some sections of the country. Whatever reasons may have existed in 
the past, from necessity or other powerful motive, to justify them, or at least 
render them less dangerous, it is seldom that, in present circumstances, and 
with the increasing number of Catholics, any solid motives can be found to 
justify them. They are in themselves most dangerous to the faith of the 
Catholic party; they are opposed to the mutual confidence and complete union 
of heart and soul which should ever subsist between husband and wife, and 
without which marriage loses one of its chief blessings ; they are most hurtful 
to the religious training of the children, who will naturally feel less the im- 
portance of doctrines about which they not only see their parents divided, 
but, perhaps, have to listen to bickerings and quarrels concerning them, so 
that, even if all the promises, which must be made by the non-Catholic party 
before the marriage can be celebrated at all, should be faithfully and honor- 
ably kept, many dangers will still exist. 

But that you may most fully appreciate the gravity of this evil, we will 
quote for you the testimonies and solemn declaration of the highest authori- 
ties in the Church. We begin with the supreme authority of the Holy See. 
In an instruction addressed in the year 1858 to all the archbishops and bishops 
of the Church, it is explicitly declared that " the Church has always reprobated 
these marriages, and has held them to be unlawful and pernicious ; as well 
because of the disgraceful communion in divine things, as because of the peril 
of perversion that hangs over the Catholic party to the marriage, and because 
of the disastrous influences affecting the education of the children." And 
then the Holy See reminds us, " that if the more recent constitutions of the 
Sovereign Pontiffs relax the severity of the canons in some degree, so that 
mixed marriages may occasionally be allowed, this is only done for the gravest 
reasons and very reluctantly, and without the express condition of requiring 
beforehand those proper and indispensable pledges which have their founda- 
tion in the natural and divine law." 

Still later, in the year 1868, the sacred congregation of the Propaganda 
issued a new and even stronger instruction. It enjoins upon the bishops that 
" lest perchance from misunderstanding, the people confided to you should 
suffer any harm, you are earnestly exhorted to take proper occasions studi- 
ously to teach and inculcate both on the clergy and the laity committed to 
your care, what is the true doctrine and practice of the Church respecting 
these mixed marriages." The instruction concludes with these solemn 
words : " Wherefore we earnestly request of your charity, that you strive and 
put forth your efforts, as far as in the Lord you can, to keep the faithful con- 
fided to you from these mixed marriages, so that they may cautiously avoid 
the perils which are found in them. But you will gain this object the more 
easily if you have care that the faithful be instructed on the special obligation 
that binds them to hear the voice of the Church on the subject, and to obey 
their bishops, who will have to give a more strict account to the Eternal 



39© THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Prince of Pastors, not only for sometimes allowing these mixed marriages, 
for most grave reasons, but for too easily tolerating the contracting of mar- 
riages between the faithful and non-Catholics, at the will of those who ask it." 
Can anything be added to these very earnest words? Nothing except by 
showing that the bishops throughout the Catholic world have everywhere 
sought to put them in practice. In our own country, all the bishops assembled 
in the council of Baltimore, and since then in various provincial councils, have 
all deplored the evils of mixed marriages, and have repeatedly, in their pastoral 
letters, most earnestly urged upon their people to avoid them. And at the 
other extremity of the globe, the voice of the Australian bishops is found to 
be in unison with that of the head of the Church, and in a late synod they 
proclaimed, with no uncertain or ambiguous sound, this very important doc- 
trine. We give for your instruction, dear brethre, this admirable passage 
from their synodal address : " The frequency of mixed marriages," say the 
Right Rev. Prelates, " is a terrible blot upon the character of our Catholic 
community. It is sad to think with what facility Catholic parents consent to 
such irreligious connections, and with how little caution they expose their 
young people to social intercourse, where passionate fancy and the thought- 
lessness of youth are certain to entail the danger of mischievous alliances. It 
is in the main the fault of the parents more than of the children, who hear so 
little warning against mixed marriages — so the denunciation and deprecation 
of their dangers and miseries. If young people did hear from the clergy and 
from parents as often and as explicitly as they ought, the sense and doctrine 
of the Church concerning such marriages, they would be a far rarer calamity 
than they are. The generosity of the young would revolt from such unions if 
they saw them in their true light, as a danger and a disgrace. Yes, a dis- 
grace ; not, perhaps, always in the eye of the world, but always in the eye of 
the Church. How are they to be interpreted? On ane side there is the 
Church teaching that matrimony is a sacrament — that the married life has its 
own great duties, its own difficulties, for which special graces of God are 
necessary, and which are provided by Him — that the state is to be entered 
upon thoughtfully and solemnly — with careful preparation of mind and heart 
— that spouses are to be of mutual help and encouragement in the grand end 
of all human life, the life for God and the next world. This is on one side; 
and on the other what is there? A mere fanciful or passionate attachment, 
with little enough of worth about it, even when pure with the utmost natural 
purity it can have ; a mere passionate attachment, overlooking, or at least 
most certainly undervaluing, the great considerations we have just stated. Is 
not this a disgrace? Or if the motive to mixed marriage be an advantageous 
alliance in respect of money prospects, is it not even more disgraceful to soil 
a sacred thing with the sordid calculations of a commercial bargain? Or, if 
the mixed marriage be coveted because one of the parties possesses some little 
higher worldly standing of fashion, or connection, or style ; why, is not the 
thing still more contemptibly disgraceful, at least for the Catholic, with his or 



PASTORAL LETTERS 



39 1 



her belief about the one Church, the holiness of sacraments, the preciousness 
of God's grace, and the true end of life?" 

From these testimonies it must appear evident that mixed marriages, no 
matter what precautions may be taken, are always more or less dangerous. 
Of course, there are exceptions. There are cases where such marriages have 
had happy results. But they are rare, they are exceptional, and we have no 
right to expect from God any special favors, when we act directly against the 
well-known wishes and even laws of His Church. There must be grave rea- 
sons, and " even grave difficulties impending over the faithful, that cannot 
otherwise be removed, before they can be allowed to expose their faith and 
morals to grave risks." Such are the terms of the sacred congregation of the 
Propaganda, in the Pope's name, in 1868. Hence our people will see that the 
bishop should not grant a dispensation for such marriages except in cases 
where grave difficulties and serious risks might otherwise be feared. It 
would, therefore, be a great fraud for a Catholic to engage himself to marry 
one who is not a Catholic and then plead the engagement as a ground for dis- 
pensation. It would be a fraud to settle everything for such marriage and 
then give as a reason for requiring dispensation, that everything is ready and 
that they cannot draw back. No Catholic is justified in contracting such an 
engagement until a dispensation has been previously obtained. 

•We so earnestly desire that no such marriage should take place at all, 
that we request the pastors not to apply for dispensations for mixed mar- 
riages, unless they find the reasons very great and convincing. 

This, we trust, dear brethren, will prove sufficient to convince you of the 
evils of mixed marriages, and that we shall not have the grief of seeing any 
of them in future in our young diocese. 

For a more complete development of the entire subject of Marriage from 
a Christian point of view, and of mixed marriages in particular, we strongly 
recommend for your perusal and serious consideration two little works lately 
published by Benziger Brothers : one is entitled "A Sure Way to a Happy 
Marriage ; " and the other "An Instruction on Mixed Marriages," by the Right 
Rev. Dr. Ullathorne. 

4. Other Rules for the Married. — We would also most earnestly urge 
upon Catholic women to strive by all means to make religion known and loved 
in their households ; to impress upon the children, from their tenderest years, 
the importance of prayer, and as they grow up to imbue their young minds 
with love of the sacraments. ' Mothers will be well rewarded for all this care, 
when they will witness the unfolding of their children's minds and their 
growth in the true wisdom and loveliness of virtue. We would also suggest 
that Catholic women, when they find the time of maternity approaching, 
should know where to find a conscientious physician or faithful and skillful 
woman to take care of them, and should be determined, in case of danger, to 
refuse to allow those horrible devices by which the child's life is often ruth- 
lessly sacrificed. A Catholic mother must know how to die rather than per- 
mit what is truly a great crime. 



392 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Such are some of the rules and regulations which we deem it important 
to send to you for the beginning of the Easter time. We hope and confi- 
dently trust, through the mercies of the risen Saviour, that they will contrib- 
ute much to your spiritual advancement and to the growth of the Catholic 
faith throughout our diocese. The more faithfully we practice the doctrines 
of our glorious Church, the more will her beauty and majesty shine out in 
the eyes of all. She is so beautiful and strong, in spite of her nineteen cen- 
turies of labors, of conflicts and of victories, that even our short-comings and 
failings cannot conceal her loveliness. But how much more radiant will she 
appear, if we, her children, seek to reflect her beauty in the holiness of our 
lives. 

We write these words on Good Friday, with the shadows of the Passion 
around us, but with the merciful cry of the dying Saviour ringing in our ears : 
" Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do ! " and, therefore, we 
cannot forget to turn towards those children of the Church who have almost 
forgotten their Holy Mother, who have been so long estranged from her 
practices, and who have violated her laws. To them we address our most 
earnest prayer to return to God and to their Church. We conjure them, by 
the blood of the Saviour — by the scourging and crowning with thorns, and 
nailing to the cross — by the ardent cry of Jesus, " I thirst," to cast themselves 
at the feet of their merciful Lord and seek His pardon. The very rocks were 
split by His death ; let not our hearts prove harder. We say to all that, what- 
ever violations of ecclesiastical law may have taken place in the past, whether 
through ignorance, more or less culpable, or even through malice, now sin- 
cerely repented of, we shall most willingly authorize the pastors to grant any 
indulgence that lies in our power, and if application should be necessary to 
ourselves, we promise any concession that the repose of troubled consciences 
may require. May we not trust, then, dear brethren, that the feast of Easter 
will bring joy to you all, and that the peace of the Lord Jesus — that peace 
which He won by His victory over death and hell — that peace " which sur- 
passeth all understanding " — will descend upon you and your families, and re- 
main with you forever. 

This letter shall be read at all the Masses in the churches where there are 
resident priests, on the Sunday immediately after its reception, and in the 
mission churches, at the earliest opportunity. 

Given at Trenton, this 7th day of April (Good Friday), 1882. 

t MICHAEL JOSEPH, 

Bishop of Trenton. 
The Rev. Clergy are requested to add henceforth to the prayers at Mass 
the " Oratio pro Papa," until further notification. . 



PASTORAL LETTER 



OF 



THE RT. REV. JAMES A McFAUL, D.D., 



BISHOP OF TRENTON, 



CLERGY AND LAITY OF HIS DIOCESE. 



POPE LEO XIII. 



1902, 



PASTORAL LETTER OF RT. REV. JAMES A. McFAUL, BISHOP OF 
TRENTON, ON POPE LEO XIII. 

James Augustine, by the grace of God and the favor of the Apostolic See, 
Bishop of Trenton, to the Clergy and Laity of his Diocese, health and 
benediction. 

Dearly Beloved Brethren : 

In announcing the Annual Collection for the Holy Father, during this, 
the twenty-fifth year of his illustrious pontificate, it is proper that I should 
direct in a special manner your attention to the august personage of the 
Vicar of Christ and his manifold labors in behalf of the Church and of 
humanity. 

This duty is rendered all the more pleasing by the fact that this diocese 
is under the greatest obligations to Leo XIII. He divided the Diocese of 
Newark which was co-extensive with the territory of the entire State of New 
Jersey, and created the Diocese of Trenton, appointing as the first Bishop of 
the See, my distinguished predecessor, Bishop O'Farrell. Besides, he has 
manifested his love for this portion of the Lord's vineyard by honoring some 
of its prominent priests and investing them with the Roman purple. 

These proofs of paternal affection intensify the feelings of veneration 
which we as Catholics, have for the Visible Head of the Church, and induce 
me, on this occasion, to refer, at least briefly, to the principal acts of his reign 
with the view of strengthening those ties that bind both the sheep and the 
Iambs of the flock to him who has been so aptly called " The Great White 
Shepherd of Christendom." 

Many of you remember the unusual stir in the civil and religious world 
at the death of Pius IX. Men prophesied the downfall of the Papacy and the 
destruction of the Church when deprived of her chief governing and teaching 
power. But the enduring character of the Papacy was demonstrated by the 
speedy election of Leo, a pope whose long career and successful reign remind 
us of the most glorious days of the Church of Christ. 

On his accession to the chair of St. Peter, he found what has been termed 
a " hopeless inheritance," yet by his tact, wisdom and prudence, aided by 
guidance from above, he rules as powerfully as the greatest of his famous 
predecessors. Conclude not from this that the temporal power is unnecessary. 
It is requisite for the free, untrammelled government of the Church. The 
Pope should be subject to no earthly ruler, and his children should have free 
access to their Spiritual Father. Those dominions which render the Pope 
independent are the heritage of Catholics. No temporal potentate, no nation 



394 



PASTORAL LETTERS 395 

has a right to their possession. The Head of the Church should dwell on 
neutral ground which should stand in relation to other countries as the Dis- 
trict of Columbia to the several States of the Union. Within that territory 
he should reign supreme, not only- as the Head of the Church, but also as a 
temporal Sovereign. 

When there is question of great natural talents displayed in the field of 
statesmanship, three names claim special distinction : Leo, Gladstone and 
Bismarck, because they stand pre-eminent among all others of their day. 
Gladstone and Bismarck have passed from the councils of this world; Leo 
still remains. Bismarck, confiding in material power, aimed a blow at the 
destruction of the liberties of Catholics. He interfered with the God-given 
prerogatives of the Church and their exercise in the German Empire, and, 
although the "Iron Chancellor" loudly protested that he would never go to 
Canossa, all the world knows that the victory was on the side of the Pope. 

Perhaps no other Supreme Pontiff has taken an equal interest in the great 
problem of his day. You recollect his masterly Encyclical " On Capital and 
Labor." It dealt with the abtruse problems of economics and handled 
them so skillfully that it attracted the admiration of those best qualified by 
their studies to appreciate and to pass judgment upon the accuracy of the 
solution offered. The reciprocal relations existing between Capital and Labor 
were clear in the light of the solid principles brought forward and developed. 
He maintained that they should be friends, and render mutual assistance 
since each is dependent on the other. He granted that Capital had betimes 
encroached upon the rights of Labor, but he did not fail to remind Labor of 
the dangers arising from unjust interference with Capital. He claimed that 
" supply and demand " are not the only factors deserving of consideration in 
the apportioning of wages. The laborer is worthy of his hire, and his wages 
should bear a just relation to his position in society, the kind of labor ren- 
dered, his own needs, and of those dependent upon him. He eloquently 
pleaded for justice and argued that we are all children of the same heavenly 
Father, all brethren, and all must observe the Golden Rule : " Do unto others 
as you would have them do to you." In a word, he declared that the solu- 
tion of the difficulties and the alleviation of the evils of society could only be 
brought about by a return to the doctrines of Christ. 

As a scholar and a teacher he has recalled an unbelieving and a material- 
istic age to those basic principles forged by the blows of intellectual giants, 
and proclaimed St. Thomas, the Angelic Doctor, " The Patron of Christian 
Schools." At this time I need not dwell longer on those marvelous Ency- 
clicals in which he has treated other important questions of the day, such as 
those of Holy Scripture and Christian Democracy. I should like, however, to 
impress upon you this fact, that, humanly speaking and apart from super- 
natural guidance, the Holy Father must ever exercise the highest influence in 
the affairs of the world. What has been said of England will soon be said of 
America, that " her drum-beats are heard around the world and that the sun 
never sets upon her dominions." Notwithstanding their greatness, what in- 



396 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

fluence has the United States or England on Russia, Germany or France? 
Not so with the Pope of Rome ; when he raises his hand in benediction "Urbi 
et Orbi," upon Rome and the world, that blessing falls upon his children at 
the frozen poles and on the scorching sands of the equator. There is no part 
of the habitable globe where it does not find a resting place in some Catholic 
heart, awaken a chord of sympathy, and evoke the self-same spirit of fealty 
and affection which caused the Roman Empire to run with Christian blood 
and forced Tertullian to exclaim : " The blood of the Christians is the seed of 
Christianity." Think of it! Nearly three hundred millions of children in 
every nation, tribe and clime under Heaven, a solid phalanx, all marching 
forward under trained leaders, ready to die for the truths delivered to the 
saints ! The power and influence of the Roman Pontiff are founded neither 
on fear nor favor, but on Christian faith, Christian hope, and Christian charity. 
Therefore do the proudest intellects and the greatest saints venerate and 
esteem him as the Vicar of Christ, the successor of St. Peter, the Visible 
Shepherd of Christ's visible flock on earth. 

I shall never forget my visit, as Bishop, to his Holiness. That vener- 
able man, bending under the weight of years, bade me be seated near him, 
inquired about the condition of the diocese, of all those entrusted to my care, 
and then in slow and measured tones spoke of the strength, the purity, the 
progress of the Church in America; nor did he fail to express his love and 
admiration for our civil institutions. He discoursed so lovingly of America 
and her beneficent influence that I was awed by his language and his per- 
sonality, and I felt that my feet were on holy ground. The memory of that 
visit to the aged Prisoner of the Vatican who is now dependent upon the con- 
tributions of his faithful children to defray the expense of the various tri- 
bunals requisite in the government of the Church, impels me, during, this 
Jubilee Year, to make a strong appeal to your liberality, and to earnestly hope 
that the Peter's Pence collection will be worthy of the diocese and of our 
great Pontiff, Leo the thirteenth. 

f JAMES AUGUSTINE McFAUL, 

Bishop of Trenton. 
John W. Norris, Secretary. 



DECISION OF 



THE RT. REV. JAMES A. McFAUL 



BISHOP OF TRENTON 



ARBITRATOR 



BETWEEN 



THE A. O. H. OF AMERICA 



AND 



THE A. O. H. OF THE U. S. A., IN AFFILIATION WITH 

THE B. OF E. 

TIME AND PLACE OF THE NATIONAL CONVENTION. 



THE A. O .H. OF AMERICA AND THE A. O. H OF THE U. S. IN 
AFFILIATION WITH THE B. OF E. 

Messrs. P. J. O'Connor, National President; John C. Weadock, National 
Vice-President; Maurice F. Wilhere, National Director; John P. Murphy, 
National Director; James O'Sullivan, National Secretary; Rev. William T. 
McLaughlin, a Committee representing " The A. O. H. of America ; " and 
Rev. E. S. Phillips, National Delegate; E. R. Hayes, National Secretary; 
John McWilliams, National Treasurer; John P. Quinnan, Joseph McLauglin, 
Miles F. McPartland, James H. Murphy, a Committee representing " The A. 
O. H. of the U. S. of America," in affiliation with the Board of Erin. 
Gentlemen : 

In my decision of December nth, 1897, I reserved the right to designate 
the time and place for the National Convention, to be held by virtue of said 
decision, in the following words : " The National Delegate and the National 
President shall conjointly sign and issue a call, countersigned by the Arbi- 
trator, to those under their jurisdiction, for a National Convention, to be 
held during the month of June, 1898, on such day, and in such place as the 
Arbitrator shall decide." This clause was accepted and ratified by your Hon- 
orable Committees. In pursuance of this part of the decision, I have weighed 
the reasons which should be considered in relation to the time and place of 
the National Convention, bearing always in mind the interests of both Organi- 
zations and specially the cause of unity and harmony. 

Before the selection of an Arbitrator, each branch of the Order had 
selected an American city for holding its own National Convention, and after 
arbitration had been resorted to, it became at once perfectly clear that only 
one National Convention could be held, and that this must necessarily be one 
of the points on which the Arbitrator should exercise his judgment. 

Besides, after so cordial an acceptance of my decision by your Honorable 
Committees, acting for both bodies, and its unanimous ratification — without 
even one discordant note from the Organizations throughout the country, 
covering, as it did, principles which had been discussed with such divergence 
of opinion during many years — it is evident that the question of time and 
place is of minor importance. Nevertheless, I have carefully considered this 
question, and I find that it would be imprudent and prejudicial to the interests 
of unity and harmony, if either of the cities designated, previous to my selec- 
tion as Arbitrator, for National Conventions this year, were selected. I must, 
therefore, choose a neutral city, and be guided by its accessibility as a rail- 
way center, and its capability for accommodating the Delegates. Moreover, 
I think it will be granted, after my long and arduous labor in behalf of unity, 

398 



PASTORAL LETTERS 



399 



since I am to be temporary Chairman, and my personal supervision, as Arbi- 
trator, will be needed until the close of the National Convention, that my 
convenience should also be considered. For, I am required, in a very busy 
season of the year for me, to devote a great part of my time to the interests 
of the Order, and should not be asked to leave my diocese. 

It has been urged that certain American cities are replete with revolu- 
tionary memories, and that this entitles them to consideration in making a 
selection. Gentlemen, I most willingly concede the force of this argument. 
It will, indeed, be a glorious day when Irish and Irish-Americans meeting 
here in America, on soil rendered sacred, in revolutionary days, by the blood 
of our fathers, will lovingly entwine the memories of the heroic deeds of Erin 
and America — deeds crimsoned with their heart's blood and performed for 
" life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness." Therefore, I feel that Providence 
guided the steps of your Honorable Committees, seeking for union, to New 
Jersey. For here are the historic battle-fields of Princeton, Monmouth and 
Trenton. I love, indeed, to think that New Jersey was among the first of the 
sturdy Colonies to raise the standarde of Independence ; that her hills and 
valleys have been hallowed by the blood of revolutionary heroes ; that when 
the destinies of this country were shrouded in darkness ; when the spirits of 
the Fathers hung heavy and dejected; when defeat after defeat had tried their 
patience and taxed their endurance, the victory at Trenton gave them new 
strength and courage ; and that in this city was seen, for the first time, the 
bright star of hope rising above the darkened horizon of America's brilliant 
future. 

Familiar as we are with the glorious deeds, must not I, and my devoted 
flock, be proud of the fact that my Cathedral is built on the ground first dedi- 
cated to freedom and then to religion by the Lord of Hosts, and that its 
Gothic spire, while pointing out the way to heaven is alike a monument to 
civic and Christian virtue ! Yes, gentlemen, be assured Providence guided 
you to Trenton ; here the work of union was begun and here let it be endur- 
ingly cemented. 

Therefore, I hereby decide that the National Convention to be called in 
pursuance of my decision, dated December nth, 1897, shall be held in the city 
of Trenton, New Jersey, and begin on the 27th day of June, 1898. 

This decision shall be forwarded to both Organizations by their National 
Secretaries, and a call for the said National Convention shall be issued later 
in the manner directed in my former decision. 

With my best wishes for the New Year and my blessing to every member 
of the A. O. H., I am, 

Very sincerely yours, 

f JAMES A. McFAUL, 

Arbitrator. 

Trenton, N. J., January 10, 1898. 



AFTERWORD. 

A quarter of a century ago, the present Diocese of Trenton was a part of 
the Newark Diocese, which from 1853 to 1881 comprised the whole of New 
Jersey. When, however, Pope Leo XIII decided to promote Bishop Corrigan 
of Newark to the Archbishopric of New York, he also decided to divide the 
state into two separate Diocese and Dr. Winand M. Wigger became third 
Bishop of Newark and Rev. Michael J. O'Farrell was appointed first Bishop 
of Trenton. To the old Diocese was left most of the larger and substantial 
parishes and Diocesan institutions, and it counted by far the greater number 
of Catholics. To compensate for this difference, the new Diocese received 
the greater area of territory and comprised thirteen counties, so that it had 
ample room to spread. It dominated the whole sea coast from Sandy 
Hook to Cape May Point. Yet over all this area the churches were few and 
far between, with no Diocesan institutions and only forty priests. Those who 
remained, however, or were allotted to the new Diocese took up the work of 
God with a determined purpose to spread His Kingdom. These were soon 
joined by others and under the guidance of their illustrious Bishop, churches, 
missions and stations began to multiply ; Diocesan institutions soon arose, 
until now, at the close of the twenty-fifth year of its existence, the Diocese 
of Trenton ranks as one of the most progressive in the East. With pleasure, 
therefore, may we look back to the beginnings of Catholicity in this section 
of New Jersey and with a laudable pride may we recount the story of our 
triumphs, whilst leaving on record the dates and facts connected with our 
progress from the little mission station in Salem and Gloucester Counties, to 
the stately churches in our large cities to-day. To those hard-working priests, 
Bishops and religious laity, who gave their lives to the preservation of the 
faith, we offer our tribute of gratitude and admiration. To the present gen- 
eration of priests and people we give a hearty God-speed in the work they are 
doing. To-day at the celebration of the Silver Jubilee, we may look around 
and count over 100 parish churches, 40 missions, 98 stations, a fully equipped 
hospital, 3 homes for the aged poor, 2 orphanages, a day nursery, one college, 
6 academies, 39 parish schools, instructing 10,000 pupils — all cared for by 142 
priests, 315 Sisters, and supported by 110,000 of the best laity in the world. 
Assisting in the Diocese are the following religious communities : The Fran- 
ciscans, Augustinians, Vincentian Fathers of the Pious Missions, Sisters of 
Charity, Mercy, St. Francis, St. Dominic, St. Felix and Mission Helpers — all 
working for God under the guidance of our illustrious Bishop James Augustine 
McFaul. 

401 



4 02 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Yet to accomplish these splendid results meant persevering industry and 
united generous action upon the part of clergy and people. Nay it also- 
meant much more ; it meant heroic self-sacrifice and enduring patience through 
difficulties that at times seemed almost insurmountable, but at all times God 
blessed and rewarded the noble efforts. Churches, schools, convents, hospi- 
tals and other religious foundations remain to-day to attest the efficacy of 
these trials, many of the details of which are recorded only in the book of 
life. Yet the story, detached though it be, is interesting to those who cart, 
appreciate such efforts ; for it tells of poverty and misfortune endured with. 
the courage of the martyrs of old, in their fidelity to Faith. It records the 
work done by brave and religious men and women who crossed the sea to 
escape the tyranny of religious persecutions and misgovernment in Ireland and 
Germany. It tells of the iniquitous banishment of the Acadians and the 
French refugees, fleeing the terrors of revolution at home — all seeking a 
peaceful refuge in this new land, and sharing their prosperity for the spread 
of Christ's kingdom upon earth. Could these early actors have penetrated the 
veil of the future and foreseen the fruitage of their labors, they would indeed 
have rejoiced and been encouraged in their labors. But whatever has been 
done in the past is only a small beginning, and where others have laid down 
the burden we must take it up and continue to carry it with the same faithful 
patience and perseverance. To-day many of our churches are small and in- 
significant, some of our schools and convents can be improved. It remains for 
us to do our duty in building and perfecting and laying new foundations for 
future increase, for what our Catholic American ancestors wrought with toil 
and trouble is easier for us, since that ugly spirit of race hatred and religious 
intolerance, has well-nigh passed away, and we can live with our non-Catholic 
fellow-citizens in peace and pleasure, teaching them by a noble example of 
Christian forbearance, the innate beauty and fraternity of the Catholic 
Church. Our lots have been cast in different times, for we have new foes to 
fight — the spirit of irreligion, indifference, socialism, and anarchism. To the 
discomfiture of these we must bend our efforts, by training up in our schools 
a band of pious, God-fearing, reverential Catholic American citizens whose 
ambition as citizens must be to cherish and uphold our glorious American 
Constitution, and as Catholics to become faithful and consistent members of 
our Church. 



ADDENDA 



4°4 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 




REV. JAMES RIGNEY. 



ADDENDA 



405 




REV. J. A. EGAN. 



406 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 




REV. JOSEPH TRANSERICCI. 



ADDENDA 



407 




REV. JOHN A. GRAHAM. 



408 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 




REV. WM. J. FARRELL. 



ADDENDA 



409 




REV. BARTHOLOMEW CAREY 



4io 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 




REV. D. J. DUGGAN. 



ADDENDA 



411 




REV. PETER TACHETTI. 



412 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 




FATHER KEARNS. 



ADDENDA 



413 




REV. JOHN A. CONWAY. 



414 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 




IMMACULATE CONCEPTION CHURCH, CLINTON, N. J. 



ADDENDA 



415 




ST. ANTHONY'S CHURCH, HIGHTSTOWN, N. J. 




ST. SCHOLASTICA'S CONVENT, PRINCETON, N. J. 



416 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 



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ST. JOHN S CHURCH, ALLENTOWN, N. J. 



ADDENDA 



417 




SACRED HEART CHURCH, MOUNT HOLLY, N. J. 



4i8 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 




ST. CATHERINE S CHURCH, EVERETT, N. J. 



ADDENDA 



419 




ST. AGNES' CHURCH, ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS, N. J. 



ADDENDA 



42r 




ST. ANN S CHURCH, SPRING LAKE, N. J. 



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424 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 




st. Joseph's church and rectory, dunellen, n. j. 



426 



THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 




HOLY FAMILY CHURCH, WATERFORD, N. J. 



ADDENDA 



427 




CHURCH OF THE ASSUMPTION, HACKETTSTOWN, N. J. 



ADDENDA 



429 




ST. JOSEPH'S CHURCH, ROOSEVELT, N. J. 



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ST. MARY'S CHURCH, DEAL BEACH, N. J. 



ADDENDA 431 



REV. JAMES J. POWERS. 

Rev. James J. Powers was born in Trenton, N. J. After finishing his 
grammar course at the Cathedral School he entered St. Vincent's College, 
Westmoreland County, Pa., where he completed his classics and theological 
course. On June 3d, 1903, he was ordained at St. Patrick's Cathedral, New- 
ark, N. J. His first Mass was celebrated in St. Mary's Cathedral, Trenton, 
N. J., on June 17, 1906, since which time he has been engaged as assistant 
and secretary to the Rt. Rev. Bishop McFaul, as well as doing parish work at 
St. Alphonsus' Church, Hopewell, as rector and chaplain to St. Michael's 
Home of that place. As secretary he has always been kind and genial with 
priests and people and faithful to the trust reposed in him by his Bishop. For 
several years he has edited the St. Michael's Messenger and is a good friend 
to the orphans. At present he is rector of St. Alphonsus' Church, Hopewell, 
and chaplain to the Home. 



INDEX. 

A. 

Allen, Rev. Thomas A 229 

Allentown, St. John's Church 196 

Asbury Park, Church of the Holy Spirit 138 

Asbury Park, Mount Carmel 203 

Atlantic City, St. Nicholas' Church 90 

Atlantic City, Our Lady Star of the Sea 160 

Atlantic City, St. Michael's Church 204 

Atsion 213 

Augustinian Monks 226 

A. O. H. Decision 397 

Atlantic Highlands, St. Agnes' Church. 168 

Afterword • 401 

B. 

Bayley, Rt. Rev. Bishop 85 

Basking Ridge, St. James' Church 101 

Beverley, St. Joseph's Church 136 

Belmar, Church of St. Rose 166 

Belvidere, St. Patrick's Church 168 

Bernardsville, Our Lady of Perpetual Help 190 

Benedictines • . . 226 

Biographical Sketches 228 

Blake, Rev. Thomas F • 234 

Bound Brook, St. Joseph's Church : 108 

Bordentown, St. Mary's Church 35 

Bordentown, St. Joseph's Academy 219 

Bogaard, Rev. Martin A 233 

Brie, Rev. M. E 230 

Brady, Rev. John F 234 

Bradevelt, St. Gabriel's Church 135 

Bridgeton, Immaculate Conception Church 82 

Burlington, St. Paul's Church 59 

Burke, Rev. R. E 230 

Byrnes, Rev. P .' 231 

C. 

Cape May, St. Mary's Church 64 

Cape May Point, St. Agnes' Church 191 



434 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Camden, Immaculate Conception Church 68 

Camden, Sts. Peter and Paul's Church no 

Camden, Sacred Heart Church 164 

Camden, Mount Carmel Church : 203 

Camden, St. Joseph's Church 208 

Cassesse, Rev. Anthony 235 

Callahan, Rev. Michael H 235 

Cantwell, Rev. William P 235 

Carey, Rev. Bartholomew 237 

Callan, Rev. James 238 

Caulfield, Rev. J. A • 239 

Cannon, Rev. C 240 

Cahill, Rev. Edward A 317 

Caton, Rev. J. E 317 

Carteret, St. Joseph's Church • 162 

Cedar Brook, Sacred Heart Church 202 

Chatsworth 199 

Connolly, Rev. P. F ■ 237 

Connolly, Rev. P. L 240 

Colt's Neck 138 

Corrigan, Rt. Rev. Bishop • 122 

Charity, Sisters of 224 

Clinton, Immaculate Conception Church 91 

Collingswood, St. John's Church 197 

Carroll, Rev. John A • 316 

Conway, Rev. John B 310 

D. 

Danielou, Rev. S 242 

Dennisville 78 

Deal, St. Mary's Church 193 

Degan, Rev. T. J 241 

Dernis, Rev. P. 242 

Devine, Rev. J. F 243 

De Kovacks, Rev. L 244 

Degnan, Rev. T. J 247 

Dittrich, Rev. W. F '. 245 

DTelsi, Rev. M 3*7 

Dunellen, St. John's Church 146 

Duggan, Rev. D. J 242 

Duggan, Rev. M. C 244 

Dunphy, Rev. E. J 244 

Dunphy, W. J 246 

Directory, Diocesan 3 2 8 

Dorothy, St. Bernard's Church no 



INDEX 



435 



E. 

Eatontown, St. Dorothy's Church T99 

East Vineland, St. Mary's Church 201 

Egg Harbor, St. Nicholas' Church 105 

Egan, Rev. J. A 247 

Egan, Rev. E.J 248 

Elmer, St. Ami's Church 184 

Esser, Rev. J 249 

Education, Christian 361 

F. 

Farmer, Father 13 

Federation 176 

Fitzgerald, Rev. W. J 251 

Fitzsimmons, Rev. Dean 250 

Flannagan, Rev. J. F 249 

Flemington, St. Magdalene's Church 292 

Florence, St. Clare's Church 125 

Fox, Monsignor J. H 228 

Freeman, Rev. N. M - 249 

Franciscan Monks 226 

Freehold, Church of St. Rose 76 

G. 

Gabriel, Rev. Mather 221 

Gammell, Rev. J 253 

Geoghan, Rev. D. P 253 

Gibbsboro, St. Edmund's Church 188 

Giese, Rev. C. J 251 

Griffin, Rev. J. J 253 

Griffin, Rev. Dr. E. C 256 

Glennon, Rev. M. L 254 

Glassboro, St. Bridget's Church 1 1 1 

Gloucester, St. Mary's Church 53 

Goshen, St. Elizabeth's Church 157 

Goth, Rev. T. J 256 

Gough, Rev. J. F 317 

Graessl, Rev. Lawrence 17 

Gilfillan, Rev. W. A 252 

Gessner, Rev. Martin 251 

H. 

Hampton Junction, St. Ann's Church 97 

Hackettstown, St. Mary's Church 106 

Hammonton, St. Joseph's Church 142 



436 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Haddon Heights, St. Rose's Church 187 

Hart, Rev. P. L 257 

Hassett, Rev. A. D 318 

Hagerty, Rev. Dr. M. J 260 

Hendricks, Rev. J. F 260 

Healey, Rev. Thomas B 261 

High Bridge, St. Joseph's Church 140 

Hightstown, St. Anthony's Church 162 

Hopewell, St. Alphonsus' Church, 132 

Hopewell, St. Michael's Home 214 

Holly Beach, St. Ann's Church 191 

Hogan, Rev. T 258 

Home, The Christian 340 

Highlands, Our Lady of Perpetual Help 167 

I. 

Italians 201 

In Memoriam 324 

J- 

Jesuits 9 

Jobstown, St. Andrew's Church 199 

K. 

Kane, Rev. C. F 262 

Kane, Rev. M. E 265 

Kars, Rev. E. 263 

Keyport, St. Joseph's Church 65 

Kenny, Rev. J. J 264 

Kenny, David T 320 

Keuper, Rev. J 264 

Kelly, Very Rev. J. A., V. G 266 

Kelly, Rev. D. S 268 

Kelly, Rev. P. J 269 

Killeen, Rev. T 262 

Kivelitz, Very Rev. Dean 265 

L. 

Lambertville, St. John's Church 8 

Lakehurst, St. John's Church 112 

Lakewood, St. Mary's Church 147 

Laurel Springs, St. Lawrence's Church 189 

Landisville, Our Lady of Victories 204 

Lawrenceville, Morris Hall 216 

Lawrence, Rev. J. A 269 



INDKX 437 

Lane, Rev. 11 269 

Lavey, Rev. M. A 318 

Langan, Rev. F. M 318 

Leahy, Rev. W. T 269 

Linane, Rev. J. A 318 

Long Branch, Star of the Sea 89 

Long Branch, Italian 205 

Lynch, Rev. W. H 271 

Lyons, Rev. S. M 271 

M. 

Mannion, Rev. E. C 319 

Maroney, Rev. J 287 

Matt, Rev. L., O. M. C 288 

Mackin, Rev. J. P 283 

Madden, Rev. M. A 283 

Martens, Rev. H. F 280 

Metuchen, St. Joseph's Church 113 

Merchantville, St. Peter's Church 198 

Minatola, St. Michael's Church 204 

Milmay, St. Mary's Church 197 

Milville, St. Mary's Church 102 

Miller, Rev. W. H 272 

Mizdiol, Rev. G 279 

Moorestown, Our Lady of Good Counsel 65 

Moran, Right Rev. Monsignor T. R 279 

Moran, Rev. Gregory 281 

Moran, Rev. J .'".' 284 

Morrison, Rev. J 284 

Morrisville, St. Catherine's Church 138 

Morrissey, Rev. P. W 319 

Murphy, Rev. J. W 286 

Murray, Rev. J. E 285 

Mulligan, Very Rev. B. J 281 

Mullica Hill, Holy Name Church 194 

Mount Holly, Sacred Heart Church 62 

Marriage, Christian 383 

Mc. 

McCormick, Rev. Thomas 278 

McGorien, Rev. D 287 

McCloskey, Rev. J. M 275 

McCloskey, Rev. J. B 277 

McConnell, Rev. W. T 274 

McGovern, Rev. T '. 275 



438 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

McCorristan, Rev. M 279 

McKeane, W. I 318 

McFaul, Right Rev. Bishop 173 

McKernan, Rev. James A 276 

McManus, Rev. H 277 

McShane, Rev. J 308 

McLaughlin, Rev. T. J 273 

N. 

New Brunswick, St. Peter's Church 32 

New Brunswick, St. John's Church 107 

New Brunswick, St. John's Church (Italian) 205 

New Brunswick, Sacred Heart Church 155 

New Brunswick, St. Mary's Asylum 223 

New Monmouth, St. Mary's Church 130 

New Egypt, Assumption Church 195 

Neuman, Right Rev. Bishop 21 

Newfield (Italian) 204 

Niederhauser, Rev. P. F 290 

Norris, Rev. Dr. J. W 299 

Nolan, Rev. T. B 288 

North Plainfield, St. Joseph's Church 154 

North Plainfield, Mt. St. Mary's College 224 

Newark, Diocese 85 

New York, The Diocese 20 

O. 

Ocean City, St. Augustine's Church 185 

O'Connor, Rev. J. R 290 

O'Connor, Rev. J. J. F ■ 290 

O'Connell, Rev. B. T 292 

O'Donnell, Rev. M. C ' 290 

O'Farrell, Right Rev. M. J 145 

O'Farrell, Rev. Richard 294 

O'Grady, Monsignor J. R 293 

O'Hanlon, Rev. J. J 292 

O'Hara, Rev. J. J 319 

Orem, Rev. W. H 294 

O'Reilley, Rev. M. A 292 

Oxford, St. Rose's Church . . . 95 

P. 

Pavonia, St. Joseph's Church 170 

Pattle, Rev. S 296 

Perth Amboy, St. Mary's Church 4° 



INDEX 



439 



Perth Amboy,, St. Stephen's Church 207 

Perth Amboy, Holy Trinity Church 208 

Perth Amboy, St. John's Church 207 

Perth Amboy, ( Italian) 205 

Petri, Rev. P. J 295 

Perrineville, St. Joseph's Church 140 

Pennington, St. James' Church 186 

Pennsgrove, St. James' Church 192 

Philipsburg, Sts. Philip and James' 99 

Phelan, Rev. C. F 297 

Pious Mission Fathers 227 

Pleasant Mills, St. Mary's Church 27 

Pleasantville, St. Peter's Church 184 

Port Elizabeth, St. Elizabeth's Church 49 

Port Redding (Italian) 205 

Powers, Rev. P. J 295 

Pozzi, Rev. A 297 

Polseck, Rev. C 298 

Point Pleasant, St. Peter's Church 151 

Princeton, St. Paul's Church 43 

Pastorals 206 

Q. 

Quinlan, Rev. S. S 298 

Quaremba, Rev. J. 298 

R. 

Rathner, Rev. Dr. J 301 

Raritan, St. Bernard's Church 48 

Raritan, St. Ann's Church 204 

Raymond, Rev. Mother 222 

Red Bank, St. James' Church 75 

Religious Communities 214 

Regis, Rev. Mother 220 

Redemptorists 225 

Reddan, Rev. W. J 300 

Regorovitch, Rev. J ' 300 

Roche, Rev. T. A 301 

Riverside, St. Peter's Church 88 

Riverton, Sacred Heart Church 126 

Risley, St. Gregory's Church 198 

Rogers, Rev. J 299 

. Roe, Denis 320 

Ryan, Rev. J. A 39§ 

Ryan, Rev. Richard 301 

Reynolds, Rev. J. A 302 



44o THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

S. 

Salaum, Rev. J. F 309 

Salem, St. Mary's Church 56 

Salem County Glass House 11 

Sandy Hook, St. Mary's Church 199 

Sayreville, Our Lady of Victories 212 

Schneider, Rev. Father 11 

Schneller, Rev. J 305 

Schandle, Rev. J 303 

Schwartz, Rev. L. A 306 

Schuvelin, Rev. A. C 306 

Smith, Rev. A 309 

Smith, Rev. J. J 305 

South Amboy, St. Mary's Church 46 

South Amboy, Sacred Heart Church 209 

South River, St. Mary's Church 212 

South Plainfield, St. Joseph's Church 165 

Spierings, Rev. A. G ' 304 

Spring Lake, St. Catherine's Church 157 

Stony Hill, St. Mary's Church 51 

Streuski, Rev. A. B 304 

Swedesboro, St. Joseph's Church 71 

Snow Hill, St. James' Church 94 

Seabright, Holy Cross Church 153 

Sea Isle City, St. Joseph's Church 156 

Sullivan, Rev. J. A * 319 

T. 

Tarnowski, Rev. N. C 311 

Thurnes, Rev. J 311 

Tom's River, St. Joseph's Church 134 

Trenton, St. John's Chapel 4 

Trenton, Old St. John's Church 23 

Trenton, St. Francis' Church 78 

Trenton, St. Mary's Cathedral 115 

Trenton, Immaculate Conception Church. 128 

Trenton, St. Joseph's Church 149 

Trenton, St. Joachim's Church 202 

Trenton, St. Stanislaus' Church 206 

Trenton, Hedwig's Church 207 

Trenton, St. Mary's Greek Church 209 

Trenton, Holy Cross Church 211 

Trenton, St. Francis' Hospital 218 

Trenton, Mission Helper 224 

Trenton, The Diocese of 173 



INDEX 441 

Trenton, Sacred Heart Church 25 

Treacy, Rev. William 312 

W. 

Washington, St. Joseph's Church 117 

Waterford, Holy Family Church 200 

Ward, Rev. Henry 312 

Walsh, Rev. S. B 314 

Walsh, Rev. J. A 314 

Whelan, T. W 317 

West Berlin, Mt. Carmel Church 303 

West End, St. Michael's Church 167 

Woodstown, St. Joseph's. Church 123 

Woodbridge, St. James' Church 103 

Woodbury, St Patrick's Church ' 94 

V. 

Vineland, Sacred Heart Church 136 

Y. 

Young, Rev. A 315 

Z. 

Zimmer, Rev. J. J 316 



CATHOLIC THEOLOGICAL UNION 




3 0311 00166 2035 



BX 1417 .T7 L42 1906 
Leahy, Walter ThSffiaS f b. 

1858, 
This Catholic church of the 

Diocese of Trenton, N.J. 



DEMCO 



7714 



/